Showing posts with label India. Show all posts
Showing posts with label India. Show all posts

17 January 2014

Mahabharata : Ancient India's greatest epic-poem

Mahabharata, epic, poem, Bhagavad Gita, Ramayana, India, Manu, literature, Sanskrit, Kurukshetra, Krishna, myth 
Published, edited, formatted & images added by Kenneth S. Doig

(from: Wikipedia)
The Mahabharata or Mahābhārata (Sanskrit: महाभारतम्, Mahābhāratam, pronounced [məɦaːˈbʱaːrət̪əm]) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.
Besides its epic narrative of the Kurukshetra-War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pandava princes, the Mahabharata contains much philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or purusharthas (12.161). 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahabharata
Among the principal works and stories that are a part of the Mahabharata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Ramayana, and the Rishyasringa, often considered as works in their own right.

13 April 2012

"Recently-revealed structure in Y haplogroup R1a"

Published by Kenneth S. Doig
(from the 'race/history/evolution notes' blog)

Recently-revealed structure in Y haplogroup R1a


Posters at dna-forums.com using data from the 1000 Genomes Project to identify new Y subclades have arrived at the following structure below M417:

26 January 2012

"Αναλφαβητισμού του Ομήρου : ÓLÆSI HÓMERS : HOMER'S ILLITERACY"

HOMERIC GREECE (ARCHAIC/PRE-CLASSICAL ERA)c. 1250BC. 
FORGET NOT, THE WORDS GREEK & GREECE ARE NEVER,
 NOT ONCE USED BY HOMER (OR ANY GREEKS EVER) IN EITHER 
HIS ILIAD OR ODYSSEY. HE REFERS TO THESE FIRST-KNOWN INDO-
EUROPEANS IN THE AREA, SPEAKING A PROTO-GREEK DIALECT.
THE MAIN ETHNONYM/ENDONYM USED BY HOMER IS ACHAEA
(Αχαιοί,Akhaioí) THE LAND, ACHAEAN, THE ADJECTIVE/
ETHNICITY. ALSO USED ARE THE WORDS, DANAANS & ARGIVES.
K.DOIG 
PUBLISHED, ANNOTATED (IN RED)IMAGES ADDED (UNLESS SO-NOTED), FORMATTED & EDITED BY KENNETH S. DOIG


(text in blue is not from original article, but third-party cite, quote, post or reference-material)
(I do not necessarily agree with any or all of the views, theories or historicity of this article. It is very intersting and seems to hold some water for the most part. Enjoy! Ken Doig) 




ANATOLIA OR ASIA MINOR,ABOUT 1000 YEARS 
AFTER TROJAN WAR, c. 300 AD. TROY/ILION
WOULD'VE BEEN ON FAR CENTER-LEFT OF MAP,
ON COAST, IN WAS TO BECOME GREEK,
NORTHEAST IONIA. K.DOIG

13 January 2012

"MYTHS OF BABYLONIA & ASSYRIA" : CHAPTER II : "THE LANDS OF RIVERS & THE GOD OF THE DEEP"

FERTILE CRESCENT/MESOPOTAMIA IN EARLY ANTIQUITY 
PUBLISHED, FORMATTED, IMAGES ADDED & ANNOTATIONS (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG
IRON-AGE RACE/ETHNICITIES OF WESTERN
EURASIA & NORTH-AFRICA (FROM, "THE
RACES OF EUROPE" (1939), CARLETON
COON, PhD

By Donald A. Mackenzie
(websource)

Chapter II. The Land of Rivers and the God of the Deep

Hebrew
HEBREW: BLUE-EYED
REDDISH BEARD


  
Abstract: Fertility of Ancient Babylonia--Rivers, Canals, Seasons, and Climate--Early Trade and Foreign Influences--Local Religious Cults--Ea, God of the Deep, identical with Oannes of Berosus--Origin as a Sacred Fish--Compared with Brahma and Vishnu--Flood Legends in Babylonia and India--Fish Deities in Babylonia and Egypt--Fish God as a Corn God--The River as Creator--Ea an Artisan God, and links with Egypt and India--Ea as the Hebrew Jah--Ea and Varuna are Water and Sky Gods--The Babylonian Dagan and Dagon of the Philistines--Deities of Water and Harvest in Phoenicia, Greece, Rome, Scotland, Scandinavia, Ireland, and Egypt--Ea's Spouse Damkina--Demons of Ocean in Babylonia and India--Anu, God of the Sky--Enlil, Storm and War God of Nippur, like Adad, Odin, &c.--Early Gods of Babylonia and Egypt of common origin--Ea's City as Cradle of Sumerian Civilization.


