Showing posts with label vandals. Show all posts
Showing posts with label vandals. Show all posts

11 March 2015

Ancient-Germanic languages documented - a preliminary-sketch

This image depicts an early map of Scandinavia,
the origination place for many invaders of
Rome's former-province of Britannia
(Olaus Magnus (1490-1557)
Published, edited, formatted, images added & annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig

One of the very few Anglo-Saxon warhelmets
ever found in the British-Isles
Ancient-Germanic languages documented - a preliminary-sketch

by Bertil Haggman

Group I
Gothic (Goths, Ostrogoths, Visigoths)

Through MS such as the Codex Argenteus (Uppsala-University Library) Gothic is reasonably well documented. Also Crimean Gothic is represented with a list of words by diplomat Busbecq in the sixteenth century.

map, showing several major Germanic/Teutonic
kingdoms in the late middle-ages

11 August 2014

Germans; Teutons; Germanic (Gmc) peoples; From: Encyclopedia of European Peoples: Part I

Scando-Teutonic (Gmc) c. urheimat, c. 1000 BC
c. 1000 BC

Published, edited, formatted, images added & annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig 
(source:Encyclopedia of European Peoples;
 written by Carl Waldman & Catherine Mason)
Front Cover
(click for websource)
The name Germanics (Gmc), synonymous with ancient Germans or Teutones in other texts, applies to all those ancient European peoples speaking a Gmc language throughout history, known by a variety of names.

bronze-age Europe
 Some among the Gmc peoples, the Franks and groups they absorbed such as the Alamanni, were critical in the founding Germany as a nation-state, but Gmc peoples also played a role in the history of every part of Europe.
Gmc tribes & polities c. 500 AD
The Anglo-Saxons in Britain; the Vikings in Scandinavia; the Normans, Burgundii, and Franks in France; the Rus in Russia and Ukraine; the Vandals and Visigoths in Spain. 
And then there were the Ostrogoths and Lombards in Italy, to name the most obvious examples. Many more German tribes were spread throughout the Continent.

25 January 2014

Alternative Historical Linguistics : a new look at relatedness among Gmc tribes : are the Dutch [genetically] a non-Germanic people?

Published, edited & annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
The Ancient Teutons remained near the urheimat though considerably expanded their territory. Nowadays there are almost ten Germanic languages divided into three groups. Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic and Faroese belong to the northern group. English, German, Dutch and Frisian compose the West-Gmc

16 October 2013


Published, edited, formatted, annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
File:Invasions of the Roman Empire 1.png
Simplified map of the various incursions into the Roman Empire, showing the Vandals' migrations (in blue) from Germany through Dacia, Gaul, Iberia, and into North Africa, and their raids throughout the Mediterranean, including the eventual sack of Rome in 455
(websource: Wikipedia)
The Vandals (remember that the letter V in Latin was always pronounced as an English W. Usually, in classical Latin, the letter U, e.g., vir or uir [man/virile] was used instead of V. Same for the written V in Old-Norse.

28 July 2013

The medieval Iranians of France, Spain & Portugal, yes, blond Iranians in western Europe

File:Roman Empire 125.png
Published, edited, images added &
comments/annotations (in redletter) by Kenneth S. Doig

The Alans, or the Alani, occasionally termed Alauni or Halani, were a group of Sarmatian tribes, nomadic-pastoralists of the 1st millennium AD who spoke an Eastern-Iranian (in the same Indoeuropean macrophylum as Germanic, Celtic, Italic, Slavic, Hellenic, etc.) language which derived from Skytho-Sarmatian and which in turn evolved into modern Ossetian.


02 April 2013

History of the Vandals

Published, edited, images added & commentary (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
Golden statuette of a 'barbarian' of central Europe.                              
History of the Vandals('Gaiseric')
by Brian Adam (websource)
It's not known to many people today that long time ago the Vandal warriors, a Germanic tribe, once established a kingdom in North Africa as their base for raiding the Mediterranean Sea, much like the Vikings. Like the Goths and Attila's Huns, the Vandals helped bring about the Roman Empire’s decline.

Who were the Vandals ?
Vandal was a Germanic people belonging to the family of East Germans. The term “Vandilii” is used by Tacitus in his Germania. They settled between the Elbe and Vistula. 

25 March 2013

Eastern Scando-Teutonic : Gothic, Burgundian, Langobardic/Lombardic, Gepidic, Herulian, Vandalic...

