Showing posts with label Proto-Indo-European. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Proto-Indo-European. Show all posts

24 February 2015

"A steppe in time"- Steppe migration rekindles debate on the Indo-European language-origin

novel graphic on core Indo-European tongues
(mapsource)

Published, edited, formatted, images added (unless otherwise-noted) & comments/annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
(websource)

ancient Hellenic depictions of
various peoples(mapsource)


From Icelanders to Sri Lankans, some 3-billion people speak the (far more than..) more than 400 languages and dialects that belong to the Indo-European (IE) family.



Map of both the prevailing hypotheses on early Indo-European ethnogenesis & origins) the more-widely accepted Steppe/Kurgan hypothesis [Gimbutas, M, et al.] b) the less-widely accepted Anatolia-hypothesis [Renfrew, C, et al.] {map was already on article. Caption, written by K.S. Doig}



Some researchers hold that an early Indo-European (IE) language was spread by Middle-Eastern farmers around 8,000–9,500 years ago (see ‘Steppe in time’).

19 February 2015

epli/äpple/eple/æble/Apfel-Proto-Indo-European- *ablu-, Proto-Germanic- *aplaz, Proto-Balto-Slavic- *aʔbōls, *aʔblo

Scando-Teutonic; NGmc- Icel. & western Old-Norse,
epli, Swe., äpple, Nor., eple, Dan. æble.
WGmc- Old-Low-Frankish, appul, Hollandish-Netherlandic,
appel, OHG apful, modern Hochdeutsch Apfel.
Peninsular-Gmc, i.e., Ingvaeonic, Kimbric-Gmc or Northsea-Gmc,
Old-English apul, æpul, apl, æpul (OE, WSax, c. 850 AD) 
Published, edited, formatted, images added & comments/annotations (in red) by Kenneth S, Doig
(wikitionary)

29 July 2014

The Prehistoric (copper-age) BlackSea/Pontic Steppe Yamna-Culture, one of the very likely precursors of Proto-Indo-European


Published, edited, images added & annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
Western Eurasia c. 2000-3000 BC
(imagesource)
The yamna culture (YC) (Ukrainian: Ямна культура, Russian: Ямная культура, "Pitgrave-culture" (PGC), from Russian/Ukrainian яма, "pit") is a late-copper-age (CA)/early-bronze-age (BA) culture of the southern Bug/Dniester/Ural-region (the Pontic steppes), dating to the 36th–23rd centuries BC. 

09 May 2014

pre-migration-era, early germanic (scando-teutonic, gothonic, suebo-
skythian
) tribes
Publshed, formatted, images added & annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
PRE-PROTO-GERMANIC
(from: THE CRANBERRY LETTERS)
(written by Patrick Welsh, M.A.)

Variously described and much-debated since its first "discovery" more than a century ago, Pre-Proto-Germanic is a headache or a thrill to study - depending on your disposition. 

Germanic has long been characterized as having strong non-Indo-European influences, first by Jakob Grimm and later formalized by Sigmund Feist. 
Proto-Indo-European-Proto-Germanic: evolution
schematic
Feist's arguments were made in 1932 and are well outdated, but his idea that Germanic absorbed lexical information from extinct, unattested languages has won many converts.

More conservative scholars tended to downplay the role of non-IE substrata in Germanic. Just because a word has unclear origins does not mean that it came from a substratum. The word may have been an internal innovation or a native IE word that no longer has cognates in other tongues. 

Scholarly opinion is divergent, but what can be safely said is that all scholars agree that there are some Pre-Proto-Germanic words that crept into Germanic languages. The difficulty is to discern which etyma are non-IE and understand what it can it tell us.

"Germanic", definition: Visual Dictionary

The strongest candidates for stratum are words that have cognates in other language families that point to non-IE morphophonology.

25 February 2014

Tokharian, indo-european outliers : caucasian europids in ancient & medieval China mountainous western frontier

Turkmen girl, w/ blue eyes; probable Tocharian descendant. (r) Tarim-Basin 'mummy'.Europid crania, hair & clothing
Published edited, formatted, annotated (in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig
(from Wikipedia)

The following table describes a typical-minimal reconstruction of Late Proto-Tocharian, which includes all Tocharian or Tokharian (/təˈkɛəriən/ or /təˈkɑriən/) is an extinct branch of the Indo-European "IE" language-family, formerly spoken by Tocharian peoples in oases on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of China's Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous-Region). 

Documents dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD record two closely related languages, called Tocharian-A (East-Tocharian, Agnean or Turfanian) and Tocharian-B (West-Tocharian or Kuchean).

08 August 2013

Indo-European Languages




Published by Kenneth S. Doig
Written by Warren Cowgill PhD & Jay H. Jasanoff PhD

Indo-European languages, family of languages spoken in most of Europe and areas of European settlement and in much of Southwest and South Asia. 


The term Indo-Hittite is used by scholars who believe that Hittite and the other Anatolian languages are not just one branch of Indo-European but rather a branch coordinate with all the rest put together. 