BABYLONIAN EMPIRE
Ancient Babylonia was for over four thousand years the garden of Western Asia. In the days of Hezekiah and Isaiah, when it had come under the sway of the younger civilization of Assyria on the north, it was "a land of corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards, a land of oil olive and of honey[28]". 

19 December 2011

SELECTIONS FROM THE "MAHABHARATA" (A GREAT, HEROIC EPIC OF OUR DISTANT INDO-EUROPEAN COUSINS)

  


    
PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG
    HinduSwastika.svgHinduSwastika.svgHinduSwastika.svgHinduSwastika.svgHinduSwastika.svgHinduSwastika.svgHinduSwastika.svgHinduSwastika.svg


(Wikipedia)
The Mahabharata (Sanskrit Mahābhārata महाभारत,) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa.
Besides, its epic narrative of the Kurukshetra-war and the fates of the Kauravas and the Pandavas, the Mahabharata contains muchphilosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or purusharthas (12.161).
Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra
The latter are enumerated as dharma (right action), artha (purpose), kama (pleasure), and moksha (liberation). Among the principal works and stories that are a part of the Mahabharata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Ramayana, and the Rishyasringa, often considered as works in their own right.
Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahabharata is attributed to Vyasa. There have been many attempts to unravel its historical growth and compositional layers. The oldest preserved parts of the text are not thought to be appreciably older than around 400 BC, though the origins of the story probably fall between the 8th and 9th centuries BC.
The snakesacrifice of Janamejaya
The text probably reached its final form by the early Gupta period (c. fourth century AD). The title may be translated as "the great tale of the Bhārata-dynasty". According to the Mahabharata itself, the tale is extended from a shorter version of 24,000 verses called simply Bhārata.

The Mahabharata in its longest version consists of over 100000 shloka or over 200000 individual verse lines (each shloka is a couplet ), long prose passages, or about 1.8 million words in total, the Mahabharata is roughly ten times the length of the Iliad and Odyssey combined, or about four times the length of the Ramayana. W. J. Johnson has compared the importance of the Mahabharata to world civilization to that of the Bible, to Shakespeare's works Homer's Iliad & Odyssey, Greek drama, and the Koran.



Historical context
The historicity of the Kurukshetra-war is unclear. Many historians estimate the date of the Kurukshetra-war to iron-age-India of the 10th century BC. The setting of the epic has a historical precedent in Vedic India or in iron-age-India, where the Kuru kingdom was the center

08 August 2011

The official pro-invasionist argument at last : A review of the Aryan invasion arguments in J. Bronkhorst and M.M. Deshpande: Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia


Published by Kenneth S. Doig

Dr. Koenraad Elst

On October 25-27, 1996, the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor hosted a conference on "Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia". Its proceedings are now available as vol.3 of the Opera Minora in the Harvard Oriental Series, with some updates and a related more recent paper by Prof. Hans Heinrich Hock added, and edited by Prof. Johannes Bronkhorst and Prof. Madhav M. Deshpande: Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia. Evidence, Interpretation and Ideology. Some of the papers have but little bearing on the question of the Aryan Invasion Theory, e.g. Pashaura Singh's paper on the 19th-century Hindu reform movement Arya Samaj, or Asko Parpola's paper on a Kerala folk deity. Here we will focus only on the arguments relevant to the Aryan Invasion debate.
1. Invasion vs. immigration

1.1. Invasion, not just immigration
To start with a clear understanding about the terminology used, please allow me me explain why I have chosen to retain the term "Aryan invasion" where most contributors to this volume use "Aryan immigration". Some of them have, in other forums, insisted that I drop the term "invasion" as this represents a long-abandoned theory of Aryan warrior bands attacking and destroying the peaceful Indus civilization. Well, I disagree.

Immigration means a movement from one country to another, without the connotation of conquest; invasion, by contrast, implies conquest or at least the intention of conquest. Yet invasion should not be confused with military conquest; it may be that, but it may also be demographic Unterwanderung. What makes it into an invasion is not the means used but the end achieved: after an invasion, the former outsiders are not merely in, as in an immigration, they are also in charge, just like after a military conquest.

In today's immigration debate, we can vividly see the contrast between the two terms. Those who expect Mexicans in the US to blend in, use the neutral term "immigrant", even when prefixed with "illegal". Some people, however, speak of a "Mexican invasion", by which they mean that the Mexicans, whether "wetback" or legal, have no intention of becoming Americans, of respecting the existing system, but want to impose their identity on Texas or California, making them Spanish-speaking rather than English-speaking states. Likewise, some French opinion leaders, including former president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and former actress Brigitte Bardot, have spoken of a "Muslim invasion" in France, though most Muslims concerned are perfectly legal "immigrants" who entered France without any violence. What raises alarmist cries of "invasion" is the perception that these North-Africans want to impose a Muslim identity on French society.

