Showing posts with label phonology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label phonology. Show all posts

28 June 2015

Germanic parent-language

Published, edited, images added & annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
(from Wikipedia)

(at the above-referenced link, you can read the original documents with all its footnotes, citations & references)

16 October 2013

Grimm's law (first Germanic soundshift~~~ why..? "pater, kardio-, tu, & frrater "= "father, heart, thou [þú] & brother"

Published, formatted, edited, commentary (in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig

Grimm's law

(From Wikipedia)Grimm's law (also known as the first-Germanic soundshift or Rask's rule), named after Jacob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE). 

28 September 2012

"On Breaking" (Vowel-breaking ['a' to 'éa' in WestSaxon, 'a' to 'iá/já' in Norse] in certain Germanic languages)

Published, formatted, heavily-edited, corrected, images added & annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig Introductory Phonology By Hayes, Bruce (Google Affiliate Ad)

by K.S.Doig
Dr. Kortland is a superior linguist/philologist, but his typing & writing-skills (at least in English, I hope they´re better in his native Dutch. I spent hours just formatting the sentences from a PDF-file and much more time correcting spelling-errors, etc. I might have missed a few things.
by Frederik Kortlandt, PhD

Professor Emeritus, Leiden University, NL 

To the memory of Jörundur Hilmarsson

As H.F. Nielsen points out, for Old English 'it is fairly certain that breaking takes place prior to t-mutation, which itself precedes back-umlaut.2 [...]
Freemasonry Among the Anglo-Saxons (Google Affiliate Ad)

On the other hand, OE breaking must be later than OE fronting of α >  which is most likely to be an independent development' (1984:75, 80). This chronology suffices to show that the Old-English breaking cannot be identified with the Scandinavian breaking.History of the Scots Language (Google Affiliate Ad)

18 December 2011



Professor Frederik Kortlandt, PhD,
University of Leiden, NL (link)
In a recent article (1995), the eminent Indologist F. B. J. Kuiper has
emphasized the necessity to distinguish between at least three different
layers of pre-Germanic substratum:

(AI) 'European' words with α-vocalism and frequent voiced aspirates,e.g. *bhabh- 'bean', *bhardh- 'beard', *bhar(e)s- 'barley', *ghasdh- 'rod', perhaps *sam(a)dh- 'sand'.
(A2) Gennanic (sic: Germanic?) words with a-, i-, ω-vocalism, initial clusters kn-, kl-, and prenasalization, which is reflected äs Variation between -b-, -mb-, -mp-, -pp-, e.g. ON klifa 'climb', klif, kleppr, kleif'cliff', OE climban, clif.

(A3) Old European 1 words with frequent α-vocalism, few consonants

23 October 2011


PUBLISHED & ANNOTATED BY KENNETH S. DOIG (all my annotations are in this color)

Scandinavian languages, also called North Germanic (NGmc) languages, group of Germanic languages consisting of modern standard Danish, Swedish, Norwegian (Dano-Norwegian [bokmål] and New Norwegian [nynorsk]), Icelandic, and Faroese. These languages are usually divided into East Scandinavian (Danish and Swedish) and West Scandinavian (Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese) groups.

c. 600 f.Cr
 (Today, this East-West classification has little meaning. I would reclassify & rename, to  "Insular-Scandinavian", "IS", & the other group, Continental-Scandinavian, "CS". The first group containing Icelandic & Faroese, the latter, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish & all dialects. The difference is simple, IS is still Old-Norse, especially Icelandic, highly inflected & synthetic marking nouns, pronouns, adjectives, determiners, articles, etc., for grammatical gender [masc, fem & neut], number, case [nom, acc, dat, gen].

Also retaining much or all of verbal inflection,tense, mood, voice, person, number, aspect & conjugation, whereas all the major spoken CS tongues inflect for tense but have lost all personal/number conjugation. One stills sees relics of conjugation & the subjunctive in Biblical verse, set phrases, poetry, etc. Example, the verb to be in Norwegian (bokmål).

03 October 2011



The Afrikaans language

Group Germanic: (with German, English, Swedish etc.), West Germanic (with Dutch, English, Frisian etc.) 

