Showing posts with label kurgan hypothesis. Show all posts
Showing posts with label kurgan hypothesis. Show all posts

24 February 2015

"A steppe in time"- Steppe migration rekindles debate on the Indo-European language-origin

novel graphic on core Indo-European tongues
(mapsource)

Published, edited, formatted, images added (unless otherwise-noted) & comments/annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
(websource)

ancient Hellenic depictions of
various peoples(mapsource)


From Icelanders to Sri Lankans, some 3-billion people speak the (far more than..) more than 400 languages and dialects that belong to the Indo-European (IE) family.



Map of both the prevailing hypotheses on early Indo-European ethnogenesis & origins) the more-widely accepted Steppe/Kurgan hypothesis [Gimbutas, M, et al.] b) the less-widely accepted Anatolia-hypothesis [Renfrew, C, et al.] {map was already on article. Caption, written by K.S. Doig}



Some researchers hold that an early Indo-European (IE) language was spread by Middle-Eastern farmers around 8,000–9,500 years ago (see ‘Steppe in time’).

18 May 2011

THE KURGAN-HYPOTHESIS: THE INDO-EUROPEAN URHEIMAT


Map of Indo European migrations from ca. 4000 to 1000 BC according to the Kurgan model. The Anatolian migration (indicated with a dotted arrow) could have taken place either across the Caucasus or across the Balkans. The magenta area corresponds to the assumed Urheimat (Samara culture, Sredny Stog culture). The red area corresponds to the area that may have been settled by Indo-European-speaking peoples up to ca. 2500 BC, and the orange area by 1000 BC

Published, edited & formatted by Kenneth S. Doig

 From Wikipedia

The Kurgan hypothesis (also theory or model) is one of the proposals about early Indo-European origins, which postulates that the people of an archaeological "Kurgan culture" (a term grouping the Yamna, or Pit Grave, culture and its predecessors) in the Pontic steppe were the most likely speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language. The term is derived from kurgan (курган), a Turkic loanword in Russian for a tumulus or burial mound.
The Kurgan model is the most widely accepted scenario of Indo-Euopean origins. An alternative model is the Anatolian urheimat. Many Indo-Europeanists are agnostic on the

08 May 2011

Excellent Article

 

What was the origin of Hinduism?

by James Dow Allen  (Websource Allen's homepage)

Caste System

Many societies have a caste system in which one's social and economic roles and political status are fixed. The caste is usually inherited from one's parents, but may be based on occupation, wealth, or one's ethnic group; over time, as occupations change, ethnic groups intermingle, or lower caste individuals are promoted by reason of wealth or military service, the basis will change but will usually be just an accident of birth. Often there will be just two castes (African examples include the Tutsi and Hutu of Rwanda; in medieval Japan the Samurai and peasants form two castes with Samurai having the right to kill peasants); or there may be several castes (In Hawaii, the four castes were nobility, master craftsmen (incl. priests, healers, boat builders, etc.), commoners, and slaves).
Before the modern era, much of Europe used a three-caste (three-estate) system, comprising clergy, nobility, and commoners. Commoners might be further subdivided based on debts or occupation. Royalty (on top) and serfs or slaves (on the bottom) might be considered to be outside the caste system. In some societies nobility outranked clergy; in other societies clergy outranked nobility. In the latter case, nobles might be subdivided into warriors and lawmakers, with lawmakers in the same highest caste as clergy. England's "caste system" was more flexible: a nobleman's oldest son would be noble, second son perhaps a cleric, remaining sons merely "gentlemen", or promoted to knights if they showed military excellence. Below the gentry, commoners were treated as different castes based largely on wealth or occupation, rather than birth.
It is the Hindu caste system we are concerned with here. The three highest castes are Brahmins (teachers and priests), Kshatriyas (warriors and rulers), Vaishyas (farmers and merchants). A fourth class, the Sudras (laborers and craftsmen), had a lower status; later came the Panchama (e.g. "untouchables") who were termed "out-castes" rather than a fifth caste. Eventually many subcastes developed based on occupation and ethnicity.
Because the original Hindu caste system comprised just three castes, membership in the additional lower castes must have arisen by punishment or conquest. The same three-caste ordering (priests, warriors, farmers) is observed in many ancient European cultures, perhaps most clearly among Romans and Celts. Druids, the highest caste of Celts, were subdivided into prophets, bards and priests. Political authority was sometimes exercised by druids, sometimes by the warrior caste. Even the third caste enjoyed some freedom and religious status, with slaves often from a different ethnic group and having a fourth (out-caste) status.

The Indo-European Language Family

In the late 18th century, strong similarities were first noted between European languages and Sanskrit, the language of ancient sacred Hindu religious texts. Thus the Indo-European language family was recognized, which became the major impetus to the development of historical linguistics.

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