Showing posts with label West Saxon. Show all posts
Showing posts with label West Saxon. Show all posts

25 February 2014

OE (westsaxon) adjectival declension 'midd'

Published & edited by Kenneth S. Doig



(from Wikipedia)

Old-English etymology : the adjective 'glad' & its inflected forms

Published & edited by Kenneth S. Doig


(from Wikipedia)
Proto-Germanic *gladaz (“smooth”), from Proto-Indo-European "PIE"*gʰladh-, from Proto-Indo-European *g̑ʰel- (“to shine”). Cognate with Old-Saxon glad (“glad, happy”), OHG glat(“smooth”) (German glatt (“smooth”)), Old-Norse glaðr (“smooth; happy”) (Swedish glad).
IPA(key): /ˈɡlæd/

26 October 2012

New / Tíðunga (not very current) written in Old English, (West Saxon, c. 900AD)

Published by Kenneth S. Doig
(from OEME)

Iracisc gield lǽs þonne gád - 10.24.03

On Madride, Hispanian, ne hafaþ gieldgieferas þá $56 billiona gegiefenu. Þéoda, swá Iápan and Saudia-Arabia, geseald hafaþ $13 billiona on handa þǽm Iraciscum þéodum, éac þǽm $20 billionum fram þǽm USA.

Ac þæt gedǽl is lǽs þænne þe þæt nýde gedǽl $56 billionena þæt land tó edbúenne, and mýcel cóm in háda léana, þá þe Irace níwum scyldum sadelian cúðon.

"Ðá Forænigdan Underríciu wyrcaþ mid oðrum þéodum sum gedæl tó ábýgenne," Snow sægde ðæm þídungasprǽce, mid þý þe Powell andettede, þæt þá forðunga swá géandýnelíce gebǽded wurdon, þæt hit ǽbǽre ne is, hú mongu léan and hú monga giefa gegíegenu wǽron

Irac hæfeþ nú $120 billona scyldum, mid gærlicum þearfabyrðennum $7 billiona tó $8 billionum.




12 January 2012



Wes hāl (singular). (WESS haal) Wesaþ hāle (male)/hāla (female)/hāl (mixed plural) (WES-ath haa-leh/haa-lah/haal)
How are you?
Hū gǣþ? (HOO GAYTH?) used as a real question, not a form of greeting."
Fine, thank you.
Wel, þancie. (WELL, THAN-kih-eh)

06 July 2011



Surely the oddest grammatical feature belonging to the Germanic languages is that they can inflect almost any adjective in either of two very different ways. If the adjective follows a demonstrative pronoun, possessive adjective, or genitive noun or noun phrase, one of the so-called "weak" endings is added to it; otherwise it is given a "strong" ending.

In Old English it is difficult to discern a distinction in meaning between the strong and weak adjectives, though there must originally have been one. But the distinction is widespread (all the early Germanic languages have it) and surprisingly durable: strong and weak adjectives were still distinguished in Chaucer's English, and they are distinguished even now in German.

At this point you may be grumbling that we have arbitrarily doubled the amount of memorization required to learn the adjectives. If so, calm down: adjectives are really quite easy. The weak adjectives are almost exactly the same as the weak nouns. Most of the strong adjective endings resemble those of either the strong nouns or the demonstrative pronouns. In this chapter you will see almost no endings that you have not seen before.



Old English verbs can be daunting, for a typical verb appears in more forms than a typical pronoun, noun or adjective. While no noun has more than six distinct forms, most verbs have fourteen. (Modern English verbs, by contrast, normally have four or five forms.) Further, while some nouns, like mann'man', have two different vowels in the root syllable, some verbs have as many as five. (The Modern English maximum, leaving aside the verb to be, is three.)


Published by Kenneth S. Doig

Before you read any farther, download the "Magic Sheet" (a one-page summary of Old English inflections) and print it out on the best color printer you can find. Keep this sheet by your side as you read Old English.

The pronouns you will meet with most often are the personal pronouns (with the closely related possessive adjectives) and the demonstratives.

5.1.1. Personal pronouns

You will find the personal pronouns easy to learn because of their resemblance in both form and usage to those of Modern English.
Table 5.1. First-person pronouns
singular plural
nominative 'I' 'we'
accusative mē, mec 'me' ūs 'us'
genitive mīn 'my' ūre 'our'
dative 'me' ūs 'us'
The first-person pronouns (table 5.1) are quite similar to those of Modern English, especially in


Published by Kenneth S. Doig

No one knows exactly how Old English sounded, for no native speakers survive to inform us. Rather, linguists have painstakingly reconstructed the pronunciation of the language from various kinds of evidence: what we know of Latin pronunciation (since the Anglo-Saxons adapted the Latin alphabet to write their own language), comparisons with other Germanic languages and with later stages of English, and the accentuation and quantity of syllables in Old English poetry.

