Showing posts with label Old Norse. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Old Norse. Show all posts

11 March 2015

Ancient-Germanic languages documented - a preliminary-sketch

This image depicts an early map of Scandinavia,
the origination place for many invaders of
Rome's former-province of Britannia
(Olaus Magnus (1490-1557)
Published, edited, formatted, images added & annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig

One of the very few Anglo-Saxon warhelmets
ever found in the British-Isles
Ancient-Germanic languages documented - a preliminary-sketch

by Bertil Haggman

Group I
Gothic (Goths, Ostrogoths, Visigoths)

Through MS such as the Codex Argenteus (Uppsala-University Library) Gothic is reasonably well documented. Also Crimean Gothic is represented with a list of words by diplomat Busbecq in the sixteenth century.

map, showing several major Germanic/Teutonic
kingdoms in the late middle-ages

29 August 2014

Linguist makes sensational claim: English is a Scandinavian language

save image
Visual-definition of "north-germanic", created by me, using Snappy Words "Free Visual Dictionary"

Published, edited, annotations/commentary (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig

Linguist makes sensational claim: English is a Scandinavian language

November 27, 2012 (websource)
University of Oslo(University of Oslo. "Linguist makes sensational claim: English is a Scandinavian language." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 27 November 2012. <>.)
"Have you considered how easy it is for us Norwegians to learn English?" asks Jan Terje Faarlund, professor of linguistics at the University of Oslo. "Obviously there are many English words that resemble ours. 

26 July 2014

Kennings - types of circumlocution, in the form of compounds that employ figurative-language

Published, edited, formatted, images added & 
annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
(from: Wikipedia)A kenning (Modern-Icelandic pronunciation: [cʰɛnːiŋk]; derived from Old-Norse [ON]) is a type of circumlocution, in the form of a compound that employs figurative-language in place of a more concrete single-word noun. Kennings are strongly associated with ON and later Icelandic and Anglo-Saxon (AS) poetry.
They usually consist of two words, and are often hyphenated. For example, ON poets might replace sverð, the regular word for “sword”, with a more abstract compound such as “wound-hoe” (Egill Skallagrímsson: Höfuðlausn 8), or a genitive-phrase such as randa íss “ice of shields” (Einarr Skúlason: ‘Øxarflokkr’ 9). The term kenning has been applied by modern scholars to similar figures of speech in other languages too, especially Old-English (OE).

The word was adopted into English in the nineteenth century from medieval Icelandic treatises on poetics, in particular Snorra Stúrlasónar Prose-Edda, and derives ultimately from the ON verb

26 April 2014

"Pronunciation of Old Norse" (standard) : by Icelander Óskar Guðlaugsson

 Scotland's Shetland Islands (a verbatim translation were
thing-field. The word thing, along with its reflexes; þing/ding/ting was a fairly common word for a legislature of
some type)

Published, edited, annotations (in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig

Pronunciation of Old-Norse (standard)
The most effective way of identifying sound-values in brevity is the use of phonetic alphabets such as the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), which uses various characters from the Latin and Greek alphabets, capital and small, to represent all the different sounds enunciable by human-beings. 

13 April 2014

Grettis saga Ásmundarsonar (Grettis saga) up to chap. 11

Published, edited & annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig



Scanned at, January 2003. J.B. Hare
, Redactor. This text is in the public domain. This file may be used for any non-commercial purpose, provided this attribution is left intact.


WE do not feel able to take in hand the wide subject of the Sagas of Iceland within the limits of a Preface; therefore we have only to say that we put forward this volume as the translation of an old story founded on facts, full of dramatic interest, and setting before people's eyes pictures of the life and manners of an interesting race of men near akin to ourselves.

Those, to whom the subject is new, we must refer to the translations already made of some other of these works, * and to the notes which accompany them: a few notes at the end of this volume may be of use to students of Saga literature.

09 April 2014

"English is a Scandinavian language........?"

