Showing posts with label Italic. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Italic. Show all posts

26 March 2015

Map: Gaul during Caesar's time

Published, edited, images added & annotations/comments by Kenneth S. Doig
Gaulish warrior on
horseback
(websource: Encyclopædia Orbis Latini)

written by L. A. Curchin 

When Cicero's brother Quintus was besieged by the Nervii in Gaul, Julius Caesar sent him a secret message -- in Greek, not Latin, so it could not be read by the enemy if they intercepted it. 
map showing various (mostly) Indo-European peoples/tribes, c.
500 BC
This is because the Latin and Gaulish languages were very similar to each other, whereas Greek was only a distant relation (and also had a different alphabet). 

Unfortunately the Gauls have left us no literature, so the two ancient European languages we normally study are Latin and Greek.

Despite the similarity, Gaulish was not an Italic language like Latin, but belonged to the Celtic language group, whose modern derivatives include Gaelic, Welsh and Irish. 

The ancient Celts were variously called Keltoi, Celtae, Galatae or Galli, which are really four different forms of the same name. 

Around 390 BC the Gauls sacked Rome. In 279 BC they attacked Delphi, and some of them settled in north-western Turkey: these were the Galatians, whose descendants received an epistle from St. Paul. 
map showing various Gaulish-Celtic tribes
in western Europe in antiquity
The western Celts lived mostly in northern Italy, France and Britain, and these were the 'Gauls' encountered by Caesar.

Our sketchy knowledge of the Gaulish language comes from notices in classical authors and from a small number of Gaulish inscriptions. The longest and most famous of these is the Coligny calendar, preserved on two bronze tablets found in 1897 at Bourg in eastern France. 

This is a lunar calendar with months of 29 days; the lunar time-reckoning of the Gauls is mentioned by Caesar (Gallic War 6.18).

Many Gaulish words closely resemble their Latin counterparts: 
 
Gaulish Latin
-cue and
es out of
are before
ver over
allos second
tarvos bull
tri three
more sea
rix king
-que 
ex 
ante 
super 
alius 
taurus 
tres, tria 
mare 
rex
 
Caesar's civitates Aremoricae are those who live are more (= ante mare). His opponent Vercingetorix is the over-king (ver-rix) of warriors (cingetos = Irish cinged 'champion')

In the Coligny calendar, the verb divertomu appears at the end of each month and means 'we turn aside (to a different month)': its Latin equivalent is the very similar divertimus

The verb comeimu means 'we go together' (Latin con- 'together' + imus 'we go', from eo, ire).

The close similarity of Gaulish and Latin declensions is clear from this example:
 
Cases
Singular
Plural
Nominative 
Genitive
Dative 
Accusative
-os /-us (earlier -os)
-i / -i
-u (earlier -o) / -o
-om / -um (earlier -om)
-os, / -oi -i (earlier -oi)
-om / -orum (earlier -om)
-obis / -is (earlier -ois)
-ons / -os (earlier -ons)
Some Gaulish words have no Latin equivalent, because they refer to things unknown at Rome: sapo "soap" (Romans used olive oil instead), cervesia 'beer' (Romans drank wine), tunna 'barrel' (Romans preferred clay storage jars), bracae 'trousers' (Romans wore a toga or tunic). 

Our word 'beaver' is related to beber, the Gaulish name for this animal, from which comes the Gaulish town-name Bibracte. (The Roman equivalent, castor, is possibly the origin of our 'castor' oil, which has a certain resemblance to a nauseous, bitter-tasting oily medicine formerly extracted from the bodies of beavers.)

The similarity of Gaulish to Latin helped it to disappear. Under Roman rule, the Gauls found it relatively easy to learn Latin, and eventually forgot their own language. 

By the Late Empire, when Gaul was overrun by the Germanic Franks, Gaulish was close to extinct. This explains why modern French is based on Latin and Frankish rather than Gaulish.
© L. A. Curchin 

13 March 2014

Italo-Celtic


Published, edited, formatted, any annotations (in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig
(Wikipedia)

In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language-family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others. 

