Showing posts with label umlaut. Show all posts
Showing posts with label umlaut. Show all posts

28 February 2015

Grammatical peculiarities of the Germanic languages



Proto-Germanic (discovered in
Sweden) artwork with
religious significance

Published, edited, images added & comments/annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
 
(websource: Studiopedia)
Carta Magnae Germaniae (Map: Greater-Germania) in
antiquity

Old Indo-European languages were synthetic, i.e. they showed grammatical relations by adding inflections rather than by means of function words or word order (which are employed to express grammatical relations in languages with analytical structure).

The Common Germanic and the Old Germanic dialects were also synthetic. In Common Germanic various means of form-building were employed. As shown above, in Common Germanic sound alternation within the root-morpheme (ablaut and umlaut) were extensively used in form-building. Sound alternations were usually combined with other means of form-building.

26 April 2014

"Some Common Features of Old Norse & German" by Óskar Guðlaugsson 2000


Published, edited, annotated (in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig

Some Common Features of Old-Norse & German

Casesystem:  ON and German have the same four cases, standard to Germanic case-languages, nominate, accusative, dative, and genitive. (there are relatively productive vestiges of the instrumental in OE, OHG, OSx; also rarer, far-less productive cases here and there in various older Gmc dialects, e.g., locative, vocative. Gothic had a productive vocative) They differ considerably in the usage of the latter two, though.

06 July 2011

WEST-SAXON (OLD ENGLISH) NOUN CASE-PARADIGMS

Wóðenaz

Published by Kenneth S. Doig    


In Modern English almost all nouns are declined in pretty much the same way: we add -s to make plurals and -'s to make possessives. There are notable exceptions, however. The plural of ox is not oxes, but oxen, and the plural of child has the same ending, but preceded by -r-. And of course several very common nouns make plurals by changing their vowels: for example, tooth/teeth and mouse/mice.

14 April 2011

germanic linguistics-laws, Grimm's, Verner's, etc. Important to know for gmc linguistics




 
 
 
 
Sound Change
 
breakthrough in comparative linguistics initiated by Danish scholar Rasmus Rask and German linguist Jacob Grimm 
-         research on relationship between Germanic languages and the rest of Indo-European
-         in 1786 William Jones already said:
…the Gothic (Germanic) … though blended with a very different idiom, had the same origin with the Sanskrit.                                                                                             
-         Grimm and Rask investigated this relationship of correspondences between Germanic
and the classical I-E (Indo-European) languages
àtheir goal: to show Germanic is a part of the I-E language family
àinterest especially on differences in pronunciation of Germanic
 result was published in 1818 and 1819
àwork proved Germanic languages are part of I-E
àprovided set of systematic sound changes which differentiated Germanic languages
    from classical languages
àsimilar set of sound changes differentiating German from the rest of Germanic
àset of systematic changes is called Grimm`s Law (in German: First Germanic
    Sound Shift) 

31 March 2011

Soundchanges groups 6,7,8,9

Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 6

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These are the soundchanges in group 6: a - e - ó - ó - a
at ala1 = to bread
at fara = to go
at gala = to crow
at mala = to grind, to crush, to mill, to churn
at standa = to stand, to pass
Navnháttur3. pers. nútið eintal3. pers. tátíð eintal3. pers. tátið fleirtalTátíðar lýsingarháttur
at alaelurólólualið
at faraferfórfórufarið
at galagelurgólgólugalið
at malamelurmólmólumalið
at standastendurstóðstóðustaðiðð
1: The verb ala also exists with out soundchange: Faroese verbs without soundchanges group 1
Similar to these are:
at sláa = to hit
at stjala = to steal
at svørja = to swear
at taka = to take
at vaksa = to grow
Navnháttur3. pers. nútið eintal3. pers. tátíð eintal3. pers. tátið fleirtalTátíðar lýsingarháttur
at sláaslærslóslógusligið
at stjalastjelurstjólstjólustolið
at svørjasvørsvórsvórusvorið
at takatekurtóktókutikið
at vaksaveksurvaksvuksuvaksið
Note: The verbs fara, sláa, svørja do not get a ur-ending in 3rd person present singular, because the stem ends with r: hann fer, hann slær, hann svør.

Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 7

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In group 7 are multiple soundchanges:
at halda = to hold, to think
at eita = (Hon eitur Sára. = Her name is Sára)
at fáa = to get
at ganga = to walk
at hanga = to hang
at gráta = to cry
at lata = to give
at láta = to pipe, to chirp, to twitter
Navnháttur3. pers. nútið eintal3. pers. tátíð eintal3. pers. tátið fleirtalTátíðar lýsingarháttur
at haldaheldurhelthilduhildið
at eitaeiturætituitið
at fáafærfekkfingufingið
at gangagongurgekkgingugingið
at hangahongurhekkhinguhingið
at grátagræturgrætgrótugrátið
at lataleturlætlótulatið
at látaleturlætlótulátið
Note: The verb fáa does not get an ur-ending in 3rd pers. present singular, because the stem ends with a consonant: hann fær.

Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 8

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To themselves are the verbs, that have or have had i or j in their stem. They have an i-mutation in infinitive and present.
Example 1: The verb, which in infinitive is at fremja (to execute, to carry out) was in ancient language *framian; the i got the a to come to it, so it became an e. Therefore, we got this soundchange:
Navnháttur3. pers. nútið eintal3. pers. tátíð eintal3. pers. tátið fleirtalTátíðar lýsingarháttur
at fremjafremurframdiframduframt
Other verb, that have the same soundchange:
at krevja = to demand
at telja = to count
at temja = to tame
at vekja = to wake
at velja = to choose
at venja = to train
at flekja = to cut fish into fil(l)et
at klekja = to hatch (an egg)
at rekja = to ravel out (when knitting)
at tekja = to roof (a building)
at berja = to beat, to flog
at verja = to defend
Navnháttur3. pers. nútið eintal3. pers. tátíð eintal3. pers. tátið fleirtalTátíðar lýsingarháttur
at krevjakrevurkravdikravdukravt
at teljatelurtalditaldutalt
at temjatemurtamditamdutamt
at vekjavekurvaktivaktuvakt
at veljavelurvaldivalduvalt
at venjavenurvandivanduvant
at flekjaflekirflaktiflaktuflakt
at klekjaklekirklaktiklaktuklakt
at rekjarekirraktirakturakt
at tekjatekirtaktitaktutakt
at berjaberjirbardibardubart
at verjaverjirvardivarduvart
Example 2: The verb, which in infinitive is at dylja (to conceal) has been in older days *duljan; the j pulled the u to it, so that it became a y. That's why we got this soundchange:
Navnháttur3. pers. nútið eintal3. pers. tátíð eintal3. pers. tátið fleirtalTátíðar lýsingarháttur
at dyljadylurduldiduldudult
Other verbs, that have this soundchange:
at dynja = to ?
at flysa = to peel
at flyta = to move
at glymja = to resound
at hyggja = to watch
at kryvja = to cut fish open and removing its intestands
at smyrja = to smear, to coat (however, at smyrja onkran av = to kick someon's butt)
at spyrja = to ask
at stynja = to groan
at tysja = to flock out (I think)
at yðja = to teem
Navnháttur3. pers. nútið eintal3. pers. tátíð eintal3. pers. tátið fleirtalTátíðar lýsingarháttur
at dynjadynurdundidyndudunað
at flysaflysurflustiflustuflust
at flytaflyturfluttifluttuflutt
at glymjaglymurglumdiglumduglumt
at hyggjahyggurhugdihugduhugt
at kryvjakryvurkruvdikruvdukruvt
at smyrjasmyrsmurdismurdusmurt
at spyrjaspyrspurdispurduspurt
at stynjastynurstundistundustunað
at tysjatysurtustitustutust
at yðjayðuruddiudduutt
Note: The verbs smyrja, spyrja don't have an -ur ending in 3rd pers present singular, because their stems end with an -r: hann smyr, hann spyr

Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 9

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Completely by themselves are the verbs hava, leggja, siga (to have, to lay, to say), which are conjugated so:
Navnháttur3. pers. nútið eintal3. pers. tátíð eintal3. pers. tátið fleirtalTátíðar lýsingarháttur
at havahevurhevðihøvduhavt
at leggjaleggurlegðiløgdulagt
at sigasigursegðisøgdusagt
(websource http://www.unilang.org)

