Showing posts with label vikings. Show all posts
Showing posts with label vikings. Show all posts

11 March 2015

Ancient-Germanic languages documented - a preliminary-sketch

This image depicts an early map of Scandinavia,
the origination place for many invaders of
Rome's former-province of Britannia
(Olaus Magnus (1490-1557)
Published, edited, formatted, images added & annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig



One of the very few Anglo-Saxon warhelmets
ever found in the British-Isles
Ancient-Germanic languages documented - a preliminary-sketch


by Bertil Haggman

Group I
Gothic (Goths, Ostrogoths, Visigoths)


Through MS such as the Codex Argenteus (Uppsala-University Library) Gothic is reasonably well documented. Also Crimean Gothic is represented with a list of words by diplomat Busbecq in the sixteenth century.

map, showing several major Germanic/Teutonic
kingdoms in the late middle-ages

13 April 2013

Early Germanic (Scando-Teutonic) peoples


c. 1 AD
  
PUBLISHED, EDITED, IMAGES ADDED & COMMENTARY (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG
(Encyclopædia Britannica)

Germanic peoples, also called Teutonic Peoples, any of the Indo-European speakers of Germanic languages.


The origins of the Germanic peoples are obscure. During the late Bronze-Age, they are believed to have inhabited southern Sweden, the Danish peninsula, and northern Germany between the Ems River on the west, the Oder River on the east, and the Harz Mountains on the south. 


PROTO-GERMANIA C. 100 BC
The Vandals, Gepidae, and Goths migrated from southern Sweden in the closing centuries BC and occupied the area of the southern Baltic coast roughly between the Oder on the west and the Vistula River on the east. 

At an early date there was also migration toward the south and west at the expense of the Celtic peoples who then inhabited much of western Germany. 

The Celtic Helvetii, for example, who were confined by the Germanic peoples to the area that is now Switzerland in the 1st century BC  had once extended as far east as the Main River.

By the time of Julius Caesar, Germans were established west of the Rhine River and toward the south had reached the Danube River.

03 April 2013

Denmark's Founding : History of ancient to medieval Denmark

Published, edited, formatted by Kenneth S. Doig

(websource)
Denmark's 
Founding
                                                              Statue of Gorm the first King to  
unify the Danes  

The oldest existing evidence of human habitation in Denmark is traces of hunters' settlements from the end of the last Ice Age c. 12500 BC. 

Organized farming communities did not appear until the Neolithic Age c. 3900 BC and villages are known from the centuries before Christ's birth. Regular towns, such as Ribe, do not appear until the Germanic Iron Age c. 400-750 AD.

08 February 2013

Anglo-Saxon England : Britain before & after the Scando-Germanic advent c. AD 450



PUBLISHED, EDITED, IMAGES ADDED & ANNOTATIONS (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG














WEBSOURCE: http://www.uta.edu/english/tim/courses/4301f98/oct12.html 

Before the Germanic invasions Celts -
Prior to the Germanic invasions Britain was inhabited by various Celtic tribes who were united by common speech, customs, and religion. Each tribe was headed by a king and was divided by class into druids (priests), warrior-nobles, and commoners. 



The lack of political unity made them vulnerable to their enemies. During the first century, Britain was conquered and subjugated by Rome. 

During the next three hundred years, Rome legions provided the politically discordant Britons the protection necessary to secure the country from attack.

Migration of the Germanic speaking people When Britain gained "independence" from Rome in the year 410AD, the Roman legions withdrew leaving the country vulnerable to invaders. Soon after the withdrawal of Roman troops, inhabitants from the north began attacking the Britons. 



GREAT BRITAIN, 4TH CENTURY AD:
CELTIC POLITIES/TRIBES, VIRTUALLY ALL BRYTHONIC-CELTS. ONE CAN SEE THE EARLY 
GOIDELIC-CELTIC FOOTHOLD (DALRIADA, ON SCOTLAND'S WESTCOAST) GOIDELIC-CELTS FROM IRELAND, GAELS A.K.A. SCOTS, A MEDIEVAL TERM 
In response to these attacks, individual towns sought help from the Foedarati, who were Roman mercenaries of German origin, for the defense of the northern parts of England.

