Showing posts with label language. Show all posts
Showing posts with label language. Show all posts

28 June 2015

Germanic parent-language



Published, edited, images added & annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
(from Wikipedia)

(at the above-referenced link, you can read the original documents with all its footnotes, citations & references)
(websource)

23 June 2014

"Why English is considered as a Western (sic) Germanic Language?"


Published, edited, images added & annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig)

(imagesource)

Why English is considered as a Western (sic) Germanic Language? 

So many English words are formed from Latin, why is English considered a West-Germanic language, ain't English and German Latin languages?
(articlewebsource: answers.yahoo.com)https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100727214850AAgeyyu

(imagesource: studiotwo.wordpress.com)

25 February 2014

Tokharian, indo-european outliers : caucasian europids in ancient & medieval China mountainous western frontier

Turkmen girl, w/ blue eyes; probable Tocharian descendant. (r) Tarim-Basin 'mummy'.Europid crania, hair & clothing
Published edited, formatted, annotated (in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig
(from Wikipedia)

The following table describes a typical-minimal reconstruction of Late Proto-Tocharian, which includes all Tocharian or Tokharian (/təˈkɛəriən/ or /təˈkɑriən/) is an extinct branch of the Indo-European "IE" language-family, formerly spoken by Tocharian peoples in oases on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of China's Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous-Region). 

Documents dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD record two closely related languages, called Tocharian-A (East-Tocharian, Agnean or Turfanian) and Tocharian-B (West-Tocharian or Kuchean).

19 August 2013

"Origins of English: Gender"

Published, comments (in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig
by
Ojibwa
(from "the daily kos")
English is an Indo-European language which evolved from Old English (Anglo-Saxon), a West-Germanic language. Over the past thousand years, English has acquired words from many different languages. In addition, the meaning of words has also changed over the past thousand years. 
 
The acquisition of new words and the changing meaning of old words provides some insights into our changing attitudes, ideas, and concepts regarding gender. Listed below the squiggly thing are the etymologies of a few gender-related words.

Boy/Girl:
The English word “boy” probably comes from the Anglo-Norman word “abuie” or “embuie” which came from the Old French “embuier”, which meant “fetter.” The Old French term, in turn, came from the Latin “imboiāre” which is a compound verb based on the Vulgar Latin “boiae” which meant “leather collar, fetter.”

 
The early meaning of “boy” in English was “male servant,” someone who was kept in leather fetters. In other words, “boy” referred to a slave. The racist term “boy” when used in reference to an African-American male harks back to this early meaning of the word.

The current meaning of “boy” referring to a “young male” developed during the fourteenth century.

The etymology of the word “girl” is one of the unsolved mysteries of English linguistics. Prior to the fifteenth century, “girl” referred to “child,” not necessarily a female child. At this time the term for a male child was “knave-gerlys.”

Woman:
The origins of the word “woman” do NOT come from the word “man.” “Woman” comes from the Old English (Anglo-Saxon) “wífmann” in which “wíf” meant “female” and “mann” referred to a person of either sex. “Wífmann” thus meant “female-human.” The “wíf” part of “wífmann” eventually became “wife.”

In Old-English there was a male equivalent to “wíf” which was “wer”. Thus “werewolf” originally meant “manwolf.” (also, meaning 'an adult-male person' the noun, "guma", cognate to Latin "homo")

Female:
“Female” came into English from the French “femelle” which in turn came from the Latin “femella” which is the diminutive of “feminine” which means “woman.”

 
The root of the word is “fe” which means “to suckle” and which forms the basis of words such as “fecund,” “fetal,” and “filial.” The current spelling with the “a” appeared in the fourteenth century.

It is interesting to note that “female” is not derived from “male.”

Male:
The English word “male” comes from the Old French word “masle” which was derived from the Latin “masculus” which is also the basis for the English word “masculine.” The word “mallard” meaning a “male bird” also comes from this Old French-Latin source.

