Showing posts with label Snorri Sturluson. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Snorri Sturluson. Show all posts

26 July 2014

Kennings - types of circumlocution, in the form of compounds that employ figurative-language

Published, edited, formatted, images added & 
annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
(from: Wikipedia)A kenning (Modern-Icelandic pronunciation: [cʰɛnːiŋk]; derived from Old-Norse [ON]) is a type of circumlocution, in the form of a compound that employs figurative-language in place of a more concrete single-word noun. Kennings are strongly associated with ON and later Icelandic and Anglo-Saxon (AS) poetry.
They usually consist of two words, and are often hyphenated. For example, ON poets might replace sverð, the regular word for “sword”, with a more abstract compound such as “wound-hoe” (Egill Skallagrímsson: Höfuðlausn 8), or a genitive-phrase such as randa íss “ice of shields” (Einarr Skúlason: ‘Øxarflokkr’ 9). The term kenning has been applied by modern scholars to similar figures of speech in other languages too, especially Old-English (OE).

The word was adopted into English in the nineteenth century from medieval Icelandic treatises on poetics, in particular Snorra Stúrlasónar Prose-Edda, and derives ultimately from the ON verb

18 May 2011


Published, formatted and edited by Kenneth S. Doig  11 May 2011


Wōđanaz or Wōđinaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of a god of Germanic paganism, known as Óðinn in Norse mythology, Wōden in Old English, Wodan or Wotan in Old High German and Godan in Lombardic. The name may be written with an asterisk in front, to indicate that the form is not directly attested; see also historical linguistics, comparative method.

13 May 2011


Snorri Surluson's native Iceland, the geography was also
mountainous like that of the ancestral home of most people
in Iceland, western Norway. Norþmænn cuómu austan, frá
lande es Noregr heitir. Súmer þeirra cuómu frá Bretlande meþ
scozkum ok ílendskum wífum sínum ok þrællum sínum. 
Fýrste norþmaþr es Ísland fann, hann, Ingolfr Arnarson 
was frá fiarþalöndum Westr-Noregs. Eptr honum cuómu
menn marger frá Swíþióþ, Danmerku, ok frá Bretlande.
by Kenneth S. Doig

Very often, many ancient and medieval historians not only used artistic license in their histories, but this was considered and entertaining and good writing. I do not dispute that the people who brought the pre-germanic, indo-european (IE) language/s originated in western Asia (the kurgan hypothesis), but the ancient IE tribes which left the IE urheimat left c. 2000 BC or earlier. They probably arrived in Scandinavia and environs (c. 1500 BC) in various waves over several centuries, probably speaking different dialects if IE. From archaeological, anthropological (skulls, skeleton & especially crania) and historical linguistics and other scientific disciplines point to this, that the IE urheimat was on or near the Pontic Steppes, in a large area north of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea. This is what I believe. But as for Snorri's works, like Heimskringla, where he, in the very beginning of the Ýnglingasaga, describes two lands which he calls Swithiod the Great and Swithiod (Svíþjóð is the old-norse (ON) & modern-icelandic (MI) word for Sweden, Switjod is used as an archaic or poetic variant in modern swedish, norwegian and danish.

25 April 2011

Poetic Edda


majestic, mysterious Iceland
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius. Along with Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda, the Poetic Edda is the most important extant source on Norse mythology and Germanic heroic legends, and from the early 19th century onwards has had a powerful influence on later Scandinavian literatures, not merely through the stories it contains but through the visionary force and dramatic quality of many of the poems. It has also become an inspiring model for many later innovations in poetic meter, particularly in the Nordic languages, offering many varied examples of terse, stress-based metrical schemes working without any final rhyme, and instead using allitterative devices and strongly concentrated imagery. Poets who have acknowledged their debt to the Poetic Edda include Vilhelm Ekelund, August Strindberg, Ezra Pound and Karin Boye.

23 April 2011



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In Norse mythology, Hœnir is one of the Æsir. In Ynglinga saga, along with Mímir, he went to the Vanir as a hostage to seal a truce after the Æsir-Vanir War. There, Hœnir was indecisive and relied on Mímir for all of his decisions, grunting noncommital answers when Mímir was absent.
In Völuspá, at the creation of the first human beings, Ask and Embla, Hœnir and Lóðurr help Odin. According to the Prose Edda, Hœnir is said to have given reason to man. 'In Gylfaginning, Vili and Vé are mentioned instead. As Snorri knew Völuspá, it is possible that Hœnir was another