As the legend has been told, a man named Hengest arrived on the shores of Britain with "3 keels" of warriors in 450AD. 

This event is known in Latin as the aduentus saxonum, or the coming of the Saxons. At this time, the Foedarati stopped defending Britain and began conquering the territories on the southern and eastern shores of the country.


These invaders drove the Britons to the north and west. The Saxons called the native Britons, 'wealas', which meant foreigner, and from this term came the modern word Welsh. Eight to ten years later many British aristocrats (Celts) and city dwellers began migrating to Brittany, an event known as the second migration. 


Although there were many different Germanic tribes migrating to England, several stood out from among the others, such as the Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians, and Franks. (Anglo-Saxon map) 
The Angles migrated from Denmark 

(Jutland was not at that time part of Denmark as there was no Denmark yet; no state, no kingdom nor any polity. Nor had the Scando-Teutonic languages [except East-Germanic] become separate languages. Late-Proto-Northwest Germanic "PNWGmc" was spoken in all Teutono-Gothonic [another term for Germanic] from Scandinavia to the areas of southern modern-day Germany. 

This was the period that Proto-NWGmc began glossogenesis, the formation of the tripartite NWGmc subfamily; North-Germanic "NGmc", e.g., Norse, Swedish, etc., West-Gmc, e.g., the High-German dialect of southern Germany, the Alps and Frankish, ancestor to modern standard-Hollandic or Dutch

The third branch is Peninsular-Germanic, direct ancestor to Ingvaeonic [a.k.a., Northsea Germanic & Anglo-Frisian], e.g., Anglic, Saxon, Frisian, Jutish, Anglo-Saxon,  English, Scots, Low-German, etc.) and the Saxons from northern Germany. 

There is some debate as to the exact origin of the Jutes, since linguistic evidence suggests that they came from the Jutland peninsula. 



While archaeological evidence suggests an origin from one of the northern Frankish realms near the mouth of the Rhine river. The Frisians and Franks migrated mainly from the lowcountries and northwestern Germany.

During the sixth and seventh centuries these Germanic invaders started to carve out kingdoms, fighting both the native Britons and each other for land.  

First called Saxons, the German invaders were later referred to as Angles, and in the year 601AD the pope referred to Aethelbert of Kent as Rex Anglorum ("Angles' king").



As time passed, the differences between the Germanic tribal cultures gradually unified until eventually they ceased referring to themselves by their individual origins and became either Anglo-Saxon or English. (map of England 650-750AD)

As Old-English began to evolve, four major dialects emerged which were Kentish, spoken by the Jutes, West-Saxon, the Saxon dialect, and Northumbrian and Mercian, subdivisions of the dialect spoken by the Angles. 


By the 9th century, partly through the influence of King Alfred, the West-Saxon dialect became prevalent in literature which aided the dialect's dominance among scholars.

Soon after the Germanic invasions, the inhabitants gave their settlements new names. The most common Saxon place names are those ending in -ton (fenced area), -wick (dwelling), -ham (home), -worth (homestead), -den (pasture), -hurst (wooded hill), and -burn (stream). 



SCANDINAVIAN-CONTROLLED &/OR 
SCANDINAVIAN-SETTLED AREAS (PINK) 
c. 1000AD

Some settlement names began with more than one word which either stated personal possession or described a physical description of the area and would later evolve into one word. One example of this evolution would be the word Chatham which was originally Ceattan hám (Ceatta's home). 

Conversion to Christianity -

By the year 550AD, the native Britons had been converted to Christianity and the religion became firmly established within their culture. Attempts by the Britons to convert the Anglo-Saxon pagans were futile. 

At the end of the sixth century through the successful efforts of a Christian mission led by Augustine, a representative of the Roman church, Christianity was established within the highest echelons of English society by the prompt conversion of the kings of Essex, East-Anglia, Northumbria, and Kent. 


Sees were then established at Canterbury, Rochester, London and York. However, the four kingdoms soon relapsed into paganism, and initially, only Kent was reconverted. 



The evangelistic initiative then passed to the Scottish church and by the end of the seventh century, England had been reconverted.