These are usually considered to be innovations, which are likely to have developed after the breakup of Proto-Indo-European or PIE.

It is also possible that some of these are not innovations, but shared

02 April 2013

Umbrian Glossary (an ancient Italic [branch of Indo-European] language related to Latin


PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG


Umbrian

(from Alpha Dictionary)
Notes for Glossary:
r' - a special sybylant in Umbrian, written like Czech [rz]
ç - another peculiar Umbrian sound, written like in French commençons


Glossary:
Umbrian Latin Indo-European
ager (a field) ager IE *ag'ro- (a field)
ahesnes (copper; abl.pl.) aenis
alfu, Pelignan alafis (white) albus IE *albho- (white)
ander (inside) in (in, inside) IE *en (in, inside)
anglome (to the edge) ad angulum IE *ang- (a corner, an edge)
anouihimu (he dresses) induo (I put on) Lithuanian auti (to put on shoes), Armenian aganim (I dress), Avestan aoðrem (a shoe)
arçlataf (a round cake; acc.pl.) arculatas IE *argw- (a bow and arrows)
arsfertur (a priest) IE *bher- (to carry, to bring)
arsie (a victim; loc.sg.)
arsueitu (I bring, I lead)
atru, adro (black; pl. neut.) atra IE *atr@- (open fire)
berus (a spear; abl. pl.) verus IE *gwerw- (a wooden spear)
bum (a bull; acc.sg.) bos, gen. bovis IE *gwou- (a bull)
cringatro, krenkatrum (a bandage on the shoulder) Russian krug (a ring), Norse hringr, Old English hring (a ring)
destrame (to the right) in dextram IE *dek's- (right)
dirsa, dida- (Pelignan) (I give) do (I give), dedi (I gave) IE *dó- (to give)
eho (I, me) ego IE *eg'hom (I, me)
eiscurent (they demanded)
emantur (they are being purchased) emuntur IE *em- (to take, to distribute)
enuk (that way)
ere, erek; dat.sg. esmei, gen.pl. eru (this) is IE *so- (this)
esaristrom (a temple; Volscian acc.sg.)
esono- (saint)
et (and) et Greek eti (more, over), Phrygian eti, Indic atas (thence)
etants (such in quantity) tantus IE *to- (this)
etru (other; dat.sg.)
fakust (makes) facet IE *dhé- (to put)
far (farine) far IE *bhar- (a herb, millet)
ferar (they will bring) ferunt IE *bher- (to carry)
fertu (I carry) fero IE *bher- (to carry)
fesnafe, fesnere (to the temple) feriae IE *dhey- (a god?)
foner (people who favour) faventes Slavic *govêti (to fast), Norse ga (to respect)
fratrom, fratrum (brothers; gen.pl.) fratrorum IE *bhra'te'r 'a brother'
furo, furu (a forum) forum IE *dhwer- (an enclosed place, a door)
Grabovius (a god of oak)
heriest (he will wish) hortitur (he encourages) Russian zarkij (greedy), Indic haryati (he adores), Greek khairo (I am glad), Gothic gaírns (greedy)
herter (wants) see above
ier (they go) eunt IE *ei- (to go)
iuenga (a heifer) IE *yun- (fresh, young)
iupater, dat.sg. iuvipatri (Jupiter) Juppiter IE *deiwo- (a deity)
karu, abl.sg. karne (a part)
katel, gen. katles (a puppy) catulus Norse hathna (a goat-cub), Serbo-Croatian kotiti se (to whelp)
manuve (a hand; loc.sg.) mano IE *man- (a hand; power)
mehe, me (me) mihi, me IE *me (me)
ner (a man) IE *ner-, *@ner- (power, strength)
nome, numem (a name) nomen, nominis IE *@nm- (to name, a name)
nos (we) nos IE *nosmes (we; me and them)
onse (a shoulder; loc.sg.)
peracri (the best;; sharp) acer IE *ak'- (sharp)
per'i, persi (a foot; dat.sg.) pes, pedis IE *ped- (a foot)
pihaclo (propitiation; gen.pl.)
pir (fire) IE *paur- (inanimate fire)
pir'e (something) quidquid IE *kwi- (relative pronoun)
poei (who, which) qui, quod IE *kwi- (relative pronoun)
pracatarum (boundaries; gen.pl.)
prever (alone) privus (peculiar, the only) Old Russian oprich (besides)
pune (because) cum < quom IE *kw-
purdouitu (I have given) perdedi
putres-pe (which of the two; gen.) utrique IE *kwater- (which of the two)
rofu (red) rubus (reddish, rust) IE *reudh- (rust, red)
salu (salt; acc.sg.) sal, salis IE *sal- (dirty, grey; salt)
sent (they are) sunt IE *es- (to be)
stahu (I stand) sto IE *stá- (to stand)
sve (if) si
terkantur (let them see)
tota (a country) Gaulish touta (a tribe, people), Gothic thiuda (people), Old Prussian tauto (people), Hittite tuzzi- (an army)
traf (across, through) trans IE *tra- (through)
tu, dat. tefe, abl. te (thou) tu, tibi, te IE *tú (thou)
tuplak (double) IE *duwo- (two) + *plek- (to spin)
ukar, ocar (a capitol) ocris (a steep mountain) IE *ok'- (sharp, steep)
ull (that) ille
umtu- (let him smear)
umen (an ointment) unguentum
ute (or) aut
utur (water; abl.sg. une) IE *wed- (wet, water)
vinu (wine) vinum Hittite wiana, Greek oinos, Armenian gini
viru, veiru (a man) vir IE *wiro- (a man, a human)
vos (you; pl.) vos IE *yus, *wosom (you)