01 February 2011



Fields of Scania (Skåne) in Southern Sweden, the Heart of the Germanic Homeland


I believe that most myths and legends have a core of truth. That is called euhemerism. The Germanic languages are quite different from other Indo-European languages. The Proto-Germanic language maybe arose as a hybrid of two Indo-European languages, one each of Centum and Satem types. This hypothesis may help to explain the difficulty of finding the right place for Germanic within the Indo-European family. According to another hypothesis the elements of the common Germanic vocabulary and syntactical forms which do not seem to have an Indo-European origin show Proto-Germanic to be a creole language. It has been suggested that these elements came from a prior population that remained among the Indo-Europeans and was sufficiently influential to transmit some elements of its own language.
In Norse mythology there are two tribes of gods, the Æsir and the Vanir. The land of the Vanir was in Scandinavia. The Æsir migrated to Scandinavia. They came in conflict with the Vanir. The Æsir-Vanir War was a war that occurred between the Æsir and the Vanir. The Æsir and Vanir are said to have made peace. They exchanged hostages, intermarried and reigned together. After the Æsir-Vanir War the gods are generally referred to collectively as Æsir. The mythical Æsir-Vanir War mirror a half-remembered conflict.
The Kivik Grave in Skåne is from the Nordic Bronze Age. In both construction and in size it differs from other burials in Scandinavia from the Nordic Bronze Age. The site has been used as a quarry over a long period of time. A comparison with other contemporaneous graves suggests that the site might have been three times higher than it is today. Several stones in the tomb are adorned with petroglyphs. One of these stones is missing and several stones are severely damaged. The petroglyphs in the Kivik Grave are made in a iconographic style.There are two groups of people depicted on the lower part of one of the stones. Each group consists of four individuals. I think the two groups are the Æsir and the Vanir. Next to each of the people is an Omega (Ω) symbol. This probably means the end of the two people. Right above each people is a group of individuals that I think are gods. I think the gods above each people are the gods worshiped by that people. There are three gods above the people to the left. There are five gods above the people to the right. I think a womb is depicted on the upper left corner of the stone. There are two individuals inside the womb. This is a symbol of the two people intermarrying and becoming one. On the upper right corner of the stone is a group with four individuals. This is the two people that now have become one, the Proto-Germanic people.
On the lower part of another stone one individual is giving praise to all the eight gods. The Proto-Germanic people now worship all the eight gods. The Proto-Germanic people expanded to the north and the south. The old stories about their origins became myths.
There are several sun crosses on the stones. The sun cross was a solar symbol. The sun cross was the symbol of the solar year, the four cardinal points and the four seasons.
On the upper part of another stone there are two horses facing right (the same direction). I think this is a symbol of the Summer Solstice. When a mare is sexually receptive towards a stallion is controlled by the length of the day. The cycle is triggered when the days begin to lengthen. I think that is why the builders chose two horses facing the same direction as a symbol of the Summer Solstice. On the lower part of the stone there are two horses facing each other. I think this is a symbol of the Winter solstice. On the upper part of the stone the two horses are facing right. The horses face right because the sun move clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. The people that built the Kivik Grave knew about the sunyear calender.
The Amber Road was an ancient trade route connecting northern Europe with the eastern Mediterranean. Several rock carvings in southern Scandinavia depict ships that have been identified as plausibly Mediterranean. Amber found in Mycenaean graves from this period originates from the Baltic Sea. The Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun had Baltic amber among his burial goods.
I think the people that migrated to Skåne came from northwestern Anatolia. They mixed with the natives and created a creole people, the Proto-Germanic people. The culture that arose in the Nordic Bronze Age probably constituted one supply end of the so-called Amber Road. The Troad was a region in northwestern Anatolia. Troy was an ancient city in the Troad region. Troy was known for its riches gained from port trade with east and west. The people of the Troad probably spoke an Anatolian language (maybe Luwian). The language was related to the Hittite language. The extinct Hittite language have a reduced inventory of noun cases just like the Germanic languages. The Germanic words for sun have the peculiarity of alternating between -l- and -n- stems. This continues a Proto-Indo-European alternation that is a remnant of an archaic declension pattern that remained productive only in the Anatolian languages.
In Greek mythology Eridanos was a river in northern Europe rich in amber. Hyperborea was a land in northern Europe. The Twelve Olympians were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon. Apollo was the only one among the Twelve Olympians that visited the Hyperboreans. Apollo has Anatolian origins. Apollo comes from the Anatolian god Apaliunas. In Greek mythology Apollo fought on the side of the Trojans during the Trojan War.
In Norse mythology Skaði was a jötunn and goddess associated with bowhunting. Skaði married Njörðr that was a Vanir. She then divorced Njörðr and married Ullr that was an Æsir. This is a metaphor. Skaði represented Scandinavia. Njörðr represented the Vanir that lived in Scandinavia. Ullr represented the Æsir that migrated to Scandinavia. A lot of what we know about Norse mythology we owe to Saxo Grammaticus and Snorri Sturluson. Saxo Grammaticus was a Danish historian born in the 12th century. Saxo Grammaticus wrote Gesta Danorum. Snorri Sturluson was an Icelandic historian/poet born in the 12th century. Snorri Sturlusson wrote the Prose Edda and Heimskringla. According to Snorri Sturluson the Æsir were the people of Troy. The Æsir migrated to the north, where they took wives and had many children, populating the entire north with Æsir. The language of the Æsir became the language of the north. In Norse mythology Thor was the god of sky and storm. Thor were to slay the serpent Jörmungandr at Ragnarök. The Hittite and Luwian name for the god of sky and storm was Tarhun. According to Hittite myth Tarhun slew the serpentine dragon Illuyanka.
Many petroglyphs all over Scandinavia have been dated as belonging to the Nordic Bronze Age by comparing depicted artifacts with archaeological finds, for example bronze axes are often portrayed in petroglyphs. The rather crude appearance of the petroglyphs compared to the bronze workings show they were produced by different cultures or different social groups. It was a long process. The newcomers remained a ruling elite. Slowly but surely the two people became one. A radical change in climate around 650 BC brought a much colder climate. The climate change triggered migrations southwards into continental Europe.
It has been said that there are two ships depicted on one of the stones in the Kivik Grave. I don't think that is true. I think a man is depicted on the stone. The man is depicted from the side laying on his back. The man is engulfed in flames. The body is made in a indistinct way because the body is consumed by the fire. The body is connected to the shelf. There was probably an object placed on the shelf. I think the image on the stone depict a man being cremated. The man depicted on the stone might be Ullr. There is a strophe in the Grímnismál that goes...

