Showing posts with label Sanskrit. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Sanskrit. Show all posts

23 February 2016

Proto-Indo-European nominals (PIE grammar)

map: location of various
Indo-European peoples in
Europe & Anatolia, c.
1000 BC
Published, edited, formatted & annotated (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig

map: western Eurasia: Indo-European peoples c. 800 BC

(websource: Wikipedia)

Nominals in the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) include nouns, adjectives and pronouns. Their grammatical forms and meanings have been reconstructed by modern linguists based on similarities found across all Indo-European (IE) languages. This article discusses nouns and adjectives, while Proto-Indo-European pronouns are treated elsewhere.

04 March 2015

Student’s Guide to Indo-European



Indo-European groups, in western Eurasia, in the second millennium BC
Published, edited, images added, captions written & annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
 

(Websource)Written by A. Rytting
Introduction
Indo-European has always had a special place in the field of Comparative-Historical Linguistics. Indeed, in the early stages of the disciplines, Comparative-Historical and Indo-European studies were practically synonymous, the former merely referring to the preferred method of investigating the latter.

14 April 2014

Published, edited, some images added by, and annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
(from: Wikipedia)

Classification of indoeuropean (IE) languages. Red: Extinct languages. White: categories or unattested proto-languages. Left half: centum languages; right half: satem languages

The proto-indoeuropean language (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of a common-ancestor of the indoeuropean (IE) languages spoken by the proto-indoeuropeans. PIE was the first proposed protolanguage to be widely accepted by linguists. 

23 March 2014

Telling Tales in Proto-Indo-European

Published, edited, images added & annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
(websource: : article written by By Eric A. Powell)


By the 19th century, linguists knew that all modern Indo-European languages descended from a single tongue. Called Proto-Indo-European, or PIE, it was spoken by a people who lived from roughly 4500 to 2500 B.C., and left no written texts. 
The question became, what did PIE sound like? 

In 1868, German linguist August Schleicher used reconstructed Proto-Indo-European vocabulary to create a fable in order to hear some approximation of PIE. 

Called “The Sheep and the Horses,” and also known today as Schleicher’s Fable, the short parable tells the story of a shorn sheep who encounters a group of unpleasant horses. 

17 March 2014

The six unmatched features of the Sanskrit language. (Part I)



The six unmatched features of the Sanskrit language. (Part I)

(From: The Encyclopedia of Authentic Hinduism)
Published, edited, annotations (in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig
Preface
Take this article with the proverbial "grain of salt". Anyone who believe that his own language is the world's first, is perfect, divinely unique, the actual source from which all other Indo-European tongues descend....Well, you get the idea. I am sure he knows a billion times more than I do on Hinduism, Sanskrit, India, etc., so you'll like learn something.
Ken Doig 

1. The vowel-consonant pronunciation of the alphabet
2. Formation of the Sanskrit words
3. The uniqueness of the grammar
4. The three kinds of prime Sanskrit scriptures
(Vedas, Puranas, and their style of literary presentation 

1. The vowel-consonant pronunciation of the alphabet.
The most striking feature of the Sanskrit language is the vowel-consonant pronunciation of the alphabet and the uniqueness of every consonant (or its combination) as a complete syllabic unit when it is joined with a vowel. 

25 February 2014

Tokharian, indo-european outliers : caucasian europids in ancient & medieval China mountainous western frontier

Turkmen girl, w/ blue eyes; probable Tocharian descendant. (r) Tarim-Basin 'mummy'.Europid crania, hair & clothing
Published edited, formatted, annotated (in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig
(from Wikipedia)

The following table describes a typical-minimal reconstruction of Late Proto-Tocharian, which includes all Tocharian or Tokharian (/təˈkɛəriən/ or /təˈkɑriən/) is an extinct branch of the Indo-European "IE" language-family, formerly spoken by Tocharian peoples in oases on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of China's Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous-Region). 

Documents dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD record two closely related languages, called Tocharian-A (East-Tocharian, Agnean or Turfanian) and Tocharian-B (West-Tocharian or Kuchean).

17 January 2014

Mahabharata : Ancient India's greatest epic-poem

Mahabharata, epic, poem, Bhagavad Gita, Ramayana, India, Manu, literature, Sanskrit, Kurukshetra, Krishna, myth 
Published, edited, formatted & images added by Kenneth S. Doig

(from: Wikipedia)
The Mahabharata or Mahābhārata (Sanskrit: महाभारतम्, Mahābhāratam, pronounced [məɦaːˈbʱaːrət̪əm]) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.
Besides its epic narrative of the Kurukshetra-War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pandava princes, the Mahabharata contains much philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or purusharthas (12.161). 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahabharata
Among the principal works and stories that are a part of the Mahabharata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Ramayana, and the Rishyasringa, often considered as works in their own right.