Sources:

1. Bourcier, E. Basic Romance Linguistics. Moscow, 1952.
2. Korletyanu, N. Research in Popular Latin and its links with Romance languages. Moscow, 1974.
3. Lindsey, W. Brief historical grammar of the Latin language. Moscow, 1948.
4. Tsvetaev, I. The Corpus of Oscan Inscriptions. Kiev, 1877.
5. Tronsky, I. A Historical Grammar of the Latin Language. Moscow, 1960.
6. Fasmer, M. The Etymological dictionary of the Russian language. Moscow, 1986.


15 December 2011

UMBRIAN : AN EXTINCT ITALIC LANGUAGE




File:Iron Age Italy.svg

LANGUAGES SPOKEN ON & NEAR ITALIAN PENINSULA C. 750 BC

ALL ARE OF INDO-EUROPEAN (IE) ORIGIN, EXCEPT ETRUSCAN & 
PROBABLY RAETIC. ITALIC SUBDIVISIONS:, LATINO-FALISCAN,
OSCO-UMBRIAN, AEQUIAN & VESTINIAN. NON-ITALIC BUT STILL
IE, GREEK, MESSAPIC (POSSIBLY BELONGING THRACO-ILLYRIAN
BRANCH OF IE & VARIOUS OTHER IE LANGUAGES IN THE NORTH.
LEPTONIC & GALLIC ARE CELTIC IE & CLOSELY RELATED TO
ITALIC. K.DOIG
PUBLISHED, ANNOTATIONS (IN RED) & FORMATTED BY KENNETH S. DOIG
ANCIENT ETRUSCAN MURAL-PAINTING FROM MIDDLE-ANTIQUITY

