Showing posts with label Sweden. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Sweden. Show all posts

11 March 2015

Ancient-Germanic languages documented - a preliminary-sketch

This image depicts an early map of Scandinavia,
the origination place for many invaders of
Rome's former-province of Britannia
(Olaus Magnus (1490-1557)
Published, edited, formatted, images added & annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig



One of the very few Anglo-Saxon warhelmets
ever found in the British-Isles
Ancient-Germanic languages documented - a preliminary-sketch


by Bertil Haggman

Group I
Gothic (Goths, Ostrogoths, Visigoths)


Through MS such as the Codex Argenteus (Uppsala-University Library) Gothic is reasonably well documented. Also Crimean Gothic is represented with a list of words by diplomat Busbecq in the sixteenth century.

map, showing several major Germanic/Teutonic
kingdoms in the late middle-ages

23 February 2015

Hålogaland

Published, edited, images added & comments/annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig)
Hålogaland
(From Wikipedia)


Coordinates: 67°N 14°E
Hålogaland around 1000 CE


Hålogaland was the northernmost of the Norwegian provinces in the mediaeval-Norse sagas. In the early Viking-Age, before Harald Fairhair, Hålogaland was a petty kingdom extending between the Namdalen valley in Nord-Trøndelag county and the Lyngen fjord in Troms county.

Etymology
Ancient Norwegians said that Hálogaland was named after a royal named Hölgi. The Norse form of the name was Hálogaland. The first element of the word is the genitive plural of háleygr, a 'person from Hålogaland'. 

The last element is land, as in 'land' or 'region'. The meaning of the demonym háleygr is unknown. Thorstein Vikingson's Saga, 1, describes it as a compound of Hial, "Hel" or "spirit," and "loge", "fire".

The Gothic historian Jordanes in his work De origine actibusque Getarum - a.k.a. Getica -, written in Constantinople in c. 551 AD, mentions a people "Adogit" living in the far North. 

This could be an old form of háleygir and a possible reference to the petty kingdom of Hålogaland, which based on some medieval accounts may have been inhabited by the Kven people during the first millennium, but also perhaps a long before. Jordanes' Vinoviloth is viewed by many historians as a reference to the Kvens of Northern Scandinavia and Fennoscandia:

And there are beyond these the Ostrogothae (Eastern Geats)(The géatas,{in OE, as in virtually all older and modern Gmc languages, languages, nationalities, weekday-names, holidays, months, are NOT capitalized, unless, at beginning of a sentence} Sw. götar [the Old-English, "OE",{West-Saxon}, diphthong /éa/corresponds to Swe., Nor.{bokmål}, Dan., /ö/, i.e., /ø/, western Old-Norse {Old-Icelandic, Old-Norw} /au/  are probably not the same tribe whom we today call Goths, Swedes goter. By comparing regular phonology [vocalism] between ancient & modern Gmc languages, géatas = Sw. goter) Raumarici (Romerike), Aeragnaricii (Ranrike), and the most gentle Finni (referring to either Sami or Finns), milder than all the inhabitants of Scandza (Scandinavia). Like them are the Vinoviloth (Kvens) also.

According to Emeritus Professor Kyösti Julku, in the modern-day Northern Norwegian county of Troms alone there are at least 12 prehistoric Kven place names. During Viking-Age, Troms formed the northernmost part of Hålogaland.



Alex Woolf links the name Hålogaland to the Aurora Borealis - the "Northern Lights" -, saying that Hålogaland meant the "Land of the High Fire", "loga" deriving from 'logi', which refers to fire.


In the medieval accounts of Ynglingatal and Skáldskaparmál, "Logi" is described as the personification of fire, a fire giant, and as a "son of Fornjót". In the medieval Orkneyinga saga and the account of Hversu Noregr byggðist ('How Norway was inhabited'), Fornjót is described as the King of Finland, Kvenland and Gotland. The royal lineages sprung from his children are discussed in these and other medieval accounts.