Harlot:

“Harlot” came into English from the Old French “herlot” or “arlot” which meant “vagabond, begger.” In thirteenth century English it was a masculine term and referred to a boy, a servant, a buffoon, a rascal, a fornicator, or a jester. It could also be used to describe a regular fellow or a good guy. Thus, Chaucer writes:



He was a gentil harlot and a kynbde,
A better felawe sholde men noght fynde.
Sometime in the fifteenth century, “harlot” started to be applied to women: actresses, dancers, jugglers, and prostitutes. The transition of “harlot” from a male term to a female one was speeded up by the Biblical translations which were going on at the time.

The evolution of “harlot” shows not only a change in gender, but also a change from positive to negative which is a reflection of the sexism in the culture in which the male is associated with good and the female is associated with evil or bad.

Whore:
The ancient meaning of “whore” is “lover.” It stems from the Indo-European *kar which resulted in the Latin “cārus” which means “dear” and which provides the basis of the Latinate English words “caress” and “charity.”

 
In Old-Irish, “qar(sic: qar should read *kar) became “caraim” meaning “I love” and in Latvian it became “kārs” meaning “randy, greedy.” In Middle-English (prior to the twelfth century), “hore” acquired the meaning of “adulterer” and in the sixteenth century it acquired the “wh” spelling.

Homosexual:
First of all, the “homo” in “homosexual” does not come from the Latin “homo” which means “man,” but from the Greek “homós” which means “same.” (the Greek morpheme homós; root- hom-, as stated, has utterly no linguistic-genetic relationship, i.e., not cognate to Latin hōmo. But, the Greek homós is cognate to our word, same. See [not part of original article] explanation below)   The “sexual” part of “homosexual” does come from the Latin “sexualis.” The actual meaning of the word is thus “same sex” rather than “male sex.”

 

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Proto-Greek
(from Wikipedia)
In Proto-Greek, /s/ shifted to [h] initially and between sonorants (vowels, liquids, and nasals).
Proto-Indo-European *septḿ̥ → Ancient Greek heptá "seven" (vs. Latin septem)

Intervocalic /h/ was lost by the time of Ancient-Greek, and vowels in hiatus were contracted in the Attic dialect.
post-PIE *ǵénesos → Proto-Greek *génehos → Ionic géneos : Attic génous "of a race"

Before a liquid or nasal, an /h/ was assimilated to the preceding vowel in Attic-Ionic and Doric and to the following nasal in Aeolic. The process is also described as loss of /h/ and subsequent lengthening of a vowel or consonant to keep the syllable the same length (compensatory-lengthening).
PIE *h₁ésmi → Proto-Greek *ehmi → Attic-Ionic ēmí : Aeolic émmi "I am"

06 August 2012

Proto-Indo-European Syntax (Part 1)

PUBLISHED, EDITED, FORMATTED & ANNOTATIONS (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG

Proto-Indo-European Syntax


Winfred P. Lehmann (professor emeritus, Univ. of Texas at Austin, Linguistics Research Dept.)
(Winfred P. Lehmann, Director :: PCL 5.112, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566) 

1. The Syntactic Framework

1.1. Earlier Syntactic Treatments of PIE.

When we concern ourselves with the syntax of Proto-Indo-European

09 May 2012



PUBLISHED, IMAGES ADDED & ANNOTATIONS (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG


(websource)


areas in purple show heavy North-
Germanic settlement
Etymology: [et-uh-mol-uh-jee, ět-ə-mŏl-ə-jē]
-noun
1. the derivation of a word.
2. an account of the history of a particular word or element of a word.
3. the study of historical linguistic change, esp. as manifested in individual words.

 

Ever wonder where the heck that word or phrase you just read came from? Have you ever tried to increase your vocabulary, but the words seemed so foreign that you couldn't get them to stick? 



Is English your second language and you're having trouble understanding all the crazy idioms we have? Or maybe you just have an interest in both history and language? Well, you've come to the right place!

Every weekday, we post a word or phrase with an explanation of its historical and linguistic origins.