 DEPICTING (PRESUMABLY)  ETRUSCAN PEOPLE. THOUGH THE
ETRUSCAN SPEECH, AN UTTERLY UNRELATED, NON-INDOEUROPEAN 
(IE) LANGUAGE. BUT IN PHYSICAL APPEARANCE FROM ANCIENT
 ARTWORK, MURALS, STATUES, FROM THE DETAILED, CREDIBLE 
DESCRIPTIONS BY OUTSIDERS,NON-ETRUSCANS, ESPECIALLY
 CONTEMPORARY, IE ROMAN, GREEK HISTORIANS, WRITERS,
 ROMAN STATESMEN AS BEING RACIALLY, CULTURALLY, &
IN MATERIAL-CULTURE, VIRTUALLY IDENTICAL TO THEM-
SELVES. ARCHAEOLOGY, PALEO-ANTHROPOLOGY, 
CRANIOMETRY  CONFIRM THAT THEY WERE IN VIRTUALLY
ALL AREAS WERE INDO-EUROPEAN BUT FOR THEIR SPEECH.
SOME SCHOLARS (& I) BELIEVE THE ETRUSCANS WHO
(WE KNOW) ORIGINATED IN ASIA-MINOR (ANATOLIA) WAS,
ORIGINALLY AN ANATOLIAN INDO-EUROPEAN GROUP WERE,
PROBABLY CONQUERED BY A NOW-EXTINCT & UNKNOWN,
TONGUE. THE CONQUERORS, IF OF ANOTHER RACE, WERE
ONLY A SMALL RULING ARISTOCRACY, THUS NOT CHANGING
THE GENETIC MAKE-UP & APPEARANCE OF THESE (LIKELY)
VERY ANCIENT INDO-HITTITES WAS NOT SIGNIFICANTLY 
NOTICEABLE. OVER TIME, THESE (LIKELY) CONQUERED INDO-
EUROPEANS FORGOT THEIR NATIVE LANGUAGE & ORIGIN.
K.DOIG

Umbrian
Umbrian is an extinct Italic language formerly spoken by the Umbri in the ancient Italian region of Umbria. Within the Italic languages it is closely related to the Oscan group and is therefore associated with it in the group of Osco-Umbrian languages. Since that classification was first

27 October 2011

INDO-EUROPEAN LEXICON : LANGUAGE INDICES : UT AUSTIN : LRC

PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

(websource)

Indo-European Lexicon

Language Indices

Below we list Indo-European languages by family, from west to east. Families are divided into groups, by age and/or geographic area (again, generally from west to east). Each language is listed via a standard abbreviation followed by its full-form name; "a.k.a." comments may indicate synonymous language/dialect names.


WESTERN EURASIA c. 200 AD. THIS MAPS SHOWS PLACEMENT OF MANY
INDO-EUROPEAN KINGDOMS, POLITIES, TRIBES, ETHNICITIES & ALLIANCES.
IN THE FOLLOWING QUADRANTS; SW, ROMAN EMPIRE, THRACE, ILLYRIA, DACIA,
MACEDON
, ETC. IN SE, ASIA MINOR/ANATOLIA, ON ITS W. SHORES, GREEK CITY-
STATES, INLAND, CELTIC-GALATIANS, REMNANTS OF THE IE-ANATOLIAN FAMILY,
RELATED TO HITTITE, PRHYGIAN, PALAIC, LUWIAN, ETC. IN THE NE, THE INDO-
IRANIAN (IRANIC), ALANS, SAMARTIANS, SKYTHIANS, GETAE
WITH TWO EASTERN
OUTLIER-GROUPS OF GMC GOTHS RIGHT IN THE MIDDLE OF IRANIC SKYTHIANS & THE
 SLAVIC TRIBES.THE NORTHCENTER QUAD, VARIOUS SLAVONIC TRIBES, TO THEIR NW,
THE CLOSELY RELATED (TO SLAVONIC) THE BALTS; LITHUANIAN, LATVIAN,
PRUSSIAN, ETC. WESTQUAD ARE, GERMANIC TRIBES, THE EGMC SCIRII, RUGII, GEPIDS,
VANDALS, THE HYBRID CELTO-E-GMC BASTARNE. IT'D APPEAR FROM THIS MAP,
THAT THE STILL-IN-HOMELAND NORTHWEST-GERMANIC TRIBES, THE PREDECESSORS
OF THE WGMC & NWGMC HAD YET TO VENTURE VERY FAR SOUTH INTO
"GERMANIA". AT TOP, THE NON-IE, FENNO-UGRIC-URALIC TRIBES, FINNISH, QUAINS,
SAAMI/LAPPS, PERMIANS, KARELIANS, ETC.
. THIS LIST IS FAR FROM EXHAUSTIVE.
(NOTE: 'SCYTH' DOES NOT SOUND LIKE THE FARMTOOL. "SCYTHE".
SCYTH, CAN BE WRITTEN "SKYTH", THE 'K' MUST BE PRONOUNCE. 'SKYTH RHYMES
WITH 'MYTH'.  K.DOIG
If we have prepared an alphabetic index to a particular language's reflexes -- words & affixes therein, derived from ancient Proto-Indo-European etyma -- a link is provided to a page (available in 3 character-set versions) listing those reflexes. This work is in progress: reflex indices are being added on a language-by-language basis, as time goes on, for languages with 10 or more reflexes.