Geography: South Africa 

History: Afrikaans was formed by Dutch colonists in Africa in the 17th century. Originally Afrikaans was a popular dialect composed of Dutch with a lot of borrowings from aboriginal languages of Africa. Though the official language of South African colonies was Dutch, Afrikaans was spoken by farmers who left Cape town seeking for better lands to the north. In the 19th century, when the Republic of Transvaal and the Orange Free State were founded, Afrikaans became an official speech there. In South Africa, Afrikaans was proclaimed the official language in 1914. 



The German language

Group: Indo-European:
Germanic (with German, Danish, Dutch etc.), West Germanic (with Frisian, Scots etc.)

Approximately 71 million German-speaking people live in Germany, and several million under foreign administration. In addition, German is spoken by almost 7 million people in Austria, about 300,000 in Luxembourg, 3,400,000 in the northern section of Switzerland, and about 1,500,000 in Alsace-Lorraine.



The Old-English language

Group Germanic (with Old Norse, Old High German, etc.), West Germanic (with Old Saxon, Frisian etc.)
Geography Was born and spoken in England
History Once a conglomerate of tribal dialects spoken by Angles, Saxons and Jutes on their invasion in Britain, the Old English language was formed after England was unified by Alfred in the 9th century. A lot of poems, including the Beowulf epic, historical and religious literature was written in Old English before the Norman conquest. After the 11th century, the Middle English period started.

01 April 2011

About my unorthodox writing-style and blog-style

This is my first blog, started in december of 2010, so I am new and learning all the time. i am currently reading the book Google Blogger for Dummies,by S. Gunelius (I recommend it) a lot of good info. One thing she said is that one of the biggest turnoffs is to have bad spelling and punctuation. Many of you have noticed that i do not capitalized the following; the pronoun "I", months, days of the week, languages, nationalities and so on. I admit beyond these following punctuation-marks, i know virtually nothing; the period, the comma, the question-mark,quotation-marks (but what's the difference between the single (') and the regular (")? I also basically know how to use the exclamation-mark, hyphen, slash, ampersand (&), and parentheses. I really don't know the difference is between [brackets] and {whatever these are called}, nor the difference or even the usages of colon or semicolon. I should look all these up but I have a dayjob in insurance, a girlfriend, the gym, sleep, a cat, dog, and I am currently reading two books on blogging, the one mentioned above and another about "search-engine optimization" (SEO) and also reading other blogs and review books on the subjects covered in this blog.
I could write in a very formal, university-style, but I have been accused of that most of my life, that I sound like a walking dictionary and I say things like, "if it were he...", "had I seen him..? and using overly academic, esoteric words. I believe that exactly that turns many people off to higher learning. I believe there is a thirst for knowledge and that I can pass that on in everyday, real english terms, whenever possible. I've read somewhere that a good write will use the simplest word possible.
My goal is to show people the relatedness of the germanic languages and the fact that i taught myself fluent swedish and about 15 other languages (to lesser degrees of skill from conversation, reading, to barely knowing the grammar...) I could carry on a conversation with a frisian, dutchman, german, icelander, (the icelander would be the hardest to communicate with as they adopt no internationally-used words like "telephone", "university", "thermometer", etc., that exist in virtually every european language in some similar form and even many other non IE (indo-european) words world-wide. And  icelandic grammar, it's a bitch, but I love it and know most of it by heart. Icelandic today is even more inflected than anglo-saxon was 1200 years ago. In morphology, it is the closest, by a landslide to proto-germanic(pgmc). Here's something of interest, modern-english is phonologically quite close to pgmc in some ancient sounds we've preserved even though we've (unfortunately) shed off most of our inflectedness. As far as I know, and I speak of major germanic languages, english is the only gmc tongue to have preserved the original sound of "W", while in all other major gmc languages it has become to be pronounced "v" and written "v" in northgermanic. But in some really old early-old-norse writings we find "W's" and even into the early viking-period the written "v" was pronounced "W" as in latin, e.g. civis is pronounced [kee-wiss] in classical latin. Some examples of "W's" in old scandinavian tongues (by the way, up until the late viking-period, all scandinavians referred to their own language as "donsk tunga" or "dönsk tunga" or "dǫnsk tunga, even if they lived in Sweden, Norway, etc. Often in archaic old-norse the interrogative (those beginning with "wh" and "hw" and hv" and "qu" in romance), the word for "what" was spelled "huat" some examples, "þar sat madr firir ok fagnade þeim vel ok spurde huat þeir uillde kaupa".
I also insert lots of images that are related to the subject, why not make learning visual and entertaining, not boring and sterile.

By Kenneth S. Doig

Good folks who follow this blog