16 May 2011


Published and formatted by K.S. Doig


í [] m (-es/-as) the letter i
ía see géa
ía [] adv yea
íacessúre see géacessúre
íacinctus [] m (-es/-as) jacinth [L hyacinthus] (1)
íacintus [] m (-es/-as) jacinth [L hyacinthus] (2)
íagul see géagl
Ianuarius [] m (-es/-as) January
iara see gearu
iarwan see gierwan
íb- see íf-
ic [] pron I; gen mín; dat mé; acc méc; [Ger ich]
ícan see íecan
ícean see íecan
íce see ýce
ícend [] m (-es/-) a promoter, producer, father, progenitor, one who increases or augments [auctor] [íecan]

24 March 2011

Some new OE vocabulary


Written, published, edited & images added by Kenneth S. Doig

AbbreviationsSV- strong verb
WV- weak verb
IRV- irregular verb
PPV- preterite-present verb
MAux- modal auxiliary-verb
PTpresent-tense, also acts as a future-tense
Pret- preterite or past-tense
IV- intransitive-verbs
TV- transitive-verbs
INF infinitive
SbjMsubjunctive-mood (uncertainty, wishing, contrary to fact, e.g. "if he were smart")
IndMindicative-mood (factual statement, e.g. "he is smart")

cuman "to come"
1) Inf  cuman  (to come) SV
Sg singular
1. ic cumu (I come-- I use the conjugational endings from archaic OE)
2. þu cumes (thou comes/you come, used when addressing only ONE person
3. he/heo/hit cymeþ (he/she/it cometh/comes)

Pl Plural
same for all persons, one of Ingvaeonic's features
we/wit/ge/git/hie cumaþ(we/we two, ye/ye two, they come)

same for all persons, the only distinction is singular and plural
sing. "cume"  (if he come, let it come, he would come)
plur. "cumen" (if they come, let them come, they would come


1. ic com or cwom
2. Þú cóme or cwóme
3.Hé com or cwom

we/wit/ge/git/they cómon, cwamun, cuamon, cuomun, quomvn or cwómon

Past-participle (which could be inflected, for case, number and gender. cuman
or cumen

Since "cuman" is an intransitive verb "IV" (specifically a verb that cannot take a direct-object "DO" & more specifically, motion-verbs, e.g., to go, to come, to fly, to rise [cf., "Christ is risen"] to swim, etc.) & change-of-state verbs,[to become, to die, to vanish, to appear, to seem, etc.]. 

It forms its perfect-tenses with the verbs "wesan" or "béon" just as in modern-German, Dutch, French, Italian, etc. So, just being an IV is not enough to require the copula's [to be- 'beon-, 'wesan'] usage, a verb must, also, be a motion-verb or a verb showing change-of-state/condition, 'dying', 'becoming', etc.

"I have come"(for a masc or neut noun) is "ic eom gecumen" or "ic beom gecumen",for a female "ic eom gecumenu". (note, the ending -u is found less and less in later periods of west-saxon.


Masc. Wé sind/aron/béoþ gecumene
Fem.   Gé sind/aron/beoþ gecumena
Neut.  Híe sind/ aron/béoþ gecumenu (note,  mixed group of 'masc, neut &/or fem nouns, uses adjectival and participial endings, e.g.  "Se mann and seo cwéne sind gecumen/u."
"hit wæs gecumen"  "it had come"

Inflected infinitive
tó cumenne Present-participle  cumende
Now, I am going to name only the principle-parts of the verb, INF, 1P.Sg.PT.IndM and PRET, 2P.& 3P, Pl.PT and past and passive-participle or PPart

INF séon "to see"
"Ic séo/ic seah" (I see/I saw), "þú siehes/þú sáwe" (thou seest/thou sawest), "git séoþ" ('ye-two' see)
"Wit sáwon" ('we-two' saw)
PPart gesewen "seen"  "seo cwene hæfeþ þone mann gesewenne" "The woman has see the man", not the inflected past-participle, it has the -ne of the acc sing masc.

13 February 2011

Five new words a day in old-english (just old-english today)

West-Saxon (old-english)

1) heorra gen. pronoun, 'their' it is indeclinable just like icelandic/old-norse 'þeirra' whence english got the very word "their", also "they" and "them". Also like swedish "deras" and bokmål-norwegian and danish, "deres"

2) mægen, (noun, SN) "main" "power" "strength"

3) gehæftan "hold captive" the first syllable in the latinate word "captive", "capt"
is cognate to old-english (west-saxon) hæft (captive), forget not Grimm's Law
PIE (proto-indoeuropean) 'k' becomes 'h' in gmc (germanic) and 'p' becomes 'f'

4) dōn (irregular verb weak) "to do" The inflected infinitive is "tō dōenne" cf.
high-german "tun" and netherlandish doen. This word is not found in north-germanic which uses 'gjöra', 'gera', 'gøre', 'göra' 'gjøre' which is cognate to old-english's 'gēarwan' meaning "to make ready" or 'to prepare'

5) gē 2nd person-plural pronoun nom 'ye' and was pronounced just like 'ye'
acc. 'ēowic' or 'ēow'(also variant forms are found in old-english like iow, iowic), etc.) and dative 'ēow' ('you') and the genitive was 'ēower' (cf.) high-german 'euer'


6) wē 1st (person-plural personal pronoun, nom.) 'we' (cf) sanskrit
'vayam', high-german 'wir' swedish, norwegian and danish 'vi'
acc. 'ūsic' or 'ūs', dative 'ūs'

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