Because our IE Lexicon currently emphasizes Germanic languages, especially English, we have split the Germanic family into four convenient but partly imaginary sub-families:
  1. English (technically part of Anglo-Frisian Low German);
  2. West Germanic (minus all English dialects, per above);
  3. North Germanic (the Norse/Scandinavian languages); and
  4. East Germanic (of which only Gothic is well-attested).
In addition, our Paleo-Balkan "family" lists languages in four groups, of which only Albanian is well-attested and that only recently; the languages in the other groups do not necessarily form a family with Albanian (or each other), but are listed with it mainly for geographic reasons and because there is no other place to put them. No hard conclusions should be drawn from our Paleo-Balkan "family" structure: it is, at best, speculative!


While the Nuristani languages are now considered a third branch of the Indo-Iranian family, the status of the Dardic languages is less clear. Traditionally, Dardic was assigned to the Indic branch; but this was less than certain and, indeed, the languages in our Dardic "family" do not necessarily form a single genetic tree. 


We have tentatively listed Dardic alongside Indic, next to the Nuristani languages by which Dardic tongues are known to be influenced. Again, no hard conclusions should be drawn from this structural detail.

Celtic
Insular (Goidelic)
OIr.Old Irish
MIr.Middle Irish
Ir.Irisha.k.a. Irish Gaelic
Gael.Gaelica.k.a. Scots Gaelic
ScotGScots Gaelic
ManxManxa.k.a. Manx Gaelic
Shel.Shelta
Insular (Brythonic)
OBret.Old Breton
MBret.Middle Breton
Bret.Breton
OCorn.Old Cornish
MCorn.Middle Cornish
Corn.Cornish
Cumb.Cumbric
OWOld Welsh
MWMiddle Welsh
WWelsh
Continental
Celt.Celtiberian
Gaul.Gaulish
TGaul.Transalpine Gaulish
CGaul.Cisalpine Gaulish
Lep.Lepontic
NoricNoric
Gal.Galatian

English
Old
OEOld Englisha.k.a. Anglo-Saxon
ASAnglo-Saxon
WSax.West Saxon
Angl.Anglian
NUmb.Northumbrian
Merc.Mercian
Kent.Kentish
Middle
MEMiddle English
Modern
EEnglisha.k.a. New English
NENew English
AmEngAmerican English
BritEBritish English
ScotEScots English