15 January 2014

Toward a phylogenetic chronology of ancient Gaulish, Celtic, and Indo-European


Published, edited, certain images added & annotated (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig 
by 
  • Alfred Toth§ 
  • (websource: PNAS)

  • Abstract
    Indo-European is the largest and best-documented language family in the world, yet the reconstruction of the Indo-European tree, first proposed in 1863, has remained controversial. 

    Complications may include ascertainment bias when choosing the linguistic data, and disregard for the wave model of 1872 when attempting to reconstruct the tree. 

    28 August 2013

    "Indo-European" : a brief synopsis from About.com

    (mapsource)
    Published, edited, formatted, comments/annotations (in redletter) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig
    (mapsource)Indo-European

    By Richard Nordquist, About.com Guide
    (websource)

    Definition:
    A family of languages (including most of the languages spoken in Europe, India, and Iran) descended from a common-tongue spoken in the third millennium B.C. by an agricultural people originating in southeastern Europe.

    02 April 2013

    A list of selected Indo-European "IE" cognates from PIE (Proto-Indo-European)


    Published, edited, images added & commentary (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
    Proto-Indo-European substantives  (from anthrocivitas.net)


    An interesting and extensive compilation.
    Star:

    PIE *ster- star
    Greek. astēr,αστερ 

    German. sterro/Stern
    WS OE/English steorra/star

    26 January 2012

    "Αναλφαβητισμού του Ομήρου : ÓLÆSI HÓMERS : HOMER'S ILLITERACY"

    HOMERIC GREECE (ARCHAIC/PRE-CLASSICAL ERA)c. 1250BC. 
    FORGET NOT, THE WORDS GREEK & GREECE ARE NEVER,
     NOT ONCE USED BY HOMER (OR ANY GREEKS EVER) IN EITHER 
    HIS ILIAD OR ODYSSEY. HE REFERS TO THESE FIRST-KNOWN INDO-
    EUROPEANS IN THE AREA, SPEAKING A PROTO-GREEK DIALECT.
    THE MAIN ETHNONYM/ENDONYM USED BY HOMER IS ACHAEA
    (Αχαιοί,Akhaioí) THE LAND, ACHAEAN, THE ADJECTIVE/
    ETHNICITY. ALSO USED ARE THE WORDS, DANAANS & ARGIVES.
    K.DOIG 
    PUBLISHED, ANNOTATED (IN RED)IMAGES ADDED (UNLESS SO-NOTED), FORMATTED & EDITED BY KENNETH S. DOIG


    (text in blue is not from original article, but third-party cite, quote, post or reference-material)
    (I do not necessarily agree with any or all of the views, theories or historicity of this article. It is very intersting and seems to hold some water for the most part. Enjoy! Ken Doig) 




    ANATOLIA OR ASIA MINOR,ABOUT 1000 YEARS 
    AFTER TROJAN WAR, c. 300 AD. TROY/ILION
    WOULD'VE BEEN ON FAR CENTER-LEFT OF MAP,
    ON COAST, IN WAS TO BECOME GREEK,
    NORTHEAST IONIA. K.DOIG

    19 December 2011

    SELECTIONS FROM THE "MAHABHARATA" (A GREAT, HEROIC EPIC OF OUR DISTANT INDO-EUROPEAN COUSINS)

      


        
    PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG
        HinduSwastika.svgHinduSwastika.svgHinduSwastika.svgHinduSwastika.svgHinduSwastika.svgHinduSwastika.svgHinduSwastika.svgHinduSwastika.svg


    (Wikipedia)
    The Mahabharata (Sanskrit Mahābhārata महाभारत,) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa.
    Besides, its epic narrative of the Kurukshetra-war and the fates of the Kauravas and the Pandavas, the Mahabharata contains muchphilosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or purusharthas (12.161).
    Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra
    The latter are enumerated as dharma (right action), artha (purpose), kama (pleasure), and moksha (liberation). Among the principal works and stories that are a part of the Mahabharata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Ramayana, and the Rishyasringa, often considered as works in their own right.
    Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahabharata is attributed to Vyasa. There have been many attempts to unravel its historical growth and compositional layers. The oldest preserved parts of the text are not thought to be appreciably older than around 400 BC, though the origins of the story probably fall between the 8th and 9th centuries BC.
    The snakesacrifice of Janamejaya
    The text probably reached its final form by the early Gupta period (c. fourth century AD). The title may be translated as "the great tale of the Bhārata-dynasty". According to the Mahabharata itself, the tale is extended from a shorter version of 24,000 verses called simply Bhārata.

