|Proto-Germanic (discovered in |
Sweden) artwork with
Published, edited, images added & comments/annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
|Carta Magnae Germaniae (Map: Greater-Germania) in |
Old Indo-European languages were synthetic, i.e. they showed grammatical relations by adding inflections rather than by means of function words or word order (which are employed to express grammatical relations in languages with analytical structure).
The Common Germanic and the Old Germanic dialects were also synthetic. In Common Germanic various means of form-building were employed. As shown above, in Common Germanic sound alternation within the root-morpheme (ablaut and umlaut) were extensively used in form-building. Sound alternations were usually combined with other means of form-building.