Showing posts with label grimm's law. Show all posts
Showing posts with label grimm's law. Show all posts

28 June 2015

Germanic parent-language



Published, edited, images added & annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
(from Wikipedia)

(at the above-referenced link, you can read the original documents with all its footnotes, citations & references)
(websource)

15 March 2014

The Proto-Germanic language; Grimm and Bopp



Published, edited, formatted, images added, annotations & rephrasing (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig

(source 
The Encyclopedia of Authentic Hinduism by H.D. Swami Prakashanand Saraswati (the most important site on Hinduism, the Upanishads, modern Physics, Bhartiya, Sanatan Dharm and more))


(Proto-, an oft-used prefix, here, we discuss proto-languages, i.e., the hypothetical ancestor/parent for any given language. Usually, the comparative-method "CM" is used. 
Any word, unbound or unbound morpheme, are prepended by an apostrophe /*/, in order to convey to readers that, a word, letter, etc., has never been (to our knowledge)attested in written form. 

The attestation must have been written contemporaneously, back "in the day". If there be no written record [attestation], from that earlier time, linguists use the CM [there are other methods]. They reconstruct an unattested word or sound. 

16 October 2013

Grimm's law (first Germanic soundshift~~~ why..? "pater, kardio-, tu, & frrater "= "father, heart, thou [þú] & brother"


Published, formatted, edited, commentary (in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig
 

Grimm's law

(From Wikipedia)Grimm's law (also known as the first-Germanic soundshift or Rask's rule), named after Jacob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE). 

SUEBO-GOTHONIC'S (GERMANIC) SEVEN DISTINCTIVE FEATURES


Published, edited, formatted & commentary (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig

SCANDO-TEUTONIC'S SEVEN DISTINCTIVE FEATURES

Germanic became different from the other Indo-European language groups in seven main ways:
1.
The Indo-European verbal system was simplified. Indo-European distinctions of tense and aspect (indicates whether an action or state is viewed with regard to beginning, duration, in-completion, etc.) were lost except for the

20 September 2011

TRUTH OR FANCIFUL, UNSCIENTIFIC SENSATIONALISM? (A CRITICAL REVIEW COMING)

PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG
I will give you my detailed scientific analysis on just the linguistic comparisons he makes in a few days. K.Doig

HOMER IN THE BALTIC - SUMMARY
BY FELICE VINCI

http://sites.google.com/site/dhklinger/summaryofvinci'stext 

felicevinci@tiscalinet.it


The real scene of the Iliad and the Odyssey can be identified not in the Mediterranean Sea, where it proves to be weakened by many incongruities, but in the north of Europe. The sagas that gave rise to the two poems came from the Baltic regions, where the Bronze Age flourished in the 2nd millennium B. C. and many Homeric places, such as Troy and Ithaca, can still be identified. The blond seafarers who founded the Mycenaean civilization in the 16th century B. C. brought these tales from Scandinavia to Greece after the decline of the "climatic optimum". Then they rebuilt their original world, where the Trojan War and many other mythological events had taken place, in the Mediterranean; through many generations the memory of the heroic age and the feats performed by their ancestors in their lost homeland was preserved, and handed down to the following ages. This key allows us to easily open many doors that have been shut tight until now, as well as to consider the age-old question of the Indo-European diaspora and the origin of the Greek civilization from a new perspective.

07 September 2011

MUST-KNOW LINGUISTIC LAWS & IDEAS: GRIMM'S LAW, PIE RECONSTRUCTION, THE COMPARATIVE METHOD, LANGUAGE-CLASSIFICATION



PUBLISHED, FORMATTED, IMAGES ADDED & CAPTIONS BY KENNETH S. DOIG


Grimm’s law, description of the regular correspondences in Indo-European languages formulated by Jacob Grimm in his Deutsche Grammatik (1819–37; “Germanic Grammar”); it pointed out prominent correlations between the Germanic and other Indo-European languages of Europe and western Asia. The law was a systematic and coherent formulation, well supported by examples, of patterns recognized as early as 1814 by the Danish philologist Rasmus Kristian Rask. It is important for historical linguistics because it clearly demonstrates the principle that sound change is a regular phenomenon and not a random process affecting only some words, as had been thought previously.


Grimm described two consonant shifts involving essentially nine consonants. One shift (probably a few centuries before the Christian era) affected the Indo-European consonants and is evident in English, Dutch, other Low German languages, and Old Norse. The other shift (about the 6th century ad) was less radical in scope and affected the Germanic consonants, resulting in the consonant system evident in Old High German and its descendants, Middle High German and Modern High German (standard German). According to the law, the ancient unvoiced p, t, k became the English unvoiced f, th, h and the Old High German f, d, h, producing such correlations as that between the initial consonants of

06 September 2011

MAJOR CHANGES FROM PIE (PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN) TO PGMC (PROTO-GERMANIC) : GRIMM'S LAW & VERNER'S LAW

by John Lawler
Program in Linguistics * University of Michigan
with Kevin McGowan
Copyright © 1993-1997 The Eclectic Company
For non-commercial use only 

PUBLISHED, EDITED, FORMATTED, IMAGES ADDED & CAPTIONS BY KENNETH S. DOIG
WESTERN INDO-EUROPEAN
 SUB-GROUPS, c. 1000 BC

  1. Major Changes from I-E to Germanic 

    1. Large number of words without known IE cognates. Some NE forms include broad, drink, drive, fowl, hold, meat, rain, and wife.

14 April 2011

germanic linguistics-laws, Grimm's, Verner's, etc. Important to know for gmc linguistics




 
 
 
 
Sound Change
 
breakthrough in comparative linguistics initiated by Danish scholar Rasmus Rask and German linguist Jacob Grimm 
-         research on relationship between Germanic languages and the rest of Indo-European
-         in 1786 William Jones already said:
…the Gothic (Germanic) … though blended with a very different idiom, had the same origin with the Sanskrit.                                                                                             
-         Grimm and Rask investigated this relationship of correspondences between Germanic
and the classical I-E (Indo-European) languages
àtheir goal: to show Germanic is a part of the I-E language family
àinterest especially on differences in pronunciation of Germanic
 result was published in 1818 and 1819
àwork proved Germanic languages are part of I-E
àprovided set of systematic sound changes which differentiated Germanic languages
    from classical languages
àsimilar set of sound changes differentiating German from the rest of Germanic
àset of systematic changes is called Grimm`s Law (in German: First Germanic
    Sound Shift) 

The Comparative Method and IE Languages


  The (Proto)Indo-European Language

(websource
Bucknell University's Linguistics Dept.)

    ancient IE art from India
  1. The original *IE language was spoken around 5,000 BC by a people who either lived between the Vistula River in Poland and the Caucasus Mountains in the Southwestern USSR (traditional) or in Anatolia in modern day Turkey (Renfrew, see "The Origins of the Indo-European Languages" in this book.)
  2. As the tribe grew larger and spread throughout the region, dialects arose which, over time, became more and more mutually incomprehensible. When different dialects become mutually incomprehensible, they are different languages. Then dialects developed in the new languages as the tribes prospered and expanded until a tree of related languages and dialects developed and all the languages spoken throughout the IE area.

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