After the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons, problems arose with the Celtic Christians (or the Britons). 


The Celtic church had ceased communication with Roman church for almost two centuries and did not practice the new theological ideas brought to the Anglo-Saxons by Augustine.

In particular, they used an older method of calculating the date on which Easter was to be held. Representatives from the two churches met with Oswiu, the king of Northumbria, who was then asked to choose between the two missions. 


Oswiu chose Rome. Although the Celtic church found favor with some of the later kings, the Roman church was the more dominant of the two. 

The largest number of Latin words was introduced as altar, mass, priest, psalm, temple, kitchen, palm, and pear. A result of the spread of Christianity. 

Such as the 8th century and the beginning of the Viking-raids. The first major raid by Vikings occurred in the year 793 at the Northumbrian monastery at Lindisfarne

The Vikings would continue major raids along most of the southern and eastern coasts of England for a decade. About 40 Scandinavian (Old-Norse) words were introduced into Old-English during this period.


THUNDERGOD,
THUNOR, "ÞUNOR", OHG "DONAR", NORSE,
"THOR": ETYMON TO OUR WORD "THUNDER"
Words acquired during this period pertained to the sea and the Scandinavian administrative-system. Some examples of these borrowings are law, take, cut, anger, wrong, freckle, both, ill, ugly, as well as, the verb form 'are'. 
They also introduced many new names as they founded new settlements with endings such as -scale, -beck, -by, and -fell. One example of a settlement name would be Portinscale or 'Prostitute's hut'.

English Surnames - 

Anglo-Saxons distinguished between two people with the same name by adding either the place they came from or the job they did to their first name. Modern surnames such as Baxter, Baker, Weaver, Fisher, Fowler, Hunter, and Farmer are Anglo-Saxon in origin.

Vikings had a different way of distinguishing between people of the same name. They added the name of the person's father or mother to the child's name. 



As an example, Harald, Erik's son would be known as Haraldr Eiriksson, or as we would say it today, Harold Erikson

Often Viking families alternated the name of the eldest so that Árn Gunnarsson might be the father and son of Gunnar Árnarson, and the grandfather and grandson of Árn Gunnarson.

The 9th century - During the ninth century, the Danes began a series of major raids on the whole of England. This ended in an agreement which left the Danes in control of half of the country. 


Alfred the Great eventually fought the Vikings to a standstill at Edington which produced the Treaty of Wedmore in 878AD. This led to an uneasy peace and the establishment of the Danelaw

The fighting would continue, and in 886AD, Alfred captured London from the Danes. The name Englaland ("Angle-land") was used at the end of this century.

The 10th century- The Aristocracy

Anglo-Saxon territory was divided into seven separate kingdoms commonly referred to as the heptarchy. Each kingdom was ruled by a king, the king's sons who were called aethlingas and the ruling-nobility known as the eoldermenn. (Anglo-Saxon village) The basic unit of land was called the hide which was enough land to support one family and varied in size from 40 acres to 4 square miles.

Approximately one hundred hides formed the unit known as the 'hundred', and each village or shire contained many hundreds. (another Anglo-Saxon village) 


For each hundred, one leader known as the hundredeolder was responsible for administration, justice, and supplying military-troops, as well as, leading its forces. The office was not hereditary, but by the tenth century the office was selected from among a few outstanding families.

The thane, (þegn) similar to the knight, stood at the lowest echelon of the aristocracy. Good service by a thane resulted in gifts, the land-grants, and elevation to eoldermann. Members of the clergy held the title of thane as they were considered one of god's thanes, and bishops generally held the position of eolderman.

The middle-class

The middle-class was divided into three main classes of freemen, also known as ceorlas (churls, cf. Swe, Icel, Germ karl): The geneatan, a peasant-aristocracy who paid rent to their overlord, the kotsetlan, and the gebur, or lower-middleclass. All ceorlas had the right and duty to serve in the fyrd, (which was one of the names) the Anglo-Saxon military.

 Ceorlas won promotion through economic prosperity or military-service. If a ceorl possessed five hides of land, he became entitled to thane-rights, but could not be elevated to the position of thane or eoldermann.