    The Mahabharata in its longest version consists of over 100000 shloka or over 200000 individual verse lines (each shloka is a couplet ), long prose passages, or about 1.8 million words in total, the Mahabharata is roughly ten times the length of the Iliad and Odyssey combined, or about four times the length of the Ramayana. W. J. Johnson has compared the importance of the Mahabharata to world civilization to that of the Bible, to Shakespeare's works Homer's Iliad & Odyssey, Greek drama, and the Koran.



    Historical context
    The historicity of the Kurukshetra-war is unclear. Many historians estimate the date of the Kurukshetra-war to iron-age-India of the 10th century BC. The setting of the epic has a historical precedent in Vedic India or in iron-age-India, where the Kuru kingdom was the center

    30 November 2011

    EVERYTHING YOU EVER WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN (PIE) & (THE COMPARATIVE METHOD) BUT WERE AFRAID TO ASK BUT WERE

    CENTRAL EUROPE c. 1000 BC
    PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG
    by Kathleen Hubbard, PhD
    (from the University of Texas)
    Kathleen Hubbard's answer to the question "How do we know what we know about Proto-Indo-European and other languages that died out before they were written down? [Kathleen is assistant professor of linguistics at the University of California, San Diego. She describes herself as a "recovering Indo-Europeanist."] I have also appended some bibliography at the end.
    The hard-core indo-europeanist may be interested in the TITUS Indo-European Resources project in Stuttgart (eventually in many languages, but currently only German and Spanish).
    WESTERN EURASIA c 1000 BC

    07 September 2011

    HISTORY OF LANGUAGE-SCIENCES : LINGUISTICS, PHILOLOGY, STRUCTURALISM, MEANING, ROMANTIC MOVEMENT, COMPARATIVE METHOD, LINGUISTIC-FAMILY CLASSIFICATION :WESTERN VS NON-WESTERN GRAMMARIANS : ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL, RENAISSANCE, 19th CENTURY, MODERN

    ANCIENT SCYTHIANS, A NORDIC NOMADIC
    HORSE-, WAGON- & CHARIOT-PEOPLE OF THE
    GREAT EURASIAN STEPPES FROM THE
    UKRAINE IN THE WEST TO THE WESTERN
    FRONTIERS OF CHINA IN THE EAST. THEY
    SPOKE AN INDO-EUROPEAN TONGUE OF THE
    EAST-IRANIAN SUBFAMILY. MANY SCHOLARS
    HAVE LIKENED THEM AND AND GIVEN THEM
    THE APPELLATION "THE EPHEMERAL CELTS OF
    THE EAST" K.DOIG

    PUBLISHED, FORMATTED, EDITED, IMAGES 
    ADDED & CAPTIONS BY KENNETH S. DOIG

    Linguistic speculation and investigation, insofar as is known, has gone on in only a small number of societies. To the extent that Mesopotamian, Chinese, and Arabic learning dealt with grammar, their treatments were so enmeshed in the particularities of those languages and so little known to the European world until recently that they have had virtually no impact on Western linguistic tradition. Chinese linguistic and philological scholarship stretches back for more than two millennia, but the interest of those scholars was concentrated largely on phonetics, writing, and lexicography; their consideration of grammatical problems was bound up closely with the study of logic.

    Certainly the most interesting non-Western grammatical tradition—and the most original and independent—is that of India, which dates back at least two and one-half millennia and which culminates with the grammar of Pāṇini, of the 5th century bc. 

    There are three major ways in which the Sanskrit tradition has had an impact on modern linguistic scholarship. As soon as Sanskrit became known to the Western learned world the unravelling of comparative Indo-European grammar ensued and the foundations were laid for the whole 19th-century edifice of comparative philology and historical linguistics. 

    But, for this, Sanskrit was simply a part of the data; Indian grammatical learning played almost no direct part. Nineteenth-century workers, however, recognized that the native tradition of phonetics in ancient India was vastly superior to Western knowledge; and this had important consequences for the growth

