Showing posts with label Ireland. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Ireland. Show all posts

23 December 2012

Celtic History


Published, formatted, edited, images (except, where noted) & annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig


General Celtic Info


The Celts dominated Mid- and West-Europe for a thousand years. But it is only recently that the importance of Celtic influence on the cultural, linguistic and artistic development of Europe. 

The Celts as an identifiable race or ethnic group have long since disappeared, except in places such as Ireland and the Scottish Highlands.

27 July 2012

Etymologies of British placenames (England, Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, Mann)



Published, edited, formatted, images added & annotated (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig

(Wikipedia)

Elements

Key to languages: Bry. Brythonic; C - Cumbric; K - Cornish; I - Irish; L - Latin; ME - Middle English; NF - Norman French; OE - Old English; ON - Old Norse; P - Pictish; SG -Scots Gaelic; W - Welsh

Term Origin Meaning Example Position Comments
aber C, W, P, K mouth (of a river), confluence, a meeting of waters Aberystwyth, Aberdyfi,Aberdeen, Aberuthven prefix
ac, acc, ock OE ác acorn, or oak tree Accrington, Acomb,Acton, Matlock

PUBLISHED, EDITED & FORMATTED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

Ancient Ireland

A collection of findings from Archaeology, Geology and other scientific endeavor.

The following table is meant only as a general guide to some of the early Irish epochs

The Old-Stone-Age (Palaeolithic): Long ago to 8500-7500 BC

The Middle-Stone-Age (Mesolithic): 8500-7500 to 4000-3500 BC
The New-Stone-Age (Neolithic): 4000-3500 to 2500-2000 BC
The Early Bronze-Age: 2500-2000 to 1300-1200 BC
The Late Bronze-Age: 1300-1200 to 700-500 BC
The Dark-Age: 700-500 BC to 200-150 BC
The Iron-Age: 200-150 BC to 450-500 AD
The early Christian period: 450-500 AD to 800 AD
The Viking Age: 800 to 1075 AD
Medieval: 1075 to 1550 AD
   
Please note that dates given here are estimates based on current opinion and evidence, and are subject to change. The convention used on this page is to indicate radiocarbon dates in lower case letters (bc), versus the use of upper case letters (BC) for alternate dating estimates.
   

The Ice-Ages


 
Caught in the ebb and flow of the last Ice-Ages over the last 2-million years, Ireland was at various times largely glaciated and completely land-locked as a part of the continent of Europe. 
Ireland was an island about 125,000 years ago when the sea-level appears to have been very close to its present position.

Celtic History : General Celtic Info





PUBLISHED, EDITED, FORMATTED, IMAGES ADDED & ANNOTATED (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG


 (websource)
Celtic History
     
General Celtic Info

The Celts dominated Mid and Western Europe for a thousand years. But it is only recently that the importance of Celtic influence on the cultural, linguistic and artistic development of Europe. 

The Celts as an identifiable race or ethnic group have long since disappeared, except in places such as Ireland and the Scottish Highlands.

The Celts transmitted their culture orally, never writing down history or facts. This accounts for the extreme lack of knowledge about them prior to their contact with the classical civilizations of Greece and Rome.

16 July 2012

Scotti, Scottas, Dalriata, Gaels, Picts & Eire


C. 550 AD
PUBLISHED, FORMATTED, EDITED & ANNOTATED (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG


(Wikipedia)
Scoti or Scotti was the generic name used by the Romans to describe those who sailed from Ireland to conduct raids on Roman Britain. It was thus synonymous with the modern term Gaels


In the 5th century, these raiders established the kingdom of Dál Riata along the west coast of Scotland. 




As this kingdom expanded in size and influence, the name was applied to all its subjects – hence the modern terms Scot, Scottish and Scotland.


The origin of the word Scoti or Scotti is uncertain. Charles Oman derives it from the Gaelic word Scuit (a man cut-off), suggesting that a Scuit was not a general word for the Gael but a band of outcast raiders. 


In the 19th century Aonghas MacCoinnich of Glasgow proposed that Scoti was derived from the Gaelic word Sgaothaich. It has also been suggested that it comes from the Greek word skotos (σκότος) meaning darkness.