Published, edited, images added & annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
(from: the Armed and Dangerous blog)

Here’s the most interesting adventure in linguistics I've run across in a while. Two professors in Norway assert that English is a Scandinavian language, a North-Germanic (NGmc) rather than a West-Germanic (WGmc) one. 
(I would neither classify English (even pre-Norse OE/Anglo-Saxon), as WGmc nor NGmc. I know that the Ingvaeonic branch (traditionally & erroneously has been classified as WGmc) is its own, freestanding Germanic subfamily, on the same level as NGmc, WGmc or EGmc [East-Germanic, e.g., Gothic, Vandalic, Lombardic, etc.]. 
I was first alerted to this in Gudmund Schuette's magnum opus [actually he has several magna opera], Our forefathers:The Gothonic nations : A manual of the ethnography of the Gothic, German, Dutch, Anglo-Saxon, Frisian and Scandinavian peoples, by dr Gudmund Schütte, [professor, history & philology, Købnhavns Universitet] (1929-33) University Press. 

10 February 2014

Aeragnaricii : Ragnaricii, Raumaricii, Romerike, Ranrike, Ragnaricii- huar Suíþióð oc Noregr mæta

Tanumshede- Nordic bronze-age rock-art in (northern) Bohuslän,  3 men performing ritual, c. 2nd millennium BC
Published, edited, images added and annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
(from Wikipedia)

Ranrike (oldnorse "ON" ["Old Norse" usually refers to western ON, i.e., oldnorwegian or oldicelandic, most writers, often, completely ignoring eastern ON, namely oldswedish "OSw", olddanish "ODa", oldscanian {scanian = skånska, gutnish, etc.) "ON" Ránríki) was the old name for a part of Viken, corresponding to southeast Norway (Oslofjord area) and the northern half of the modern Swedish (Norwegian until 1658) province of Bohuslän (part of the city of Gothenburg, Sw

28 September 2012

"On Breaking" (Vowel-breaking ['a' to 'éa' in WestSaxon, 'a' to 'iá/já' in Norse] in certain Germanic languages)

Published, formatted, heavily-edited, corrected, images added & annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig Introductory Phonology By Hayes, Bruce (Google Affiliate Ad)

by K.S.Doig
Dr. Kortland is a superior linguist/philologist, but his typing & writing-skills (at least in English, I hope they´re better in his native Dutch. I spent hours just formatting the sentences from a PDF-file and much more time correcting spelling-errors, etc. I might have missed a few things.
by Frederik Kortlandt, PhD

Professor Emeritus, Leiden University, NL 

To the memory of Jörundur Hilmarsson

As H.F. Nielsen points out, for Old English 'it is fairly certain that breaking takes place prior to t-mutation, which itself precedes back-umlaut.2 [...]
Freemasonry Among the Anglo-Saxons (Google Affiliate Ad)

On the other hand, OE breaking must be later than OE fronting of α >  which is most likely to be an independent development' (1984:75, 80). This chronology suffices to show that the Old-English breaking cannot be identified with the Scandinavian breaking.History of the Scots Language (Google Affiliate Ad)

22 January 2012




                                           PATERNOSTER (FÆDERÚRE) LORD´S PRAYER IN
                                           A VERY GOOD, AUTHENTIC (TO MINE EARS) 
                                           ACCENT. I BELIEVE THAT I READ SOMEWHERE THAT
                                           THE SPEAKER IS FROM ICELAND WHICH WOULD
                                           GIVE HIM MUCH NATIVE KNOWLEDGE ON OE/WE
                                           PHONOLOGY, ESPECIALLY VOWEL-SOUNDS &
                                           GRAMMAR, MORPHOLOGY, CONJUGATIONAL & 

03 October 2011




Runic Alphabets

Runes are also called Futhark, which actually is an analogue to our "alphabet", in that f, u, th, a, r, and k are the first 6 Runic letters, while alpha and beta are the first 2 Greek letters. Why this order? It must have had some mneumonic function that was not preserved. (Just like why aleph, beth, and gimmel are the first 3 letters in Phoenician/Ugaritic).

31 May 2011


Posted, formatted & edited by Kenneth S. Doig

Germanic languages

Primary Contributors: Anthony F. Buccini, William G. Moulton

Germanic languages, Distribution of the Germanic languages in Europe.
[Credit: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.]branch of the Indo-European language family. Scholars often divide the Germanic languages into three groups: West Germanic, including English, German, and Netherlandic (Dutch); North Germanic, including Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Faroese; and East Germanic, now extinct, comprising only Gothic and the languages of the Vandals, Burgundians, and a few other tribes.
In numbers of native speakers, English, with 450 million, clearly ranks 4th among the languages of the world (after Mandarin, Hindi, and Spanish); German, with some 98 million, probably ranks 10th (after Bengali, Arabic, Portuguese, Russian, and Japanese). To these figures may be added those for persons with another native language who have learned one of the Germanic languages for commercial, scientific, literary, or other purposes. English is unquestionably the world’s most widely used second language.
See table for information on each of the modern standard Germanic languages.