the good will of Ullr
and all the gods
whoever first touches the fire
for open will the worlds be
to the sons of the Æsir
when they lift each

This is my own translation. This obscure strophe might refer to the Kivik Grave. The strophe can be found in the Grímnismál. The Grímnismál is considered to be among the oldest poems in the Prose Edda. Ullr is almost unknown in the myths but his name is seen in a lot of geographical names. This indicate that his cult was widespread in prehistoric times. According to Saxo Grammaticus Odin was thrown out of Asgard by the other gods. When Odin was exiled, Ullr was chosen to take his place. Ullr ruled untill Odin was called back. Ullr was then slain by the Danes. This mirror a cultural and religious conflict.
Odin was a latecomer to the Norse pantheon. Odin has Celtic origins. Odin comes from the Celtic god Lugus. Both are intellectual gods, commanding magic and poetry. Both have ravens and a spear as their attributes. Both are one-eyed. Loki and Odin were one-and-the-same until the early Norse Period. The Proto-Germanic people expanded to the north and the south. As the Proto-Germanic people expanded to the south they mixed with the Proto-Celtic peoples. South of the Scandinavian peninsula lived Proto-Celtic peoples. The Beaker culture had stretched all the way to Jylland. The Proto-Celtic peoples are probably linked to the earlier Beaker culture.
There used to be many turf mazes and stone-lined mazes in Scandinavia. Some of the stone-lined mazes still exist. Many of these mazes had names which translated to English means Troy. These type of mazes are often found close to the sea. Place-names connected to Ullr are often found close to these type of mazes. Turf mazes still exist on the British Isles. The turf mazes on the British Isles often have names that means Troy. It was probably the Germanic peoples that migrated to the British Isles that brought with them the custom of making turf mazes. A similar type of maze is engraved on an Etruscan wine-jar from the late 7th century BC. The name Troy is inscribed in the outermost circuit of the maze. The other engravings on the Etruscan wine-jar and folktales about these type of mazes suggest they were connected with some sort of ceremonial event. The game of Troy (Lusus Troiae) was an event held in ancient Rome. Aeneas was a Trojan. Aeneas is said to have introduced the game of Troy into Italy. His son Ascanius (aka Iulus) is said to have participated in the event.
The Bjäre peninsula in northwestern Skåne is known for an unusually high density of Bronze Age graves. The Tofta mounds on the Bjäre peninsula are known locally as Gudahovet. Gudahovet means the court of the gods. In northwestern Skåne there are place-names like Vanstad, Vantinge, Gimle och Valhall. In Norse mythology Iðavöllr is the plain on which Asgard is located. Iðavöllr means the plain of Ida. Asgard is a place where the gods live. Valhalla is located within Asgard. Walh (singular) or Walha (plural) is an ancient Germanic word meaning foreigner. Many gods and humans die during Ragnarök. The survivors build Gimlé on Iðavöllr. Mount Ida is a mountain in northwestern Anatolia, southeast of the ruins of Troy. Troy is located on the Trojan plain. Mount Ida was sacred to the Trojans.
According to Snorri Sturluson the name of the Æsir derive from Asia. The word Asia originated from the Ancient Greek word Ἀσία. Originally it was the name for northwestern Anatolia. The area were known to the Hittites as Assuwa. The Assuwa league was a confederation of states in northwestern Anatolia. Troy was part of the Assuwa leauge. The Greek name derive from the Anatolian name of the region.
According to a local Scanian legend Torekov was named after Thora who drowned and was found on the shore of Torekov by a blind man. Thora was buried by the blind man who then regained his sight. Torekov is a villiage on the Bjäre peninsula. In Greek mythology Ilus was the son of Tros. Ilus founded the city Ilion. Ilus won a wrestling prize at games held by the king of Phrygia. He received fifty youths and maidens as his reward. The king also, on the advice of an oracle, gave him a cow and asked him to found a city where it should lie down. Ilus did so. Ilus prayed for a sign and saw the Palladium but was immediately blinded for the impiety of looking on the image. He regained his sight after making offerings.