30 November 2011

A VERY BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE AFRIKAANS LANGUAGE

PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG


From
World Language Resources
(websource)
Language Information
Afrikaans is one of eleven official languages of the Republic of South Africa. It is spoken by over 6 million people—the 3 million white Afrikaaners, plus about 11 million other people speak it as a second language.

26 October 2011

LATIN ONLINE : LESSON II : UT AUSIN

PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

Latin Online

Lesson 2

By Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum (link)

This selection is taken from Book 2, Section 10 of Livy's history. It deals with an episode in the struggle of the Romans to maintain themselves. Aeneas is assumed to have landed in Latium shortly before 750 B.C. In the following 250 years the Romans maintained themselves, but had conflicts with other peoples, especially the Etruscans.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The Etruscans were at the gates of Rome in 503, and set out to enter the city over a bridge across the Tiber River. The Romans retreated over it into the city and set out to destroy it. While they were doing so, it was defended by three men. Horatius Cocles asked the two others to withdraw as well and then held off the Etruscans by himself until the bridge was destroyed. He then plunged into the river and swam across in full armor. The episode was greatly celebrated. It formed the topic of the poem on Horatius in Thomas Babingdon Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome of 1842. (A passage after the sentence ending in pontis was omitted, to avoid undue length of this selection.)

14 October 2011

FLEMISH IS DUTCH : VLAAMS IS NEDERLANDS

FLEMISH: VLAAMSCH, FLAMSKA, FLÄMISCH,FLÆMSKA, FLAMSK, VLAAMS
PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG
In English usage, Flemish (Dutch:Vlaams) can refer to:
Belgian-Dutch (Belgisch-Nederlands) the national variety of the Dutch language as spoken in Belgium, be it standard (as used in schools, government and the media) or informal (as used in daily speech, "tussentaal"); Nevertheless, the use of the word Flemish to refer to the official language in Flanders is misleading. The only official language in Flanders is Dutch. 

11 October 2011

03 October 2011

OLD-LOW GERMAN (OLD-SAXON)




PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

Old Low German (Old Saxon) language



GroupGermanic (with Old English, Old Norse, Gothic etc.), West Germanic (with Old High German etc.)
GeographyNorthern Germany (Saxony), Low Lands
HistoryIn the first centuries of the new era Saxon tribes inhabited Northern Germany and south of the jutland peninsula. The demographic explosion in the 3-4th centuries forced some of them to seek better lands to settle - and in the 5th century the waves of Saxons together with other North Germanic tribes invade Britain, giving birth to the Old English language.

14 September 2011

Language and Identity in the Roman Empire

TARANIS, CELTIC THUNDERGOD

PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

  •  Language and Identity in the Roman Empire


The most detailed records we have of ancient Europeans come to us from early Greek historians who describe the various tribes and peoples that lived at the periphery of their known world. A common thread that runs though these narratives is a a distinct sense of otherness, for the peoples being described that were not of Hellenic or greek stock. 


These “Barbarians”, a term coined by the later Romans because of the beards they wore, were bereft of any value and systematic forms of civilizations that existed in the Greek world. They were alien to them, useful perhaps as slaves or hired mercenaries, but not a part of the “polis”, the citizen city state that differentiated the perceived noble races form those who still maintained the attributes of the archaic and uncivilized past.

02 September 2011

Luxemburgian


PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

Luxemburgian Quick Facts

Alternate Names & Spellings: Luxemburgish, Luxemburgian, Luxembourgish, Letzburgisch, Lëtzebuergesch, Moselle Franconian, Frankish
Language Family: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Moselle Franconian
Official Language of: Luxembourg
Spoken by Approximately 300,000 people

Belarussian also called "White-Russian"


PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

Our professional linguists include native Belarussian speakers who are experienced in the nuances of the language and the requirements of effective translation and interpreting.

Belarussian Language


 Quick Facts

Alternate Names & Spellings: Belarusian, Belorussian, Bielorussian, White Russian, White Ruthenian, Byelorussian

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