Table 14: Modern Standard Germanic Languages

                 where spoken                       approximate number  use as a 
                                                    of native speakers  second language 
English          Great Britain, Ireland, United         450,000,000     extreme 
                   States, Canada, Australia, 
                   New Zealand, South Africa
German           Germany, Austria, Switzerland           98,000,000     extensive 
Netherlandic     The Netherlands, Belgium                21,000,000     moderate 
  (Dutch,          (part) 
Swedish          Sweden, Finland (part)                   8,000,000     slight  
Afrikaans        South Africa (part), Namibia (part)      6,000,000     slight
Danish           Denmark                                  5,000,000     slight 
Norwegian        Norway                                   4,000,000     slight 
Frisian          The Netherlands, Germany                   400,000      -- 
Yiddish          various countries                          400,000     slight
Icelandic        Iceland                                    260,000      -- 
Faroese          Faroe Islands                               44,000      --
The source for the English-, Netherlandic-, and Yiddish-language figures is
B.E. Grimes (ed.), Ethnologue (1992); other figures, except Frisian, are from
various official country sources.

The very core of the Germanic proto-homeland was modern-
day Denmark, southern to south-central Sweden & extreme
SE Norway, near present-day Oslo. This is where the
ethnogenisis took place. From a core of Asiatic late-comers
to northwestern Europe. These people brought with them,
Indo-European (IE) speech, religion, society to this recently
deglaciated, cold, wet, and sparsely-populated area. It was
here that the IE's who were of the Mediterranean race,
virtually all long-skulled, long/oval-faced white people who'd
undergone dramatic pigment-loss due to their long sojourn
in their putative second Urheimat, the staging-grounds
whence they dispersed c. 2500 BC to c. 1000 BC, bounded
by the northern shores of the Black Sea, mostly northeast-
wards into central Asia up to lat. 55 deg N. The skeletal
evidence alone has convince me and the non-communist,
scientist who rejected the doctrines of the lying fraud,
Franz Boas & his minions who admittingly used politcal-
base science (i.e.) lies to further communism. I am speaking
about the honest man of true science, Carletoon S. Coon PhD
(Harvard) whose PhD was in physical antropology. He wrote
the greatest book, based on years of measurements, field-
research, and he even admits in areas that some of what
he's written is conjecture. This magnum opus, the best book
ever written about the white races in and around Europe,
is "The Races of Europe". He concluded, but with the
proviso, that is was conjecture that the people connected
with Proto-Indo-European speech, its spread and the founders
of most European and many western Asian nations (Persia,
India) were of an "acestral nordic type" in all cases.
Conclusions drawn from anthropometric skeletal
 measurements. This is backed up by legend, ancient
historians such as Herodotus, Dio Cssio, etc. All of
the ancient polytheistic IE religions have blond, nordic
type deities, even in places like India. Euhemerism.

01 April 2011

Intro to old-norse

Modern descendantsThe modern descendants of the Old West Norse dialect are the West Scandinavian languages of Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian and the extinct Norn language of the Orkney and the Shetland Islands; the descendants of the Old East Norse dialect are the East Scandinavian languages of Danish and Swedish. Norwegian is descended from Old West Norse, but over the centuries it has been heavily influenced by East Norse, particularly during the Denmark-Norway union.

Old Norse is a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300.
The changing processes that distinguish Old Norse from its older form, Proto-Norse, were mostly concluded around the 8th century, and another transitional period that led up to the modern descendants of Old Norse (i.e., the modern North Germanic languages) started in the mid- to late 14th century, thereby ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute. For instance, one can still find written Old Norse well into the 15th century.
The first major dialectal distinctions in the language arose in the Old East Norse, Old West Norse, and Old Gutnish dialects. No clear geographical boundary exists between the Eastern and Western dialects. Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway, and Old West Norse traits were found in western Sweden. Most speakers of Old Norse dialects spoke the Old East Norse dialect originating in what are present-day Denmark and Sweden. Old Gutnish, the more obscure dialectal branch, is sometimes included in the Old East Norse dialect due to geographical associations. It shares traits with both Old West Norse and Old East Norse but had also developed on its own.

The 12th century Icelandic Gray Goose Laws state that Swedes, Norwegians, Icelanders and Danes

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