Sons of Noah is an extensive list of descendants of Noah appearing within the Torah at Genesis 10, representing an ethnology from an Iron Age Levantine perspective. Japheth was one of the sons of Noah. Japheth's first son was Gomer. Gomer's first son was Ashkenaz. Ashkenazi Jews are descended from the medieval Jewish communities of Germany. Ashkenaz was the Medieval Hebrew name for Germany and German-speaking borderland areas. It was also the Hebrew name for the land of the Phrygians. The Jews knew there was a connection between the Germanic peoples and the Phrygians. During the Trojan War the region by Lake Ascania (aka Lake Ascanius) was held by the Phrygians, who sent troops to the aid of the Trojans. In Greek mythology several Trojans have the name Ascanius. Ashkenaz was maybe the Hebrew interpretation of "Ascania".
The Veneti are linked to the trade with amber. The Veneti lived in northern Poland along the rivers of Oder and Vistula. This was the beginning of the Amber Road. The Veneti also lived in Veneto in northeastern Italy. This was the end of the Amber Road. Ancient writers connect the Veneti with the Trojans. According to Livy the Veneti were formed by a merging of the Eneti and the Trojans. Homer speaks of the Eneti as descendants of the Trojans. Pliny the Elder indicates the Veneti ancestry as being Trojan. The Vistula Veneti are believed to have been a centum Indo-European people dwelling in the area of contemporary Poland. Their heritage is attributed to Pre-Slavic hydronyms found in the Vistula and Odra river basins. Hydronyms attributed to the Vistula Veneti seem to show resemblances to those attested in the area of the Adriatic Veneti as well as those attested in the Western Balkans that are attributed to Illyrians, all of which may point to a possible connection between these ancient Indo-European peoples.
The Sami people are a Finno-Ugric people that live on the northern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. The earliest Sami yoik texts written down refer to the world as Skadesi-suolo (north-Sami) and Skađsuâl (east-Sami), probably meaning Skaði's island. The Sami name was a loan word from the North Germanic languages. Sk- in words used in Sami is a phonotactic structure of non-native origin. The goddess Skaði may have once been a personification of Scandinavia.
Skåne (aka Scania) and Scandinavia have the same etymology. It's two different forms of the same name. Originally it was the name for Skåne. As the Proto-Germanic people expanded it became the name for all of Scandinavia. It appears later in Old Norse as Skáney. I think the first segment of the name originally derive from the Indo-European root for shoot. The Indo-European root for shoot was probably *skeud-. The second segment of the name means island. The Old English name for Skåne was Scedenig. The first segment of the name originally derive from the same root as the first segment of Skåne. The second segment of the name represents Old English īġ that means island.
During the Migration Period Germanic tribes wandered across the European continent. Several of these tribes claimed Scandinavian origins. They called it the womb of nations. According to the Goths their original homeland was Scandza. According to the Langobards their original homeland was Scadanan. The Proto-Germanic word for shoot was probably *skeutanan. Note the similarity between Scadanan and *skeutanan. Also note the similarity between Scadanan and Scedenig. The Scanian word for shoot is almost the same as *skeud-.
The people that originally was know as Illyrians might be linked to the Trojans. This people occupied a small and well-defined part of the south Adriatic coast around Lake Skadar (aka Lake Scutari). Shkodra is a city next to Lake Skadar. The name of the lake and the name of the city have the same etymology. I think the first segment of the name of the lake and the city originally derive from *skeud-. In Greek the city is known as Scutarion or Skodra. In Italian the city is known as Scutari. In Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Macedonian the city is known as Skadar. In Turkish the city is known as İşkodra. The name of the Scythians probably was *Skuda (archer). The name originally derive from Indo-European root for shoot. These two examples give support to my claim that the first segment of Skåne and Scandinavia derive from *skeud-.
Skanör is a town on the Falsterbo peninsula in southwestern Skåne. The first segment of the name has the same etymology as the first segment of Skåne. The second segment of the name means sandbanks. The Falsterbo peninsula belongs to Skytt hundred. Skytt means archer. The Falsterbo peninsula is shaped like an arm holding a bow. Maybe that is why these people named their homeland Skåne.

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