A rough map of Europe 500 AD, after Rome's obliteration. (mapsource: & caption, courtesy of European Heritage Library)
Published, formatted, annotations/commentary

(in red)images

added by Kenneth S. Doig
(article's websource: East Germanic languages. (2013). In The Encyclopædia Britannica)
According to historical tradition, at least some of the Germanic tribes migrated to the mouth of the Vistula from Scandinavia. 

02 October 2011




Goths, ancient Teutonic peoples, who in the 3rd to the 6th century AD were an important power in the Roman world. The Goths were the first Germanic peoples to become Christians. According to the 6th-century Gothic historian Jordanes, the Goths came from Sweden across the Baltic Sea to the basin of the Wis³a (Vistula) River.

 By the 3rd century AD they had migrated as far south as the lower Danube, around the Black Sea. During that century Gothic armies and fleets ravaged Thrace, Dacia, and cities in Asia Minor and along the Aegean coast. They captured and plundered Athens in 267 to 268, and threatened Italy. For about a century, wars between the Roman emperors and Gothic rulers devastated the Balkan territory and the northeastern Mediterranean region. Other tribes joined the Goths, and under the great king Ermanaric in the 4th century, a kingdom was established that extended from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea.

About 370 the Goths divided into two separate groups. The Ostrogoths (Low Latin

20 August 2011

Possible Scytho-Cimmerian-Galatian Connections to the Lost Tribes of Israel

Published by Kenneth S. Doig


I believe that the western Indo-Europeans are not descended from the lost tribes of Israel but they may have resided near or next to each other for a period of time. I believe it is good to give viewpoints that I, myself do not believe. K.Doig

The Historical Background

According to conventional history, the British Isles, Gaul
(France and Belgium), and the northwest European coastline, in
ancient times, were settled by peoples of Celtic culture. A
predominant element among the Celts, were the Galatians to whom
belonged the Cymbri in Denmark, the Cimry and Caledonians in
Britain, and the Galli in Gaul.

The Galatians were ascribed
Cimmerian origin by Classical writers which is substantiated
by archaeological evidence and other sources. The Cimmerians had
first appeared on the fringes of the Assyrian Empire shortly
after the majority of northern Israelites had been exiled, and
all areas of their early appearance were those to which
Israelites had been transported. The Cimmerians from the Middle
East area moved to the west where they merged with and

30 June 2011

the Vandals & the Franks

Published by Kenneth S. Doig

The Vandals

Nowadays the term "vandalism" means "wantonly destructive act". The term comes from the name of the East Germanic tribe that was pushed by the Huns into the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, and that finally settled in North Africa.

But were these people really so violent or barbaric to deserve to be remembered the way they are ? Many historians now believe that it was not the case.

10 May 2011

Seletected partes from The Vandalic War, Book III

by Kenneth S. Doig
I thought I'd give my readers some more samples of what the contemporary ancients, like the Romans thought of Germanic peoples. I very interested in these ancient histories, even though, many of them might be more legend, fabrication or just incorrectly gather information. I will publish more of this book on my blog. I would publish more at a time, but either this blog-program or my computer does not like taking really long postings.
Webpublished and formatted by Kenneth S. Doig  10 May 2011
(from Book III pp 4-8)
posite this was named Europe. And the strait at that point separates the two continents by about eighty-four stades, but from there on they are kept apart by wide expanses of sea as far as the Hellespont. For at this point they again approach each other at Sestus and Abydus, and once more at Byzantium and Chalcedon as far as the rocks called in ancient times the "Dark Blue Rocks," where even now is the place called Hieron. For at these places the continents are separated from one another by a distance of only ten stades and even less than that.
Now the distance from one of the Pillars of Heracles to the other, if one goes along the shore and does not pass around the Ionian Gulf and the sea called the Euxine but crosses from Chalcedon to Byzantium and from Dryous to the opposite mainland, is a journey of two hundred and eighty-five days for an unencumbered traveller. For as to the land about the Euxine Sea, which extends from Byzantium to the Lake, it would be impossible to tell everything with precision, since the barbarians beyond the Ister River, which they also call the Danube, make the shore of that sea quite impossible for the Romans to traverse—except, indeed, that from Byzantium to the mouth of the Ister is a journey of twenty-two days, which should be added to the measure of Europe by one making the computation. And on the Asiatic side, that is from Chalcedon to the Phasis River, which, flowing from the country of the Colchians, descends into the Pontus, the journey is accomplished in forty days. So that the whole Roman domain, according to the distance along the sea at least, attains the measure of a three hundred and forty-seven days' journey, if, as has been said, one ferries over the Ionian Gulf, which extends about eight hundred stades from Dryous. For the passage across the gulf amounts to a journey of not less than four days. Such, then, was the size of the Roman empire in the ancient times.
And there fell to him who held the power in the West the most of Libya, extending ninety days' journey—for such is the distance from Gadira to the boundaries of Tripolis in Libya; and in Europe he received as his portion territory extending seventy-five days' journey—for such is the distance from the northern of the Pillars of Heracles to the Ionian Gulf. And one might add also the distance around the gulf. And the emperor of the East received territory extending one hundred and twenty days' journey, from the boundaries of Cyrene in Libya as far as Epidamnus, which lies on the Ionian Gulf and is called at the present time Dyrrachium, as well as that portion of the country about the Euxine Sea which, as previously stated, is subject to the Romans. Now one day's journey extends two hundred and ten stades, or as far as from Athens to Megara. Thus, then, the Roman emperors divided either continent between them. And among the islands Britain, which is outside the Pillars of Heracles and by far the largest of all islands, was counted, as is natural, with the West; and inside the Pillars, Ebusa, which lies in the Mediterranean in what we may call the Propontis, just inside the opening where the ocean 
enters, about seven days' journey from the opening, and two others near it, Majorica and Minorica, as they are called by the natives, were also assigned to the Western empire. And each of the islands in the Sea itself fell to the share of that one of the two emperors within whose boundaries it happened to lie.