    05 August 2011

    Linguistic aspects of the Indo-European Urheimat question





    Published, edited & formatted by Kenneth S. Doig

    Preface
    by K.S.Doig


    I am not an orientalist and have no great knowledge on India or the South-Asian subcontinent. I do know that the aforementioned areas were some of the earliest areas of human settlement in history. I know that the region is geographically diverse from the Hindu Kush, the Himalayas and other highland-areas that give these tropical latitudes polar to temperate climates based on elevation. I know it's a very complicated place in every way imaginable. A patchwork of related Indo-European (IE) languages that are usually located in the north and central region and a patchwork of a totally unrelated linguistic family, Dravidian and its many dialects in the south. But there are pockets of each group outside their expected home-areas, e.g. the island nation, Sri Lanka,(Ceylon) well to the south of the other Indo-Aryan and Indo-European languages spoken in the central and northern parts of the subcontinent, we find IE Singhalese, along side the expected Dravidian tongue, Tamil.
    Most of the IE languages are either direct or indirect descendants of Sanskrit, one of the big six or seven of the ancient well-attested IE tongues, the others, in my opinion, are Latin, Greek, Persian, Gothic, Old-Norse, Anglo-Saxon and probably Hittite and Armenian. To be included in this group, the languages must be directly and voluminously attested in written form, be Indo-European, obviously, and be linguistic benchmarks. I exclude any great ancient literary language from Balto-Slavic as there was none until the middle-ages and later. I might include Old-Church Slavonic. I also exclude Celtic and there is little direct attestation, no large corpus of literature, written in Celtic shows up until quite late and mostly in the hugely irregular insular Celtic (IC) tongues, both Brythonic and Goidelic. There's a four-way split metric in Celtic c. 800 BC to the extinction of continental Celtic (CC) c. 200 AD, whether Brythonic or Goidelic. I have seen the morphological paradigms for CC Gaulish, a Brythonic tongue, it's grammar, lexicon, syntax is so typically classical (typical) of its contemporary IE cousins. CC Brythonic dialects were virtually mutually intelligible with Latin, so similar the grammar and lexicon. There is a putative Italo-Celtic proto-family, spoken in SW Germany, before there was a Germany, c 1500 BC. The first Italics hiked over the Alps and started to settle the Italian peninsular c. 900 BC. Insular Celtic has been through some kind of linguistic blender, rendering many of its IE traits unrecognizable and adding some whacked out stuff, like VSO syntax, unknown in IE, unknown in continental Celtic, where virtually all older IE was SOV or SVO in normal declarative statements. Most hypothesize that when the CC moved down to the Iberian Peninsula, they entered a Sprachbund with non-IE tongues know to use or have used verb-first order, such as Afro-Asiatic, here, Hamitic and possibly some of the traits were picked up from the language isolate Basque or some then-existent Vasconic dialects. When I read Scottish Gaelic, other than a few obviously recently borrow words from Germanic, Norse or English, it is virtually unrecognizably IE, except for the numbers, aon, da, tri... Gaelic and Welsh even have inflected prefixes, a totally unknown concept to classical IE. They also have dramatically different contextual forms of verbs, whether it is used a statement, or a question or which tense. Linguist John McWhorter PhD in his great book, Our Magnificent Bastard Tongue: The Untold Story of English, is the only linguist who correctly describes why we (and Scots) are the only IE language, other than wacky Welsh or garbled Gaelic that uses the idiotic word "do" and "did" for negation and questions in most verbs. No Anglo-Saxon, Roman, Greek, Viking, Persian, would've, could've said "do you speak English" or "I do not understand". We don't use this system "do"with the copula or modal auxiliaries, can, will, should, are, etc. "Do you can speak Irish?" Questions are asked in all IE languages I know or know of in the same basic manner, inversion along with intonation. A modern German, Swede or an Anglo-Saxon would say things like; What seest thou there? Why came we home so early? Whom saw they yesterday? We understand not, we know not. One still sees a lot of this in the KJV Bible and Shakespearean works. Celtic also gave us our progressive-aspects, ending in -ing, as in I am coming. Totally unknown in all other Gmc languages, but used in crazy insular Celtic. So English was far, far more influenced by Celtic in syntax, but not lexicon. In Old-English, verbatim, "I will see if the man had come last night to get the food."  and "I did not know that she had fallen off the roof." "I [shall] see if the man last night come was the food to get" Not knew I that she off the roof fallen was."

    15 June 2011

    SANSKRIT

    Published by Kenneth S. Doig


    Sanskrit language, (from Sanskrit: saṃskṛta, “adorned, cultivated, purified”) an Old Indo-Aryan language in which the most ancient documents are the Vedas, composed in what is called Vedic Sanskrit. Although Vedic documents represent the dialects then found in the northern midlands of the Indian subcontinent and areas immediately east thereof, the very earliest texts—including the Rigveda (“The Veda Composed in Verses”), which scholars generally ascribe to approximately 1500 bce—stem from the northwestern part of the subcontinent, the area of the ancient seven rivers (sapta sindhavaḥ).

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