The beginning of the Þorsteins saga Víkingssonar ('Saga of Thorstein son of Víking') discusses King Logi who ruled the country north of Norway. Because Logi was larger and stronger than any other man in land, his name was lengthened from Logi to Hálogi, meaning 'High-Logi'. 
Derived from that name his country became called Hálogaland, meaning "Hálogi's land". Eventually the spelling of the name shaped to the modern-day Hålogaland.



The Hversu Noregr byggðist is an account of the origin of various legendary Norwegian lineages. It traces the descendants of the primeval Finnish ruler Fornjót (Fornjotr) down to Nór, who is here the eponym and first great king of Norway, who unites the Norwegian lands (petty kingdoms). 

The Hversu account then gives details of the descendants of Nór and of his brother Gór in the following section known as the Ættartölur ('Genealogies', a.k.a. Fundinn Noregr, 'Founding of Norway'). The Hversu account is closely paralleled by the opening of the Orkneyinga saga.


In 873 AD, according to the Egil's saga (written in c. 1240 AD) the Kvens and Norse cooperate in battling against the invading Karelians. The chapter XVII of Egil's saga describes how Thorolf Kveldulfsson (King of Norway's tax chief starting 872 AD) from Namdalen, located in the southernmost tip of the historic Hålogaland, goes to Kvenland again:


"That same winter Thorolf went up on the fell with a hundred men; he passed on at once eastwards to Kvenland and met King Faravid."
Based on medieval documents, the above meeting took place during the winter of 873-874 AD. Hålogaland's rather close vicinity to Kvenland is also demonstrated in c. 1157 AD in the geographical chronicle Leiðarvísir og borgarskipan by the Icelandic Abbot Níkulás Bergsson (Nikolaos), who provides descriptions of lands around Norway:


Closest to Denmark is little Svíþjóð (Sweden), there is Eyland (Öland); then is Gotland (Gotland); then Helsingaland (Hälsingland); then Vermaland (Värmland); then two Kvenlönd (Kvenlands), and they extend to north of Bjarmalandi (Bjarmia).


Modern usage
In modern times, the term Hålogaland is used in a variety of senses. For some purposes, all of Nord-Norge plus Svalbard and Jan Mayen are covered under the term Hålogaland. For other purposes the counties of Nordland and Troms constitute Hålogaland. Hålogaland or even Mid Hålogaland are frequent terms covering the smaller districts of Ofoten, Lofoten and Vesterålen, as well as the municipalities Bjarkøy, Gratangen, Harstad, Ibestad, Kvæfjord and Skånland of Troms county. The term has also been used in this last sense, minus the Lofoten archipelago.

10 February 2014

Aeragnaricii : Ragnaricii, Raumaricii, Romerike, Ranrike, Ragnaricii- huar Suíþióð oc Noregr mæta


Tanumshede- Nordic bronze-age rock-art in (northern) Bohuslän,  3 men performing ritual, c. 2nd millennium BC
Published, edited, images added and annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
(from Wikipedia)


Ranrike (oldnorse "ON" ["Old Norse" usually refers to western ON, i.e., oldnorwegian or oldicelandic, most writers, often, completely ignoring eastern ON, namely oldswedish "OSw", olddanish "ODa", oldscanian {scanian = skånska, gutnish, etc.) "ON" Ránríki) was the old name for a part of Viken, corresponding to southeast Norway (Oslofjord area) and the northern half of the modern Swedish (Norwegian until 1658) province of Bohuslän (part of the city of Gothenburg, Sw

16 October 2013

Wendþéod/Wandals/Vandals

Published, edited, formatted, annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
File:Invasions of the Roman Empire 1.png
Simplified map of the various incursions into the Roman Empire, showing the Vandals' migrations (in blue) from Germany through Dacia, Gaul, Iberia, and into North Africa, and their raids throughout the Mediterranean, including the eventual sack of Rome in 455
(websource: Wikipedia)
The Vandals (remember that the letter V in Latin was always pronounced as an English W. Usually, in classical Latin, the letter U, e.g., vir or uir [man/virile] was used instead of V. Same for the written V in Old-Norse.