The lower-class -

 At the lowest end of the social strata was the slave or bondsmen, also known as the theow. Although they were slaves or bondsmen, they were entitled to certain provisions, such as grain. The slaves were allowed to own property and could earn money in their spare time which allowed them to buy their freedom. When times were difficult people sold themselves into slavery to ensure they were provisioned.
The early Anglo-Saxon society was organized around clans or tribes and was centered around a system of reciprocity called comitatus. The eoldorman expected martial service and loyalty from his thanes, and the thanes expected protection and rewards from the lord. 


By the middle of the ninth century the royal family of Wessex was universally recognized as the English royalfamily and held a hereditary right to rule. Succession to the throne was not guaranteed as the witan, or council of leaders, had the right to choose the best successor from the members of the royalhouse.

Military-organization

As stated above, the military-organization was called the fyrd, which consisted of highly trained thanes chosen from each hundred. Thanes became 'professional' warriors because their position within the society depended upon it. In peace time the thanes had to serve one month out of every three in rotation, so there was always a sizable force on call. 

Loyalty to a lord was the thane's greatest virtue, and if their lord or king died in battle, his men were expected to die avenging his death, as it was considered dishonorable to leave the battlefield on which the militaryleader had been slain. Those who did were executed by their lord's successor for their disloyalty. The fyrd also served as a policeforce when not at war.


Religion and the church's role -

 (St Alpheges church) (St. Wereburg) Besides the spiritual functions of the church, the Church also fulfilled the functions of a 'civilservice', and for the nobility, an educational system.

The Church and the government needed men who could read and write in English and Latin to write letters and keep accounts. (illuminated manuscripts) The words 'cleric' and 'clerk' have the same origin, and every nobleman would have at least one priest to act as a secretary.

Economy

The economy of the early middle-ages was not cash based. (Anglo-Saxon clothing) Even though coins were minted, their use was not widespread, and most goods were bartered. (jewelry and pottery) Trade relied upon transport to be effective, and water was the preferred method of transport. For this reason, the most successful markets were near rivers.

Slavery was an important part of the Anglo-Saxon economy. Almost all the slaves traded in the early middle-ages were captured in raids or warfare. It seems to have been the practice to kill the leaders of the losing army and enslave the local villagers. The English conquest of Cornwall led to the enslavement of many of the indigenous Celts. At the Westminster Council of 1102AD, slavery was abolished.

Feasts and festivals - Feasts and festivals were very popular among the pagans, and despite religious reforms of the Christian church, these would continue among Christian Anglo-Saxons. A feast would be held every week in observance for the designated saint of that week. 


Halloween, a tradition handed down from the Celts and altered by the Romans, preceded the Christian feast of Hallowmas, or All Saints' Day. Halloween was the last evening of the year and was regarded as a propitious time for examining the portents of the future. Several of our modern festivals have Old-English names. 

For example, the word Easter evolved from the name of the pagan Saxon goddess Eostre, whose festival was celebrated in April. The word Yule comes from the pagan midwinter celebration of geol (pronounced 'yule'). 

Law and Order -

 When the Germanic tribes migrated from the continent, they brought with them a well developed legal system. The hundred court was the lowest echelon of the judiciary system and met every four weeks. Above the hundred court was the shire court which met twice a year, usually around Easter and Michaelmas (29 September). The officials presiding over the shire court were the eoldorman, the bishop and the king's shire-reeve (or sheriff).

During a lawsuit, the accused would be allowed to give an oath with the aid of oath-helpers to prove his innocence. This may seem comical today, but the Anglo-Saxon villages were so small that many of the villagers would have been aware of the circumstances of the crime.


 If the accused were actually guilty, oath helpers would have been difficult to find. If the defendant maintained his innocence, but was not able to gather enough oath helpers, he would be allowed to prove his innocence through 'trial by ordeal'.

Trial by Ordeal - The ordeal was administered by church-officials, and before the trial began, the accused was given the opportunity to confess. If he did not confess, he was given the choice between two ordeals: water or iron. For the cold-water ordeal, the accused was given holywater to drink and was then thrown into the river; the guilty floated; the innocent sank. 