Indo-Hittite has been used for a family consisting of Indo-European proper plus Anatolian. As long as this view is neither definitively proved nor disproved, it is convenient to keep the traditional use of the term Indo-European.
(websource)

17 July 2013

Proto-Germanic grammar; part III; Adjectives, determiners & pronouns




Published, edited & images added by K. S. Doig


Adjectives, determiners & pronouns
Adjectives, determiners and pronouns agreed with the noun they qualify in case, number, and gender, although without a separate vocative form. 

Their inflection stemmed from the PIE pronominal inflection, which is used most prominently by the demonstrative-pronoun in other IE languages. Like the nouns, they had various declension-classes, but the classes were less distinct. 

15 July 2013

Intro to Proto-Germanic's Grammar


Published, edited, formatted, images added & comments/annotations
(in redletter) by Kenneth S. Doig
I highly recommend
this book

(from Wikipedia)

Overview 
Proto-Germanic had six cases, three genders, three numbers, three moods (indicative, subjunctive [Proto-IndoEuropean or PIE, optative], imperative), and two voices (active and passive (PIE middle)). This is quite similar to the state of Latin, Greek, and Middle-Indic c. 200 AD. 

It is often asserted that the Germanic languages have a highly reduced inflection-system as compared with the aforementioned languages and many other early IE tongues. 

However, some parts of the inflectional systems of Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit were innovations that were not present in Proto-IndoEuropean. 

Furthermore, it is probably due more to the late time to Germanic's late attestation than to any inherent "simplicity" of the Germanic languages. 

As an example, there are less than 500 years between the Gothic Gospels of 360 AD and the Old-High-Germanic (OHG) Tatian of 830AD, yet OHG, despite being the most archaic of the West-Germanic(WGmc)languages, is missing a large number of archaic features present in Gothic. 

These includes dual- and passive-markings on verbs, reduplication in Class-VII strong verb past-tenses (also called 'preterite'), the vocative-case, and second-position (Wackernagel's Law) clitics

Many more archaic features may have been lost between the Proto-Germanic (PGmc) of 200BC or so and the attested Gothic language. 

Furthermore, Proto-Romance and Middle-Indic of the fourth-century AD—contemporaneous with Gothic—were significantly simpler than Latin and Sanskrit, respectively and overall probably no more archaic than Gothic.


Nouns (Subtantives
The system of nominal declensions was largely inherited from PIE. Six cases were preserved: vocative, nominative, accusative, dative, instrumental, genitive. The instrumental and vocative can be reconstructed only in the singular. 

The instrumental survives only in the WGmc languages, and the vocative only in Gothic. The locative case had merged into the dative case, and the ablative may have merged with either the genitive, dative or instrumental cases. 

However, sparse remnants of the earlier locative- and ablative-cases are visible in a few pronominal and adverbial forms, and in some cases the case forms of certain noun-classes use the older locative-ending for the dative.

The older distinction between athematic and thematic stems had been lost, and generally nouns were divided into several declension classes based on the vowels or consonants before the case endings. 

Globally, there were vowel stems (a-, ō-, i- and u-stems) and consonant-stems (n-, r- and z-stems and stem-endings in other consonants). 

Usually, only nouns ending in consonants other than n, r or z are called consonant-stems in the context of PGmc nouns. Neuter nouns of all classes differed from the masculines and feminines in their nominative- and accusative-endings, which were alike.

a-stems
The a-stems descended from the PIE thematic inflection, and were by far the most common type of noun in PGmc. Although they could originally be any gender in PIE (as in Latin), in PGmc, they were redistributed to either masculine (ending in -az) or neuter (ending in -ą). 

The two genders differed only in the nominative, vocative and accusative cases; the other three cases were identical for both. 

There were two smaller subgroups within the a-stems: ja-stems and wa-stems. These were declined the same as regular a-stems, but with a suffix -(i)j- or -w- before the ending. 

It was only in the daughter languages that the wa- and (especially) ja-stems began to diverge significantly from the regular a-stems.

*wulfaz ("wolf", masc.)*juką ("yoke", neut.)
SingularPluralSingularPlural
Nominative*wulfaz*wulfôz, -ôs*juką*jukō
Vocative*wulf*wulfôz, -ôs*juką*jukō
Accusative*wulfą*wulfanz*juką*jukō
Genitive*wulfas, -is*wulfǫ̂*jukas, -is*jukǫ̂
Dative*wulfai*wulfamaz*jukai*jukamaz
Instrumental*wulfō*wulfamiz*jukō*jukamiz

ō-stems
The ō-stems descended from the thematic eh₂-stems in PIE, but there were also examples that descended from originally neuter collective-nouns that were reinterpreted as feminine singulars. 