08 October 2013

"ORIGIN OF THE ANGLO-SAXON RACE" by Thomas W. Shore


Published, edited, comments (in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig
ORIGIN OF THE ANGLO-SAXON RACE 
(websource: us.archive.org)
BY THE LATE THOMAS WILLIAM SHORE 

AUTHOR OF 'A HISTORY OF HAMPSHIRE,' ETC, 
HONORARY SECRETARY LONDON AND MIDDLESEX ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY; HONORARY ORGANISING SECRETARY OF THE HAMPSHIRE FIELD CLUB AND 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

EDITED BY HIS SONS: T.W.SHORE AND L.E.SHORE 
LONDON, ELLIOT STOCK, 62, PATERNOSTER ROW, E.G. 1906
CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTION
If we had no contemporary information of the settlement, for instance, of 

08 July 2013

'Béowulf'; the poem (part I thru VII)

(Mapsource: www.csicop.org)

Late-Proto-Germania, c. 400 AD. South-Scandinavia,
extreme northern (modern-day) Germany & the
northwestern Netherlands. Actually, far-southern
(today's) Sweden (Scania or Skåne) should be purple,
as it was here Danish tribes originated. Until the late
Middle-Ages, this area was also known as Östdanmark
or East-Denmark. K. Doig
(mapsource: Wikipedia)
Published, edited, formatted, images added by & comments/annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2003.01.0001%3Acard%3D499
I þurh VII (I thru VII) 

Hwæt, wē Gār-Dena      in gēardagum,
þēodcyninga      þrym gefrūnon,
hū ðā æþelingas      ellen fremedon !
     Oft Scyld Scēfing      sceaþena þrēatum,
5monegum mǣgþum      meodosetla oftēah,
egsode eorl[as],      syððan ǣrest wearð
fēasceaft funden;      hē þæs frōfre gebād,
wēox under wolcnum      weorðmyndum þāh,
oð þæt him ǣghwylc      ymbsittendra
10ofer hronrāde      hȳran scolde,
gomban gyldan;      þæt wæs gōd cyning!
Ðǣm eafera wæs      æfter cenned

13 April 2013

Early Germanic (Scando-Teutonic) peoples


c. 1 AD
  
PUBLISHED, EDITED, IMAGES ADDED & COMMENTARY (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG
(Encyclopædia Britannica)

Germanic peoples, also called Teutonic Peoples, any of the Indo-European speakers of Germanic languages.


The origins of the Germanic peoples are obscure. During the late Bronze-Age, they are believed to have inhabited southern Sweden, the Danish peninsula, and northern Germany between the Ems River on the west, the Oder River on the east, and the Harz Mountains on the south. 


PROTO-GERMANIA C. 100 BC
The Vandals, Gepidae, and Goths migrated from southern Sweden in the closing centuries BC and occupied the area of the southern Baltic coast roughly between the Oder on the west and the Vistula River on the east. 

At an early date there was also migration toward the south and west at the expense of the Celtic peoples who then inhabited much of western Germany. 

The Celtic Helvetii, for example, who were confined by the Germanic peoples to the area that is now Switzerland in the 1st century BC  had once extended as far east as the Main River.

By the time of Julius Caesar, Germans were established west of the Rhine River and toward the south had reached the Danube River.