05 August 2011

Linguistic aspects of the Indo-European Urheimat question





Published, edited & formatted by Kenneth S. Doig

Preface
by K.S.Doig


I am not an orientalist and have no great knowledge on India or the South-Asian subcontinent. I do know that the aforementioned areas were some of the earliest areas of human settlement in history. I know that the region is geographically diverse from the Hindu Kush, the Himalayas and other highland-areas that give these tropical latitudes polar to temperate climates based on elevation. I know it's a very complicated place in every way imaginable. A patchwork of related Indo-European (IE) languages that are usually located in the north and central region and a patchwork of a totally unrelated linguistic family, Dravidian and its many dialects in the south. But there are pockets of each group outside their expected home-areas, e.g. the island nation, Sri Lanka,(Ceylon) well to the south of the other Indo-Aryan and Indo-European languages spoken in the central and northern parts of the subcontinent, we find IE Singhalese, along side the expected Dravidian tongue, Tamil.
Most of the IE languages are either direct or indirect descendants of Sanskrit, one of the big six or seven of the ancient well-attested IE tongues, the others, in my opinion, are Latin, Greek, Persian, Gothic, Old-Norse, Anglo-Saxon and probably Hittite and Armenian. To be included in this group, the languages must be directly and voluminously attested in written form, be Indo-European, obviously, and be linguistic benchmarks. I exclude any great ancient literary language from Balto-Slavic as there was none until the middle-ages and later. I might include Old-Church Slavonic. I also exclude Celtic and there is little direct attestation, no large corpus of literature, written in Celtic shows up until quite late and mostly in the hugely irregular insular Celtic (IC) tongues, both Brythonic and Goidelic. There's a four-way split metric in Celtic c. 800 BC to the extinction of continental Celtic (CC) c. 200 AD, whether Brythonic or Goidelic. I have seen the morphological paradigms for CC Gaulish, a Brythonic tongue, it's grammar, lexicon, syntax is so typically classical (typical) of its contemporary IE cousins. CC Brythonic dialects were virtually mutually intelligible with Latin, so similar the grammar and lexicon. There is a putative Italo-Celtic proto-family, spoken in SW Germany, before there was a Germany, c 1500 BC. The first Italics hiked over the Alps and started to settle the Italian peninsular c. 900 BC. Insular Celtic has been through some kind of linguistic blender, rendering many of its IE traits unrecognizable and adding some whacked out stuff, like VSO syntax, unknown in IE, unknown in continental Celtic, where virtually all older IE was SOV or SVO in normal declarative statements. Most hypothesize that when the CC moved down to the Iberian Peninsula, they entered a Sprachbund with non-IE tongues know to use or have used verb-first order, such as Afro-Asiatic, here, Hamitic and possibly some of the traits were picked up from the language isolate Basque or some then-existent Vasconic dialects. When I read Scottish Gaelic, other than a few obviously recently borrow words from Germanic, Norse or English, it is virtually unrecognizably IE, except for the numbers, aon, da, tri... Gaelic and Welsh even have inflected prefixes, a totally unknown concept to classical IE. They also have dramatically different contextual forms of verbs, whether it is used a statement, or a question or which tense. Linguist John McWhorter PhD in his great book, Our Magnificent Bastard Tongue: The Untold Story of English, is the only linguist who correctly describes why we (and Scots) are the only IE language, other than wacky Welsh or garbled Gaelic that uses the idiotic word "do" and "did" for negation and questions in most verbs. No Anglo-Saxon, Roman, Greek, Viking, Persian, would've, could've said "do you speak English" or "I do not understand". We don't use this system "do"with the copula or modal auxiliaries, can, will, should, are, etc. "Do you can speak Irish?" Questions are asked in all IE languages I know or know of in the same basic manner, inversion along with intonation. A modern German, Swede or an Anglo-Saxon would say things like; What seest thou there? Why came we home so early? Whom saw they yesterday? We understand not, we know not. One still sees a lot of this in the KJV Bible and Shakespearean works. Celtic also gave us our progressive-aspects, ending in -ing, as in I am coming. Totally unknown in all other Gmc languages, but used in crazy insular Celtic. So English was far, far more influenced by Celtic in syntax, but not lexicon. In Old-English, verbatim, "I will see if the man had come last night to get the food."  and "I did not know that she had fallen off the roof." "I [shall] see if the man last night come was the food to get" Not knew I that she off the roof fallen was."