They were the feminine equivalent of the a-stems and were the most common type of feminine noun, with a nominative-singular ending in -ō. There were also -stems and -stems, declined identically to the regular ō-stems but with a suffix before the ending.
*gebō ("gift", fem.)
Singular Plural
Nominative *gebō *gebôz
Vocative *gebō *gebôz
Accusative *gebǭ *gebōz
Genitive *gebōz *gebǫ̂
Dative *gebōi *gebōmaz
Instrumental *gebō *gebōmiz

ī/jō-stems 
The ī/jō-stems descended from athematic/ablauting-nouns in 
*-ih₂/yéh₂-. In PGmc, they had almost fallen together with the jō-stems, except that they had a nominative/vocative-singular form in -ī rather than -. They did not survive as a distinct class in any language except possibly Gothic. 

i-stems
The i-stems descended from PIE nouns in -is, many of which were feminine abstract nouns in -tis

They were reasonably common, and appeared in all three genders, although neuter i-stems were very rare with only a handful of reconstructible examples. 

The masculine and feminine i-stems were declined the same, with a nominative-singular in -iz. The neuters ended in -i.





*gastiz ("guest", masc.)*mari ("sea", neut.)
SingularPluralSingularPlural
Nominative*gastiz*gastīz*mari*marī
Vocative*gasti*gastīz*mari*marī
Accusative*gastį*gastinz*mari*marī
Genitive*gastīz*gastijǫ̂*marīz*marjǫ̂
Dative*gastī*gastimaz*marī*marimaz
Instrumental*gasti*gastimiz*marīmz

02 April 2013

The Kurgan hypothesis : one of the proposals about early Indo-European origins


PUBLISHED, EDITED, IMAGES ADDED & COMMENTARY (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG


ROYAL-SKYTHIAN BATTLEDRESS
(from Wikipedia)
The Kurgan hypothesis is one of the proposals about early Indo-European origins, which postulates that the people of an archaeological "Kurgan culture". 

(A term grouping the Yamna, or Pit-Grave, culture and its predecessors) in the Pontic steppe were the most likely speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language. The term is derived from Kurgan , a Turkic loanword in Russian for a tumulus or burial mound.

How Large Was the Area in Which Proto-Indo-European Was Spoken

(from GeoCurrents)
(Article written by Professor of Historical Geography, Martin W. Lewis, Stanford University)

PUBLISHED, EDITED, SOME IMAGES ADDED & COMMENTARY (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG

 
As the current series on the origin and expansion of the Indo-European languages nears its completion, only a few remaining issues need to be discussed. Today’s post examines once again the mapping by Bouckaert et al. of the area likely occupied by the speakers of Proto-Indo-European (PIE). 

06 August 2012

Proto-Indo-European Syntax (Part 1)

PUBLISHED, EDITED, FORMATTED & ANNOTATIONS (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG

Proto-Indo-European Syntax


Winfred P. Lehmann (professor emeritus, Univ. of Texas at Austin, Linguistics Research Dept.)
(Winfred P. Lehmann, Director :: PCL 5.112, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566) 

1. The Syntactic Framework

1.1. Earlier Syntactic Treatments of PIE.

When we concern ourselves with the syntax of Proto-Indo-European

24 January 2012

"THE CHIEF GOD OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN GOD-FAMILY,THE SKY-FATHER, THE THUNDER & LIGHTNING-GOD, THE GOD OF HEIGHTS & ATMOSPHERE, *DYEUS-PETER, LATER PRONOUNCED AS THESE NAMES, "ZEUS, JUPITER, IUPRITER JOVE, IOVE, DEUS, DIOS, DIV, *TÍWAZ, ZÍU, TÝR, TÍW' AMONG OTHERS"

PUBLISHED, ANNOTATED (IN RED) & IMAGES ADDED BY KENNETH S. DOIG
*Dyēus (also *Dyēus ph2ter) is the reconstructed chief deity of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) pantheon. He was the god of the daylight sky, and his position may have mirrored the position of the patriarch [1] or monarch in society.
SKYFATHER

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
ZEUS
Footnote
[1] Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. The system of such rule of families by senior males is called patriarchy. This is a Greek word, a compound of πατριά (patria), "lineage, descent", esp. by the father's side (which comes from πατήρpatēr meaning father) and ἄρχων (archon) meaning leader, chief, ruler, king, etc. (Wikipedi
a     

16 December 2011

AN OUTLINE OF PIE (PROTO-INDOEUROPEAN)


PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

Frederik Kortlandt, BA, BA, MA, MA, PhD
Professor of descriptive and comparative linguistics
Leiden University, NL
websource
An outline of Proto-Indo-European

Indo-European is a branch of Indo-Uralic which was radically transformed under the
influence of a North Caucasian substratum when its speakers moved from the area
north of the Caspian Sea to the area north of the Black Sea (cf. Kortlandt 2007b). 
As a result, Indo-European developed a minimal vowel system combined with a very large
consonant inventory including glottalized stops, also grammatical gender and
adjectival agreement, an ergative construction which was lost again but has left its
traces in the grammatical system, especially in the nominal inflection, a construction
with a dative subject which was partly preserved in the historical languages and is
reflected in the verbal morphology and syntax, where it gave rise to new categories,
and a heterogeneous lexicon. 

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