Scotland takes its name from Scotus which in Latin translates into Irishman (masculine form of Scoti).

13 January 2012

"MYTHS OF BABYLONIA & ASSYRIA" : CHAPTER II : "THE LANDS OF RIVERS & THE GOD OF THE DEEP"

FERTILE CRESCENT/MESOPOTAMIA IN EARLY ANTIQUITY 
PUBLISHED, FORMATTED, IMAGES ADDED & ANNOTATIONS (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG
IRON-AGE RACE/ETHNICITIES OF WESTERN
EURASIA & NORTH-AFRICA (FROM, "THE
RACES OF EUROPE" (1939), CARLETON
COON, PhD

By Donald A. Mackenzie
(websource)

Chapter II. The Land of Rivers and the God of the Deep

Hebrew
HEBREW: BLUE-EYED
REDDISH BEARD


  
Abstract: Fertility of Ancient Babylonia--Rivers, Canals, Seasons, and Climate--Early Trade and Foreign Influences--Local Religious Cults--Ea, God of the Deep, identical with Oannes of Berosus--Origin as a Sacred Fish--Compared with Brahma and Vishnu--Flood Legends in Babylonia and India--Fish Deities in Babylonia and Egypt--Fish God as a Corn God--The River as Creator--Ea an Artisan God, and links with Egypt and India--Ea as the Hebrew Jah--Ea and Varuna are Water and Sky Gods--The Babylonian Dagan and Dagon of the Philistines--Deities of Water and Harvest in Phoenicia, Greece, Rome, Scotland, Scandinavia, Ireland, and Egypt--Ea's Spouse Damkina--Demons of Ocean in Babylonia and India--Anu, God of the Sky--Enlil, Storm and War God of Nippur, like Adad, Odin, &c.--Early Gods of Babylonia and Egypt of common origin--Ea's City as Cradle of Sumerian Civilization.


BABYLONIAN EMPIRE
Ancient Babylonia was for over four thousand years the garden of Western Asia. In the days of Hezekiah and Isaiah, when it had come under the sway of the younger civilization of Assyria on the north, it was "a land of corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards, a land of oil olive and of honey[28]". 

27 August 2011

GENERAL CELTIC INFO


Published by K.S.Doig

Images added & captions by K.S.Doig



The Celts dominated Mid and Western Europe for a thousand years. But it is only recently that the importance of Celtic influence on the cultural, linguistic and artistic development of Europe. The Celts as an identifiable race or ethnic group have long since disappeared, except in places such as Ireland and the Scottish Highlands.


The Celts transmitted their culture orally, never writing down history or facts. This accounts for the extreme lack of knowledge about them prior to their contact with the classical civilizations of Greece and Rome. They were generally well educated, particularly on topics such as religion, philosophy, geography and astronomy. The Romans often employed Celtic tutors for their sons.


The bravery of the Celts in battle is legendary. They often spurned body armor, going naked into battle. Celtic society was typically more equal in terms of gender roles. Women were on more or less equal footing as men, being accomplished warriors, merchants and rulers.