During the, hot-water ordeal the accused placed his hand into boiling water and retrieved a stone. For the iron ordeal, the accused carried a glowing iron bar nine feet. After the hot-water and iron-ordeals, the defendant's hand was bandaged after the ordeal. If the wound healed without festering, the guilty was presumed innocent. 

As there were no jails or prison-officers, there were only three options when passing sentence: fines, mutilation, or death. For crimes such as arson, obvious murder, and treachery to one's lord, no compensation could be offered .

 For these crimes, the only punishment was death and forfeiture of one's property to the king. The church did not advocate capital punishment and preferred mutilation to death, as this allowed the guilty man to expiate his crime and save his soul. 

06 September 2012

SÚÐERDÆL SCAÐENÉAGAHEALFÉGLANDES, TÓDÆAG,
HÁTTE HIT 'SWEDEN' ÆR, SCONÉAG (SCANIA)
WÆRON DENE. BITWUXT DENUM & SWÉOM, WUNDODON
GÉATAS (GÖTAR/GAUTIR)
PUBLISHED, EDITED, FORMATTED WITH ANNOTATIONS (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG


RURAL LANDSCAPE IN SKÅNE (SCANIA). SWEDEN'S
SOUTHERNMOST REGION. IT IS ACTUALLY THE URHEIMAT
OF THE DANES & WAS CALLED "ÖSTDANMARK"
(EAST-DENMARK) UNTIL WELL INTO THE MIDDLE-AGES

(from "The Ancient Web.com")
Some historians believe that the ancestral homeland of the Teutons (or Proto-Germanics. As far as we know, they had no endonym. I rather like two terms, Gothonic and Suebo-Gothonic. The terms "German" & "Germanic" are exonyms of disputed etymology. It is likely that the Romans popularized the term "German". It seems to have come into common usage during the Gallic Wars, c. 40BC. Gaius Iulius Caesar [c. July 100BC to 15 March 44BC], better-known as "Julius Caesar". 

26 April 2012

*WODENAZ

Wóðinaz ana ehwái iz. Sási ehwaz
áih 8 báinu. Helmaz sitiþ ana
haubuðe Wóðines. Iz haldeþ
rundskeldan  & speranen in
 handamz. Iz twái fugloz.
PUBLISHED, EDITED, ANNOTATED (IN RED) & IMAGES ADDED BY KENNETH S. DOIG
(Note, any third-party written material is is blue)


(*Wóðinaz, later, Wóden, Wuotan, Wotan, Wódan & the furthest phonologically to proto-Germanic, Óðinn or Odin. I will call him by 'Wóden'. Too much fuss is made about this god. He was a latercomer. Never mentioned by East-Teutons, nor by NW-Teutons [before c.300AD] according to Tacitus, Roman historian, Tacitus;
THE LARGER GREEN ISLAND AT 2:00 ON RED CIRCLE
IS FYN, ODIN'S/WODEN'S BIRTHPLACE
The Germania (Latin: De Origine et situ Germanorum, literally Concerning the Origin and Situation of the Germanic peoples), written by Gaius CVrnelius Tacitus, c. AD 98, is an ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire. (Wikipedia)




 You can type in "Wóden", "Óðinn" or "Wóðenaz" into my blog-search-engine to get my notes, justification & cites, why i belive Wóden was a Northwest Germanic warrior/chieftain, born c. 150 AD, on the modern-Danish Island of Fyn [Funen, Fjón]. 


 And that through fame & deed, he was deified to a god. His cult grew, his real-life's story faded, thus was invented many creation-myths for him. There is still today a modern city, Odense, named after him, most likely  commemorating his birthplace. 

28 November 2011

ARE WE ANGLO-CELTS BLACK-SEA SKYTHS

PUBLISHED, EDITED, ANNOTATED (IN RED) & IMAGES ADDED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

Introduction

SKYTHS

(From England & English History)

Many people have questioned who the English really are and where they come from. This timeline sets out to answer that. The English are a Germanic race of people. Engles, Jutes and Saxons. It finds the English to be a very old people indeed. It explains some of the mysteries about the origins of the ethnic English. And tells of where some of the ancient symbology and old myths comes from. The White Dragon, Woden (Wotan,) and the Steadfast sword. It takes about 20 minutes to read. I suggest that it will be a valuable read indeed.