West Germanic
Low German (Anglo-Frisian)
OFris.Old Frisian
OWFris.Old West Frisian
MFris.Middle Frisian
Fris.Frisian
WFris.West Frisiana.k.a. Dutch/Netherlands Frisian
NFris.North Frisian
EFris.East Frisian
Sater.Saterfriesisch
Low German (Dutch, Saxon, etc.)
OFOld Frankisha.k.a. Old Franconian
ODu.Old Dutcha.k.a. Old Low Franconian
OLFOld Low Franconian
MDu.Middle Dutch
Du.Dutch
Afrik.Afrikaans
FFranconiana.k.a. Mainfränkisch
OFlem.Old Flemish
MFlem.Middle Flemish
Flem.Flemish
WFlem.West Flemish
Limb.Limburgisha.k.a. Limburger, Limburgan
PaGPennsylvania Germana.k.a. Pennsylvania Dutch
OSOld Saxona.k.a. Old Low German
OLGOld Low German
MLGMiddle Low German
LGLow Germana.k.a. Low Saxon
LSLow Saxona.k.a. Low Franconian
Thur.Thuringian
High German
OHGOld High German
MHGMiddle High German
MGMiddle Germana.k.a. Frankish
ENHGEarly New High German
NHGNew High Germana.k.a. (Standard) German
GGermana.k.a. Standard German
Bav.Bavariana.k.a. Austro-Bavarian
Alm.Alemannic
Swab.Swabian
SwissSwiss Germana.k.a. Alsatian, Schwyzerdütsch
Wals.Walser
Yid.Yiddish
Lux.Luxembourgish
Lang.Langobardica.k.a. Lombardic

North Germanic
Run.Runic
ONOld Norse
West Norse
OWNOld West Norse
OIce.Old Icelandic
Ice.Icelandic
Faer.Faeroesea.k.a. Faroese
NornNorn
ONorw.Old Norwegian
MNorw.Middle Norwegian
Norw.Norwegian
NBok.Norwegian Bokmål
NNorw.New Norwegiana.k.a. Nynorsk
Jamt.Jamtska
East Norse
OENOld East Norse
ODan.Old Danish
MDan.Middle Danish
Dan.Danish
OSw.Old Swedish
MSw.Middle Swedish
Sw.Swedish
OGut.Old Gutnish
Gut.Gutnish

East Germanic
Gothic
Go.Gothic
VisGo.Visigoth
OstGo.Ostrogoth
CrGo.Crimean Gothic
other (all marginally attested)
Vand.Vandalic
Burg.Burgundian

Italic
Ven.Venetic
Aeq.Aequian
Vest.Vestinian
Sabellic
Osc.Oscan
Hern.Hernican
Marr.Marrucinian
Pael.Paelignian
Umb.Umbrian
Mars.Marsian
Sab.Sabine
SPic.South Picene
Vol.Volscian
Latino-Faliscan
Fal.Faliscan
OLat.Old Latin
Lat.Latin
VLat.Vulgar Latin
LLat.Late Latin
MLat.Middle Latin
MELat.Medieval Latina.k.a. Low Latin
NLat.New Latin
Western Romance
OPort.Old Portuguesea.k.a. Medieval Galician, Galician-Portuguese
Port.Portuguese
Gali.Galiciana.k.a. Galego
OSp.Old Spanish
MSp.Middle Spanish
ClSp.Classical Spanish
Lad.Ladinoa.k.a. Sefardi, Judaeo-Spanish
Sp.Spanish
AmSp.American Spanisha.k.a. New World Spanish
MexSp.Mexican Spanish
Arag.Aragonese
OCat.Old Catalan
Cat.Catalan
OFr.Old French
ONFr.Old North French
AngFr.Anglo-Frencha.k.a. Anglo-Norman
Wall.Walloon
MFr.Middle French
Fr.French
AmFr.American French
CanFr.Canadian Frencha.k.a. Quebec French
AcadFr.Acadian French
LaFr.Cajun French
OProv.Old Provençala.k.a. Old Occitan
OOcc.Old Occitan
Occ.Occitana.k.a. Occitanian
Prov.Provençal
OIt.Old Italian
It.Italian
Neap.Neapolitan
Rom.Romansha.k.a. Romansch, Rhaeto-Romance
Insular Romance
Cors.Corsican
Sard.Sardinian
Sic.Sicilian
Eastern Romance
Dalm.Dalmatian
Rum.Rumaniana.k.a. Romanian
Mold.Moldaviana.k.a. Moldovan
Arom.Aromaniana.k.a. Arumanian, Macedo-Romanian
Istr.Istro Romanian
Megl.Megleno Romanian