30 March 2011

Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 4

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These are the soundchanges in group 4: e - e - a - ó - o
at bera = to carry

Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 3



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These are the soundchanges in group 3: e - e - a - u - u/o or i - i - a - u - u/o
at brenna = to burn

Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 2



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These are the soundchanges in group 2: ó - ý - ey - u - o or ú - ý - ey - u - o
at bjóða = to offer

Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 1

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These are the soundchanges in group 1: í - í - ei - i - i
at bíta = to bite
at blíva = to become
at dríta = to shit
at dríva = to drive
at glíða = to slip
at grína = to laugh
at grípa = to seize, to clutch
at hvína = to shrike, squeal
at klíva = to climb
at líða = to suffer
at líta = to look
at míga = to pee
at níga = to neigh, to sink/drop
at níta = to hurt
at ríða = to ride
at rísa = to rise
at ríva = to rake
at síga = to be lowered down a mountainside
at skína = to shine
at skíta = to shit
at skríða = to skid
at slíta = to tear
at stíga = to step
at svíða = to singe, to scorch
at svíkja = to betray
at tríva = to seize

Navnháttur3. pers. nútið eintal3. pers. tátíð eintal3. pers. tátið fleirtalTátíðar lýsingarháttur
at bítabíturbeitbitubitið
at blívablívurbleivblivublivið
at drítadríturdreitdritudritið
at drívadrívurdreivdrivudrivið
at glíðaglíðurgleiðgliðugliðið
at grínagrínurgreingrinugrinið
at grípagrípurgreipgripugripið
at hvínahvínurhveinhvinuhvinið
at klívaklívurkleivklivuklivið
at líðalíðurleiðliðuliðið
at lítalíturleitlitulitið
at mígamígurmeigmigumigið
at níganígurneignigunigið
at nítaníturneitnitunitið
at ríðarídurreiðriðuriðið
at rísarísurreisrisurisið
at rívarívurreivrivurivið
at sígasígurseigsigusigið
at skínaskínurskeinskinu [ki:]skinið [ki:]
at skítaskíturskeitskitu [ki:]skitið [ki:]
at skríðaskríðurskreiðskriðuskriðið
at slítaslítursleitslituslitið
at stígastígursteigstigustigið
at svíðasvíðursveriðsviðusviðið
at svíkjasvíkursveiksvikusvikið
at trívatrívurtreivtrivutrvið
>> Languages >> Faroese >> Faroese grammar >> Faroese verbs >> Faroese verbs with soundchanges

Faroese verbs with soundchanges



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Verbs with soundchanges, are those verbs where the verb's stem's vowel change when being conjugated.
at koma - hann kemur - hann kom = to come - he comes - he came
This soundchange is either an umlaut or a mutation.
Depending on what the soundchange is, we divide the verbs in nine group:
Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 1
Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 2
Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 3
Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 4
Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 5
Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 6
Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 7
Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 8
Faroese verbs with soundchanges group 9
We can say this as a main rule: Verbs with soundchanges have the 2nd and 3rd pers present singular ending -ur, e.g.:
kryvja - kruvdi: kryvur
But because no verb end with -jur, we get these 6 exceptions, which have an -ir-ending despite the fact, that they have soundchanges:
flekja - flekir
klekja - klekir
rekja - rekir
tekja - tekir
berja - berjir
verja - verjir
Exceptions are also the verbs, that have no endings in 3rd pers present singular. E.g.: spyrja-spyr.
Two other verbs, who don't have soundchanges, have the present ending -ur in 2nd and 3rd person singular:
at selja (to sell) - selur
at høgga (to chop) - høggur
And furthermore, these two words have both options:
at seta (to set) = setir/setur
at skilja (to understand) = skilir/skilur
>> Languages >> Faroese >> Faroese grammar >> Faroese verbs

Faroese verb passives



From UniLang Wiki

Faroese has three passives: active, medio-passive and passive
Active: The active tells about what someone is doing or what condition something is in:

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