20 July 2011

Miscellaneous aspects of the Aryan invasion debate (India)

Published by Kenneth S. Doig

Preface

I believe there must have been some kind of cultural and linguistic diffusion from the north which brought in the Indo-European languages, namely Sanskrit. It is an impossibility that the Indic branch (namely Sanskrit) of IE just developed in India on its own. I will concede that the people who brought the IE speech in may not have been Nordic Caucasoids or their involvement may have been overstated, but maybe not. Some people even state that Sanskrit has no genetic relation to Persian or any Indo-European languages and in fact there is no such thing as an Indo-European language-family. A ludicrous statement, almost as bad as what Franz Boas said about race. However it happened, there is a genetic relationship between English, German, Italian, Russian, Persian to Sanskrit.
K.S.Doig




4.9. THE EVIDENCE FROM PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY


4.9.1. Continuity between castes


Half a century ago, Dr. Ambedkar surveyed the existing data on the physical anthropology of the different castes in his book The Untouchables. He found that the received wisdom of a racial basis of caste was not supported by the data, e.g.: “The table for Bengal shows that the Chandal who stands sixth in the scheme of social precedence and whose touch pollutes, is not much differentiated from the Brahmin (…) In Bombay the Deshastha Brahmin bears a closer affinity to the Son-Koli, a fisherman caste, than to his own compeer, the Chitpavan Brahmin. The Mahar, the Untouchable of the Maratha region, comes next together with the Kunbi, the peasant. They follow in order the Shenvi Brahmin, the Nagar Brahmin and the high-caste Maratha. These results (…) mean that there is no correspondence between social gradation and physical differentiation in Bombay.”
70

19 July 2011

Early India- The Asian Way Of Life

Published by Kenneth S. Doig

Introduction
This chapter will trace the genesis and development of the two oldest
continuous civilizations - the Indian and the Chinese - in order to obtain an
understanding of the Asian way of life and allow comparison with the West. In
addition, this chapter will examine the early trade and diplomatic exchanges
between East and West. These exchanges provide us with our first view of
historical development on a global scale.

A modern Indian scholar has said: "All that India can offer to the world
proceeds from her philosophy." Indian thinkers have consistently held a
fundamental belief in the unity of all life, establishing no dividing line
between the human and the divine. This pervasive belief in the unity of life
has made possible the assimilation and synthesis of a variety of beliefs and
customs from both native and foreign cultures. Thus, despite its almost
continual political disunity, India has achieved and maintained a fundamental
cultural unity.

17 July 2011

Did You Know? Interesting facts about India.


Published by K.S.Doig


History
India is the world's largest, oldest, continuous civilization
Although modern images of India often show poverty and lack of development, India was the richest country on earth until the time of British invasion in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus was attracted by India's wealth.


India never invaded any country in her last 10000 years of history.
India is the world's largest democracy.
The four religions born in India, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, are followed by 25% of the world's population


Chess (Shataranja or AshtaPada) was invented in India.
Varanasi, also known as Benares, was called "the ancient city" when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C.E, and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today.
The art of Navigation was born in the river Sindh 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH. The word navy is also derived from Sanskrit 'Nou'.
Medicine

Linguistic Aspects of the Indo-European Urheimat Question

Published by Kenneth S. Doig                    

1. Introduction

1.1. Evidence sweeping all before it
 by Dr. Koenraad Elst  
When evidence from archaeology and Sanskrit text studies seems to contradict the theory of the entry of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family in India through the so-called "Aryan Invasion" (Aryan Invasion Theory, AIT), we are usually reassured that "there is of course the linguistic evidence" for this invasion, or at least for the non-Indian origin of the IE family.
Thus, F.E. Pargiter had shown how the Puranas locate Aryan origins in the Ganga basin and found "the earliest connexion of the Vedas to be with the eastern region and not with the Panjab"1, but then he allowed the unnamed linguistic evidence to overrule his own findings: "We know from the evidence of language that the Aryans entered India very early".2 (His solution is to relocate the point of entry of the Aryans from the western Khyber pass to the eastern Himalaya: Kathmandu or thereabouts.)

At the same time, the linguists themselves are often quite aware that the AIT is just a successful theory, not a proven fact. Those who try to take the scientific pretences of their discipline seriously, are not all that over-confident about the AIT. Many are willing to be modest and concede that so far it has merely been the most successful hypothesis. In fact, when quizzing linguists about the AIT, I came away with the impression that they too are not very sure of their case. By now, most of them have been trained entirely within the AIT framework, which was taken for granted and consequently not sought to be proven anymore. One of them told me that he had never bothered about a linguistic justification for the AIT framework, because there was, after all, "the well-known archaeological evidence"!
But for the rest, "the linguistic evidence" is still the magic mantra to silence al doubts about the AIT. At any rate, it is time that we take a look for ourselves at this fabled linguistic evidence.

1.2. Down with the linguistic evidence

A common reaction among Indians against this state of affairs is to dismiss

Good folks who follow this blog