Balto-Slavic
Baltic
Nadr.Nadruvian
Skal.Skalvian
West
Galin.Galindan
Sudo.Sudoviana.k.a. Yotvingian
OPrus.Old Prussiana.k.a. Prussian
East
Curo.Curonian
Sel.Selonian
Zem.Zemgaliana.k.a. Semigallian
OLith.Old Lithuanian
LLith.Low Lithuanian
Lith.Lithuanian
Latv.Latviana.k.a. Lettish
Slavic
OSlav.Old Slavic
West
OPol.Old Polish
Pol.Polish
OPom.Old Pomeranian
Kashub.Kashubian
Polab.Polabian
OCz.Old Czech
Cz.Czech
Knaan.Knaanica.k.a. Canaanic, Judeo-Slavic, Leshon Knaan
SlovakSlovak
OSorb.Old Sorbian
Wend.Wendisha.k.a. Sorbian
Sorb.Sorbian
USorb.Upper Sorbian
LSorb.Lower Sorbian
Lusat.Lusatian
South
OSerb.Old Serbian
SCr.Serbo-Croatian
Serb.Serbian
Croat.Croatian
Bosn.Bosnian
SloveneSlovenian
OCSOld Church Slavonica.k.a. Old Bulgarian
LCSLate Church Slavic
Bulg.Bulgarian
MacSl.Macedonian Slavic
East
ORuss.Old Russian
RCSRussian Church Slavic
Russ.Russian
Ruth.Rutheniana.k.a. West Russian, Chancery Slavonic
Belo.Belorussian
Ukr.Ukrainian

Paleo-Balkan
Albanian
Alb.Albanian
GhegGheg
ToskTosk
Arv.Arvanitika
Arb.Arbëreshë
Illyrian
Illyr.Illyrian
Mess.Messapica.k.a. Messapian
Thracian
Thrac.Thracian
Dac.Dacian
Phrygian
Phryg.Phrygian

Hellenic
Myc.Mycenaean
Arcad.Arcadiana.k.a. Arcadocypriot
Cyp.Cypriana.k.a. Arcadocypriot
MacGk.Macedonian Greek
Hesy.Hesychius' Greek Lexicon
Western
Ach.Achaean
Dor.Dorica.k.a. Dorian
EleanElean
Lac.Laconiana.k.a. Spartan
Central
Aeol.Aeolica.k.a. Aeolian
Boeot.Boeotian
Lesb.Lesbian
Thess.Thessalian
Eastern
Ion.Ionica.k.a. Ionian
Hom.Homeric Greeka.k.a. Epic Greek
Pamph.Pamphylian
Att.Attic
Gk.Greeka.k.a. Classical Greek
LGk.Late Greeka.k.a. Koine
MGk.Medieval Greeka.k.a. Byzantine Greek
Modern
NGk.New Greeka.k.a. Modern Greek
Cap.Cappadocian
Pont.Pontic
Tsak.Tsakonian

Anatolian
Luwian
Luw.Luwian
CLuw.Cuneiform Luwian
HLuw.Hieroglyphic Luwian
Lyc.Lyciana.k.a. Lycian A
Mil.Milyana.k.a. Lycian B
Car.Carian
Side.Sidetic
Pisid.Pisidica.k.a. Pisidian
Hittite
Hitt.Hittite
OHitt.Old Hittite
MHitt.Middle Hittite
NHitt.Neo-Hittite
Pala.Palaic
Lyd.Lydian

Armenian
Classical
OArm.Classical Armeniana.k.a. Grabar
Middle
MArm.Middle Armenian
Modern
Arm.Armenian