II  (395-423 AD)
395-423 A.D
Now while Honorius was holding the imperial power in the West, barbarians took possession  of   his land; and I shall tell who they were and in what manner they did so. There were many Gothic nations in earlier times, just as also at the present, but the greatest and most important of all are the Goths, Vandals, Visigoths, and Gepaedes. In ancient times, however, they were named Sauromatae and Melanchlaeni; and there were some too who called these nations Getic. All these, while they are distinguished from one another by their names, as has been said, do not differ in anything else at all. For they all have white bodies and fair hair, and are tall and handsome to look upon, and they use the same laws and practise a common religion. For they are all of the Arian faith, and have one language called Gothic; and, as it seems to me, they all came originally from one tribe, and were distinguished later by the names of those who led each group. This people used to dwell above the Ister River from of old. Later on the Gepaedes got possession of the country about Singidunum and Sirmium, on both sides of the Ister River, where they have remained settled even down to my time.
But the Visigoths, separating from the others, removed from there and at first entered into an alliance with the Emperor Arcadius, but at a later time (for faith with the Romans cannot dwell in barbarians), under the leadership of Alaric, they became hostile to both emperors, and, beginning with Thrace, treated all Europe as an enemy's land. Now the Emperor Honorius had before this time been sitting in Rome, with never a thought of war in his mind, but glad, I think, if men allowed him to remain quiet in his palace. But when word was brought that the barbarians with a great army were not far off, but somewhere among the Taulantii, he abandoned the palace and fled in disorderly fashion to Ravenna, a strong city lying just about at the end of the Ionian Gulf, while some say that he brought in the barbarians himself, because an uprising had been started against him among his subjects; but this does not seem to me trustworthy, as far, at least, as one can judge of the character of the man. And the barbarians, finding that they had no hostile force to encounter them, became the most cruel of all men. For they destroyed all the cities which they captured, especially those south of the Ionian Gulf, so completely that nothing has been left to my time to know them by, unless, indeed, it might be one tower or one gate or some such thing which chanced to remain. And they killed 
all the people, as many as came in their way, both old and young alike, sparing neither women nor children. Wherefore even up to the present time Italy is sparsely populated. They also gathered as plunder all the money out of all Europe, and, most important of all, they left in Rome nothing whatever of public or private wealth when they moved on to Gaul. But I shall now tell how Alaric captured Rome.
After much time had been spent by him in the siege, and he had not been able either by force or by any other device to capture the place, he formed the following plan. Among the youths in the army whose beards had not yet grown, but who had just come of age, he chose out three hundred whom he knew to be of good birth and possessed of valour beyond their years, and told them secretly that he was about to make a present of them to certain of the patricians in Rome, pretending that they were slaves. And he instructed them that, as soon as they got inside the houses of those men, they should display much gentleness and moderation and serve them eagerly in whatever tasks should be laid upon them by their owners; and he further directed them that not long afterwards, on an appointed day at about midday, when all those who were to be their masters would most likely be already asleep after their meal, they should all come to the gate called Salarian and with a sudden rush kill the guards, who would have no previous knowledge of the plot, and open the gates as quickly as possible. After giving these orders to the youths, Alaric straightway sent ambassadors to the members of the senate, stating that he admired them for their loyalty toward their emperor, and that he would trouble them no longer, because of their valour and faithfulness, with which it was plain that they were endowed to a remarkable degree, and in order that tokens of himself might be preserved among men both noble and brave, he wished to present each one of them with some domestics. After making this declaration and sending the youths not long afterwards, he commanded the barbarians to make preparations for the departure, and he let this be known to the Romans. And they heard his words gladly, and receiving the gifts began to be exceedingly happy, since they