Scotland

Early Europe

10 August 2011

Irish DNA-Atlas project launched



Published by Kenneth S. Doig

(Doig is a Gaelic surname, but it was created after the Gaelic-speaking Dalriatic-Scots had entered and gained political supremacy (Kingdom of Alba), but it is a myth that all or even most Scots are Gaels or even Celtic. The Gaels never settled or controlled every part of Scotland. Only one "McDonald", in the top-ten of the most common surnames in Scotland today has a Gaelic prefix "Mc" or "Mac" [there is NO difference in meaning, nor does Scotland have more mac's or Ireland have nore mc's. "Mac" means son is Gaelic, they were patronymic societies] and 0nly thirteen of the top 100 have Mc/Mac prefixes. We all know there are Gaelic surnames without a Mc, Mac or O', like Kennedy, Douglas, Campbell, Cameron, Murphy, Kelley, Riley, Doig, etc. I'd say that at least half of the surnames on that list are Germanic, either Anglo-Saxon, like "Smith", the most common name is Scotland and other the Anglo-Saxon names, Wright, Shaw, Wilson, Wood, Clark, Brown, Marshall. Many are of Germanic-Norwegian Viking derivation, like Southerland, (Súðrland), Lamont, I know, but it is not French, it is a corruption of Old-Norse 'Lagmaðr', Lawman. There are also Norse-Gaelic hybrids like MacGyver (or its many variations) it has the Gaelic 'Mac' and the Scandinavian first name Ivar as in Danish surname Iversen or the Swedish surname Ivarsson. In fact my Swedish fiancée´s grandpa´s name was Ivar. Also McCorckle or MacCorkle is from Mac and the Norse name Þorkell (Thorkell). There are also names of Brythonic Celtic, Norman-French and Dutch origin.
In the year 1200 there were six major regional languages spoken in Scotland, in the Brythonic-Celtic Kingdom of Strathclyde, Welsh, in the SE to central east Germanic Anglian (northern Old-English). In fact Germanic had been spoken several hundred years earlier in Scotland than had Gaelic. In the NE, Pictish, of unknown origin but probably either Germanic or Celtic. In the northern Islands, Shetland and the Orkneys, and on the northern, northwestern and many of the Hebridean Isles,  Germanic Norse. In the Western Islands and center west of Scotland, Gaelic, and all over by the new overlords of Britain, Norman-French. Where my family comes from was Germanic, part of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria, but many not Gaelic Scots adopted Gaelic names when the Gael were in power.  Kenneth S. Doig)

From an article in an Irish genealogy newsletter (pdf): "Over the past decade or so genealogists around the world have become increasingly intrigued by the possibilities afforded through the advances in genetic genealogy to augment or confirm our traditional record based research. This new group project is yet another first for Irish genealogy building on the Society’s unparalleled record of innovative projects and initiatives. The Society’s Director of Archival Services, Séamus O’Reilly, FGSI, will spearhead this new group project in conjunction with Dr. Gianpiero Cavalleri of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland aimed at promoting an awareness, appreciation and knowledge of genetic genealogy. The project will compile an Irish DNA Atlas through the collection of birth briefs and DNA samples. [. . .]

Dr. Cavalleri explained the objective of the project as ‘seeking to create a collection of DNA samples from individuals of Irish origin, which can then be used to explore human genetic variation in the Irish population. Understanding human genetic variation in the Irish population is required for two principal purposes; (1) to further our knowledge of the population history of Ireland and (2) to help us understand how genes influence health in Ireland.’ He said that ‘the diversity of the Irish genome is a valuable, yet largely unexplored, resource of the Irish nation. As an island population on the edge of Europe, Ireland has a rich cultural heritage that is the product of ancient migrations to the region. Understanding and preserving this history enriches our culture. Whilst historical records and archaeological studies have uncovered many wonderful aspects of Irish history, there are many questions left unanswered and DNA can help address these.’

The Aims of the Irish DNA Atlas are (1) To create a DNA collection that allows genetic analysis of population structure within Ireland, and ethnic groups across the island. Analysis of such a collection will reveal ancient demographic movements and inform on the ancestry of specific regions and ethnic groups within Ireland. (2) To create a DNA collection to act as controls in population based studies of health in Ireland. The Project aims to recruit individuals representing each of the 32 counties of Ireland. Each participant should have all eight great grandparents from that county – so that their DNA represents that particular region of Ireland. By recruiting people from every county the project hopes to build a “DNA atlas” of the island of Ireland. This new group project is not confined to GSI Members, anybody can participate. For further information or to participate please contact Séamus O’Reilly on Irish.DNA@familyhistory.ie"

31 July 2011

Sample-files from A Sound-Atlas of Irish-English

Published by Kenneth S. Doig

This section allows you to access the sound files based on recordings of speakers from different parts of Ireland which were made by Raymond Hickey during several years of field work. The data made available here is only a very small section of the total amount contained in A Sound Atlas of Irish English (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2004). In all there are over 1,500 recordings stemming from nearly 1,200 speakers in the sound atlas. There is also sophisticated processing software (written by the present author) which will allow you to extract information from the atlas using parameters which you specify yourself, for instance you could look at all female speakers from rural areas above 50 or all males under 20 from urban centres. You can also consult the realisations of lexical sets with speakers from different parts of the country. There are stretches of free text as well, again read by speakers from various parts of the country.

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