Indo-Iranian
Iranian
OIran.Old Iranian
MIran.Middle Iranian
Yas.Yassic
Iran.Iranian
Western
OPers.Old Persian
Med.Median
Pahl.Pahlavia.k.a. Pehlevi, Middle Persian
MPers.Middle Persian
Mani.Manichaean
Parth.Parthian
NPers.New Persiana.k.a. Persian
Pers.Persiana.k.a. Farsi, Parsi
FarsiFarsi
Balu.Baluchi
Kurd.Kurdish
Par.Parachi
DariDari
Taj.Tajik
Eastern
OAv.Old Avestan
Av.Avestan
YAv.Young Avestan
OScyth.Old Scythian
Scyth.Scythian
Sogd.Sogdian
Bact.Bactrian
Chor.Chorasmian
Alan.Alanic
OOss.Old Ossetic
Khot.Khotanese
Sac.Saciana.k.a. Sakan
Saka.Sakana.k.a. Sacian
Tums.Tumshuqese
Oss.Ossetica.k.a. Osetin, Ossetian
Push.Pushtoa.k.a. Pashto
Yagn.Yagnobia.k.a. Yaghnobi
PamirPamir
Shug.Shughnia.k.a. Shugnan, Shugni
Sari.Sarikolia.k.a. Sarykoly, Salikur
Yazg.Yazgulyam
Munj.Munjia.k.a. Munjani
Ishk.Ishkashimi
Sang.Sanglechi
Wakh.Wakhia.k.a. Wakhani
Yidg.Yidghaa.k.a. Yidga
Wane.Wanecia.k.a. Wanechi, Vanechi
Nuristani
Pras.Prasunia.k.a. Vasi-vari
Bash.Bashgalia.k.a. Kati, Kamkata-viri
Ashk.Ashkunu
Treg.Tregamia.k.a. Gambiri
Waig.Waigalia.k.a. Kalasha-ala
Dardic
Khow.Khowar
Kals.Kalashaa.k.a. Kalasha-mun
Kash.Kashmiri
Kish.Kishtwari
Pogu.Poguli
Bat.Bateri
Chil.Chilisso
Gow.Gowro
Kalk.Kalkoti
Kalm.Kalami
Koh.Kohistani
Tira.Tirahi
Torw.Torwali
Wota.Wotapuri-Katarqalai
Dam.Dameli
GawarGawar-Bati
Nang.Nangalami
Shum.Shumashti
Pash.Pashayia.k.a. Pashai
PashNWPashayi-NWa.k.a. NW Pashai
PashSWPashayi-SWa.k.a. SW Pashai
PashNEPashayi-NEa.k.a. NE Pashai
PashSEPashayi-SEa.k.a. SE Pashai
Brok.Brokskada.k.a. Brokskat (?)
Domk.Domaaki
Phal.Phaluraa.k.a. Palola/Palula/Phalulo
ShinKoShina-Kohistani
ShinaShina
SaviSavi
Ush.Ushojo
Indic
RVRigvedica.k.a. Rgvedic, Ancient Sanskrit
Ved.Vedic
Skt.Sanskrit
Middle
Prak.Prakrit
Gand.Gandhari
PaliPali
Saur.Sauraseni
OMart.Old Marathi
Modern
Assm.Assamese
Beng.Bengali
Bhil.Bhili
Bih.Bihari
Domr.Domaria.k.a. Luti, Mehtar, Tsigene, Middle Eastern Romani
Guj.Gujarati
Hin.Hindia.k.a. Hindi-Urdu
Khan.Khandeshi
Konk.Konkani
Kum.Kumauni
Lahn.Lahnda
Mald.Maldivian
Mart.Marathi
Nep.Nepali
Ori.Oriya
Pnj.Panjabia.k.a. Punjabi
Raj.Rajasthani
Rmy.Romania.k.a. Romany, Gypsy
Sind.Sindhi
Sinh.Sinhalesea.k.a. Sinhala
Thar.Tharu
UrduUrdua.k.a. Hindi-Urdu

Tocharian
Toch.Tochariana.k.a. Common Tokharian
Western
TochBTocharian Ba.k.a. Kuchean, Tokharian B
Eastern
TochATocharian Aa.k.a. Turfanian, Tokharian A


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