were completely ignorant of the plot of the barbarian. For the youths, by being unusually obedient to their owners, averted suspicion, and in the camp some were already seen moving from their positions and raising the siege, while it seemed that the others were just on the point of doing the very same thing. But when the appointed day had come, Alaric armed his whole force for the attack and was holding them in readiness close by the Salarian Gate; for it happened that he had encamped there at the beginning of the siege.Aug. 24, 410 A.D.And all the youths at the time of the day agreed upon came to this gate, and, assailing the guards suddenly, put them to death; then they opened the gates and received Alaric and the army into the city at their leisure. And they set fire to the houses which were next to the gate, among which was also the house of Sallust, who in ancient times wrote the history of the Romans, and the greater part of this house has stood half-burned up to 
my time; and after plundering the whole city and destroying the most of the Romans, they moved on. At that time they say that the Emperor Honorius in Ravenna received the message from one of the eunuchs, evidently a keeper of the poultry, that Rome had perished. And he cried out and said, "And yet it has just eaten from my hands!" For he had a very large cock, Rome by name; and the eunuch comprehending his words said that it was the city of Rome which had perished at the hands of Alaric, and the emperor with a sigh of relief answered quickly: "But I, my good fellow, thought that my fowl Rome had perished." So great, they say, was the folly with which this emperor was possessed.
But some say that Rome was not captured in this way by Alaric, but that Proba, a woman of very unusual eminence in wealth and in fame among the Roman senatorial class, felt pity for the Romans who were being destroyed by hunger and the other suffering they endured; for they were already even tasting each other's flesh; and seeing that every good hope had left them, since both the river and the harbour were held by the enemy, she commanded her domestics, they say, to open the gates by night.
Now when Alaric was about to depart from Rome, he declared Attalus, one of their nobles, emperor of the Romans, investing him with the diadem and the purple and whatever else pertains to the imperial dignity. And he did this with the intention of removing Honorius from his throne and of giving over the whole power in the West to Attalus. With such a purpose, then, both Attalus and Alaric were going with a great army against Ravenna. But this Attalus was neither able to think wisely himself, nor to be persuaded by one who had wisdom to offer. So while Alaric did not by any means approve the plan, Attalus sent commanders to Libya without an army. Thus, then, were these things going on.
407 A.D.
And the island of Britain revolted from the Romans, and the soldiers there chose as their king Constantinus, a man of no mean station. And he straightway gathered a fleet of ships and a formidable army and invaded both Spain and Gaul with a great force, thinking to enslave these countries. But Honorius was holding ships in readiness and waiting to see what would happen in Libya, in order that, if those sent by Attalus were repulsed, he might himself sail for Libya and keep some portion of his own kingdom, while if matters there should go against him, he might reach Theodosius and remain with him. 408-450 A.D.For Arcadius had already died long before, and his son Theodosius, still a very young child, held the power of the East. But while Honorius was thus anxiously awaiting the outcome of these events and tossed amid the billows of uncertain fortune, it so chanced that some wonderful pieces of good fortune befell him. For God is accustomed to succour those who are neither clever nor able to devise anything of themselves, and to lend them assistance, if they be not wicked, when they are in the last 



(Jan 17, 395 AD)
Jan. 17, 395 A.D.
Such, then, was the final outcome of the Persian War for the Emperor Justinian; and I shall now proceed to set forth all that he did against the Vandals and the Moors. But first shall be told whence came the host of the Vandals when they descended upon the land of the Romans. After Theodosius, the Roman Emperor, had departed from the world, having proved himself one of the most just of men and an able warrior, his kingdom was taken over by his two sons, Arcadius, the elder, receiving the Eastern portion, and Honorius, the younger, the Western. But the Roman power had been thus divided as far back as the time of Constantine and his sons; for he transferred his government to Byzantium, and making the city larger and much more renowned, allowed it to be named after him.

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