25 October 2011

ANCIENT FOUNDATIONS : SCOTLAND, AN AMALGAM OF CELTIC BRITONS, CELTIC GAELS, THE IRISH DÁLRIATIC SCOTS, PICTS, LIKELY CELTS, AND TEUTONIC ANGLES



PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

It is believed that the first people who inhabited Scotland came from the south. What we know today is that they lived in shelters made of wood and skins and that they made different kinds of stone tools (arrowheads, blades, flakes and awls). They were nomadic communities who lived by hunting and fishing, and traces of their way of life were found at Kinloch on the Island of Rum in the Inner Hebrides. They made all sorts of stone jewelry and their houses were of stone, like the ones found on the Bay of Skaill on the west coast of Orkney.


Some of these places were abandoned and Archeologists can't explain why. However, they left magnificent stone circles like the ones at Stenness, the Ring of Brogar and Callanish on the Isle of Lewis. Until today these stones circles are an enigma. Yet, Archeologists don't know if these places were temples or astronomical observatories. Scotland was populated by four separate groups of people.

The Picts lived mostly in the north and northeast and may have spoke a kind of Celtic language which was lost completely. The Scots were Celtic settlers who moved into the western Highlands from Ireland in the fourth century. The third group were the Britons, who inhabited the Lowlands and it is believed that they gave up their old tribal way of life by the sixth century.

01 October 2011

BRIEF OVERVIEW OF SWEDEN'S PRE-, ANCIENT & MEDIEVAL HISTORY

ANTIQUE-MAP SHOWING THE EARLIEST HEART OF THE GERMANIC
PROTO-HOMELAND,  DENMARK & SOUTHERN SWEDEN WHICH WAS
NOT "SWEDISH-NORSE" BUT SCANO-DANISH IN THE EXTREME
SOUTH & WAS GÉATISH (GÖTAR) BETWEEN THE SCANO-DANES
& THE EPONYMOUS SVEAR WHO WERE CONTAINED TO & AROUND
THE AREA OF LAKE MÄLAR, STOCKHOLM & TO UPPSALA. ALL
THREE MENTION PEOPLES, SCANO-DANES, GÉATAS OR GÖTAR &
SVEAR (SUIONES, SUEHANS, SWÉONES) WERE ALL CLOSELY
RACIALLY, CULTURALLY & LINGUISTICALLY RELATED. THEY IN
ESSENCE SPOKE THE SAME TONGUE, CALLED BACK THE
'DØNSK TUNGA' (DANISH TONGUE)
PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

Etymology:

VERY COMMON ONLY IN 

SWEDEN, THE HALLSTATT, OR
OLD-TEUTONIC-NORDIC TYPE,
IT WAS ALSO THE PROTO-IE
TYPE, FOUND AMONG THE
ACHAEANS, SCYTHS, IRANIANS,
SLAVS, THACIANS, ILLYRIANS.
BUT THIS BLONDER, LONGER-+
SKULLED VARIETY WAS NOT
COMMON AMONG THE 
ITALO-CELTS, THEIR PRIMARY
TYPE WAS THE KELTIC-
NORDIC, STILL VERY COMMON
IN THE UK, EIRE, BENELUX,
SWITZTERLAND, NZ, SA,
NORTHAMERICA, ETC.
TYPICAL KELTIC TYPES
ARE MEL GIBSON, HUGH
GRANT, MED RYAN.
THEY ARE BY FAR 20 ´
TIMES MORE NUMEROUS
THEN THE SWEDISH
TYPE. BY KSDOIG
Name of Sweden

The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes" (Old Norse Svíþjóð, Latin Suetidi). This word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas (Old Norse Sviar, Latin Suiones). 