26 February 2013

More Fun with Swedish Girls? Functions of a German Heterostereotype



Published, edited, images added and commentary (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig

 
Personally, having been to Scandinavia  times and gaving lived in Gothenburg and Oslo, the women there are almost all beautiful. Tiger Wood's wife is a "plain Jane." I noticed that in nightclubs and bars, Danish girls were by far the most aggressive and sexual, closely followed by Norwegians. I have never picked up a girl in Sweden, Swedes are obsessed with the reputations and tend to be very respectable, but when they go abroad....wow! In thruth, they are no more promiscuous than American girls. K.S.Doig




More fun with Swedish girls: 
Functions of a German heterostereotype. SM SCHRÖDER, M DALE Ethnologia Scandinavica 27, 122-137, Royal Gustav Adolf Academy, 1997. 
http://racehist.blogspot.com/2010/02/stereotype-of-swedish-women-as.html#more
More Fun with Swedish Girls? Functions of a German Heterostereotype
By Stephan Michael Schröder
“More fun with Swedish girls”, tempts a small

06 September 2012

SÚÐERDÆL SCAÐENÉAGAHEALFÉGLANDES, TÓDÆAG,
HÁTTE HIT 'SWEDEN' ÆR, SCONÉAG (SCANIA)
WÆRON DENE. BITWUXT DENUM & SWÉOM, WUNDODON
GÉATAS (GÖTAR/GAUTIR)
PUBLISHED, EDITED, FORMATTED WITH ANNOTATIONS (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG


RURAL LANDSCAPE IN SKÅNE (SCANIA). SWEDEN'S
SOUTHERNMOST REGION. IT IS ACTUALLY THE URHEIMAT
OF THE DANES & WAS CALLED "ÖSTDANMARK"
(EAST-DENMARK) UNTIL WELL INTO THE MIDDLE-AGES

(from "The Ancient Web.com")
Some historians believe that the ancestral homeland of the Teutons (or Proto-Germanics. As far as we know, they had no endonym. I rather like two terms, Gothonic and Suebo-Gothonic. The terms "German" & "Germanic" are exonyms of disputed etymology. It is likely that the Romans popularized the term "German". It seems to have come into common usage during the Gallic Wars, c. 40BC. Gaius Iulius Caesar [c. July 100BC to 15 March 44BC], better-known as "Julius Caesar". 

17 August 2012

VAGINA GENTIUM, PRON./WAH-
GHEENAH GHENT-EE-OOM/

("NATIONS' WOMB")
 GERMANIA SUPERIOR c.300 BC.
FRUMHÁIMLANDAN GERMANISKAZ
Õ
ÞÉUD
Õ. IN JÉRÉ c. 300 JÉRU
FAÚRI KRÍSTÉ 

"A COMPARATIVE GERMANIC
 GRAMMAR" (Google Affiliate Ad)
PUBLISHED, EDITED, FORMATTED, IMAGES ADDED & ANNOTATIONS/COMMENTARY (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG
KWÉNU NORÞWEGES


(websource eHow)
Germanic tribes are readily identifiable based on their common linguistic and ethnic origins. Germanic tribes first formed in Northern Europe, and subsequently migrated throughout Europe, spreading their language and culture while assimilating themselves within varying other tribes to become a dominant society. 'Beowulf and Old Germanic Metre' (Google Affiliate Ad)

In mixing with local populations, Germanic tribes helped to comprise early history for varying regions by laying down the foundations for future nation-states and countries that formed as a result of Germanic-tribe migration throughout Europe. 

03 August 2012

Ancient & medieval Germanic tribe-series, starting with the Aeragnaricii a.k.a.; "Ranrike", "Ránríki", "Raumaricii", "Rømerike", of SE Norway & SW Sweden (Bohuslän)


Medieval map of the Scandinavian
peninsula & environs. by
Olaus Magnus
 Published, edited, images added, annotations & commentary (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
Høvdinghuset, Borg,
Nord-Hålgoland, Norway

(websource)This List of Germanic Tribes includes names of populations speaking Germanic languages or otherwise considered Germanic in sources from the late 1st millennium BC to the early 2nd millennium AD. They do not necessarily represent contemporaneous, distinct or Germanic-speaking populations or have common ancestral populations.

Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes. Some may not have spoken Germanic at all, but were bundled by the sources with the Germanic speakers. Some were undoubtedly of mixed culture. They may have assimilated to Germanic or to other cultures from Germanic.
                                              (Area within circle is putative

orignal Urheimat of the
Aerangaricii) 

Aeragnaricii, Ranrike (Old Norse 'ON' [Old-WestNorse, more precisely] Ránríki) was the old name

31 October 2011

Fine-scale genetic substructure in Finland & Sweden

TYPICAL-LOOKING (ETHNIC/REAL) SWEDISH GIRLS FROM
 SWEDEN. MANY FINNISH GIRLS HAVE SAME LOOK. (I'VE
BEEN TO SWEDEN 8 TIMES HAVE LIVED THERE ALTOGETHER
ABOUT 3 YEARS, THIS IS WHAT THE VAST MAJORITY LOOK LIKE)
K.DOIG

PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

Compared to the recent Europe-wide genetic structure paper, this paper contains more (and better-characterized with respect to geography) samples from Finland and Sweden, but typed at fewer loci. The authors detect an east-west duality in Finland. They fail to detect substructure within Sweden, though poorer-quality data or the presence of non-European immigrants in their Swedish sample may be confusing the issue. Nonetheless:

The principal component analysis clearly separated the Finnish regions and Eastern and Western counties from the Swedish as well as the Finnish regions and counties from each other (Figure 2C and 2D). Geneland showed three clusters (Figure 3B), roughly corresponding to Sweden, Eastern Finland and Western Finland. Thus, Geneland was able to correctly identify the country of origin of the individuals despite the lower quality of the Swedish data. Interestingly, the county-level PCA (Figure 2D) and Geneland (Figure 3B) placed the Finnish subpopulation of Swedish-speaking Ostrobothnia closest to Sweden. This minority population originates from the 13th century, when Swedish settlers inhabited areas of coastal Finland [34]. Our result is in congruence with earlier studies where intermediate allele frequencies between Finns and Swedes have been observed in the Swedish speaking Finns

05 October 2011

ETYMOLOGIES OF THE NAMES OF VARIOUS EUROPEAN COUNTRIES


COMPILED, FORMATTED, EDITED, EXPANDED & ANNOTATED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

Austria 

 "Eastern March", Latinized as early as 1147 from German Österreich, from Old High German Ostarrîchi (996) or Osterrîche (998), from Medieval Latin Marchia Orientalis, an eastern prefecture for the Duchy of Bavaria established in 976. A common pseudoetymology renders Österreich as "Eastern Empire", but this is a false cognate. Similarly, it is completely unrelated etymologically to Australia. In Swed, Österrike, Icelandic, Austurríki, Dan, Østerrig, Norw, Østerrike.

  Belgium

22 September 2011

PART ONE : MY REFUTATION OF THE ARTICLE IN A RECENT POSTING ON MY BLOG : Origin and Persistence of Germanic versus "Celtic" Languages in Central and Northern Europe Context: Myth of Scandinavian Origin of Germanic Languages and Culture

The epicenter of the Germanic proto-home.
Circa 900 BC

Published, formatted & where otherwise stated, written by Kenneth S. Doig
Nordic Scyths, an early Iranic-speaking
Indo-European group that held sway
over the Steppes, from China in the East,
& the Ukraine in the West

'Salvo Numero Uno'


Germanic homeland Pre-Germanic cultures were the bearers of the Nordic Bronze Age. Proto-Germanic proper is hypothesized by some to have developed in the Jastorf culture of the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
areas in red are PGmc c. 700 BC

29 August 2011

VAGINA GENTIUM : SWEDEN


SCANDINAVIA C 300 AD


PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG


SCANDO-GERMANIC NORDIC,
THE BASE-RACE OF THE GMC
PEOPLES, NOW, ONLY
VERY COMMON IN SWEDEN
& E. NORWAY, COMMON IN
ALL SCANDINAVIA, CENTRAL
E. ENGLAND, SE SCOTLAND,
HOLLAND, A FEW IN POLAND,
GERMANY, RUSSIA, SWITZER-
LAND, ETC. K.DOIG


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