The Swedish name Sverige (a conjunction of the words Svea and Rike, first recorded as Swēorice in Beowulf, with the consonant 'k' softened to 'g' – compare "rige" in modern Danish) literally means "Kingdom of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland.
Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Icelandic Svíþjóð, and the more notable exception of some Finno-Ugric languages where Ruotsi (Finnish) and Rootsi (Estonian) are used, names commonly considered etymologically related to the English name for Russia, referring to the people, Rus', originally from the coastal areas of Roslagen, Uppland.
The etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe.

History

Prehistory
MAP OF SWEDEN c. 1200 AD
PURPLE WAS GOTHIA/GÖTALAND.
YELLOW WAS SVEALAND. THE SVEAR
EVENTUALLY GAVE THEIR NAME TO
ENTIRE LAND. WHITE AT BOTTOM OF
SWEDEN IS SCANIA, AKA, EAST-
DENMARK
Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød warm period c. 12,000 BC with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province. This period was characterized by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology.


Neolithic, 4,000-1,700 BC

Farming and animal husbandry, along with monumental burial, polished flint axes and decorated pottery, arrived from the Continent with the Funnel-

27 September 2011

LEIF ERIKSSON

ICELAND
PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG



Leif Ericsson by M. Bakker

Please note:
Norsemen = Germanic people from Scandinavia, ca. 800–1100 AD;
Norwegians = people from Norway;
Normans = people descended from Danish & Norwegian Vikings from Normandy (France);
Vikings = Norsemen on raid. Vikings were not an ethnic group. Just a term for Norsemen who had a certain career, usually a pirate, conqueror or plunderer, but also has as mercenaries for other nations, explorers, navigators, historians, etc. 
Northmen= Norsemen

24 September 2011

HIBERNO-NORSE : ‘Hiberno-Norwegians’ and ‘Anglo-Danes’:


PUBLISHED, EDITED & FORMATTED (IN THE PROCESS THEREOF) BY K.S.DOIG


TWO papers have recently been published, with reference to Irish sources from the
Viking-Age, challenging the identification of Dubgaill (‘Dark Foreigners’)[cf. the surname "MacDougall] with ‘Danes’ and Finngaill (‘Fair Foreigners’) with ‘Norwegians’.2 In this paper I seek to broaden the debate by suggesting that the categorisation of Insular-viking politics as a struggle between opposing Danish and Norwegian factions is similarly unhelpful.

For example, the use of the term Dene in ‘The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle’ can be
regarded as similar to the use of the terms Dani and Nordmanni in Frankish
chronicles: that is, as a general name for those of Scandinavian cultural identity
rather than a label referring to people of one particular Scandinavian ethnicity.3 I

27 August 2011

The Doig family and Scottish History: a timeline

Tartan image: Doig (Personal)
The Doig "personal" tartan.Designed by Arthur
Mackie of  Strathmore Woollen Co. of Forfar,
Scotland. Commissioned by R Doig & Son of Forfar
as a Family tartan. Based on the Drummond
of Perth of which Doig is a sept.
Different warp & weft.
PUBLISHED & ANNOTATED (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG
 
The Doig family and Scottish History: a timeline


 This page is mirrored at Doig.net. (My uncle Ken's site)

Stone Age Pre-Celtic Beaker people and Tumulus people live in Britain Stone Age Neolithic tumuli (barrow tombs) built at Craighead and Blair Drummond

Bronze Age Several cairns built in the Thornhill / Doune / Frew area

24 August 2011

'Time-team' to seek out genetic secrets of Yorkshire's Viking past


PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

YORKSHIRE has always been proud of its Viking ancestry – and now DNA genetic finger-printing could tell us if we belong to the Danish or Norwegian side of the pool.
The arrival of the Vikings in Britain more than 1,000 years ago was a dramatic event that left a lasting legacy on our language, landscape and place-names.





But the era was also something of a carve-up where the North of England was concerned, as often warring tribes of Vikings grabbed different areas.



A settlement was established at Scarborough, for example, around 950AD by a Viking raider called Thorgils Skarthi.



However the community was soon burned to the ground by a rival band of Vikings including Harald of Norway.





York was established as Jorvik by the Danes, but in 1066 came a Norwegian attack that led to the battle with King Harold at Stamford Bridge, shortly before th Battle of Hastings.



Scientists have long suspected that the Norwegians colonised Lancashire and the Wirral while the landings in Yorkshire were mainly from Denmark.



However, population shifts during the industrial revolution mixed things up and only now can science determine how far east the Norwegians penetrated.

23 August 2011

THE VIKINGS




Published by Kenneth S. Doig


Vikings were the fierce the ship-borne warriors and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of the British Isles and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late 8th–11th century. This period (generally dated 793–1066) is often referred to as the Viking Age. The term Viking has also denoted entire populations of Viking Age Scandinavia and their settlements, as an expanded meaning (see below: Etymology of Viking).

Famed for their longships, Vikings, in three centuries, founded settlements along the coasts and rivers of mainland Europe, Ireland, Normandy, the Shetland, Orkney, and Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, Newfoundland circa 1000. They reached south to North Africa and east to Russia and Constantinople, as looters, traders, or mercenaries. Vikings under Leif Ericson, heir to Erik the Red, reached North America, with putative expeditions to present-day Canada in the 10th century. Viking voyages decreased with the introduction of Christianity to Scandinavia in the late 10th and 11th century.

18 August 2011

THE ANGLO-SAXONS

Winter on Æglalande
The Kimbric Peninsula or Jutland in present-
day western Denmark

Published by Kenneth S. Doig


The Angles


The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. Ancient Angeln preceded all modern national distinctions and was probably not coterminous with the modern.

The ethnic name has had various spellings. The earliest attested is Anglii, a Germanic tribe mentioned in the Germania of Tacitus. It is an adjectival form. One individual of this identity would be an Anglius (male) or an Anglia (female), which in the plural is Anglii or Angliae. The masculine is used for the generic form.

Pope Gregory the Great is the first known to have simplified Anglii to Angli, the preferred form for the Anglii in Britain, which he did in an epistle. The country remained Anglia in Latin. Meanwhile, English had changed its vowels. Alfred's Orosius uses Angelcynn (kin) for England or the English people; Bede, Angelfolc (folk); however, we also find Engel, Englan (the people), Englaland and Englisch.

Angles is used as root in French (and Anglo-Norman) words Angleterre (Angleland, i.e. England) and Anglais (English).




The famous Sutton Hoo helmet

The picture on the right is a reconstruction made from the surviving fragments of a helmet found at Sutton Hoo. The smooth brown parts are a base to support the actual fragments which are the rough parts. This is one of only four known Anglo-Saxon helmets. The original helmet was made from iron with tinned-bronze decorative plates and is the most exquisitely crafted of all the known early medieval helmets from anywhere in Northern Europe as shown in the replica below. The decorative figures include flying dragon and boar heads. Similar designs have been found on objects from Sweden and Germany and scholars still argue over their meaning.

09 August 2011

Vikings did not dress the way we thought


Published by Kenneth S. Doig

IMAGE:Viking women's clothing consisted of a single piece of fabric with a train, an opening in front, and clasps that accentuated the breasts. The apparel in the picture is...

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Vivid colors, flowing silk ribbons, and glittering bits of mirrors - the Vikings dressed with considerably more panache than we previously thought. The men were especially vain, and the women dressed provocatively, but with the advent of Christianity, fashions changed, according to Swedish archeologist Annika Larsson.
"They combined oriental features with Nordic styles. Their clothing was designed to be shown off indoors around the fire," says textile researcher Annika Larsson, whose research at Uppsala University presents a new picture of the Viking Age.
She has studied textile finds from the Lake Mälaren Valley, the area that includes Stockholm and Uppsala and was one of the central regions in Scandinavia during the Viking Age. The findings, some of which were presented in her dissertation last year, show that what we call the Viking Age, the years from 750-1050 A.D., was not a uniform period. Through changes in the style of clothing we can see that medieval Christian fashions hit Sweden as early as the late 900s and that new trade routes came into use then as well. The oriental features in clothing disappeared when Christianity came and they started to trade with the Christian Byzantine and Western Europe.
"Textile research can tell us more about the state of society than research into traditions. Old rituals can live on long after society has changed, but when trade routes are cut off, there's an immediate impact on clothing fashions," says Annika Larsson.

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