Showing posts with label France. Show all posts
Showing posts with label France. Show all posts

24 August 2013

Caesar's "Commentarii de Bello Gallico" / "Commentaries on the Gallic War"

 
Published, edited, images added & commentary (in redletter) by Kenneth S. Doig
(Wikipedia)
Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.


In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination.

The "Gaul" that Caesar refers to is sometimes all of Gaul except for the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis(modern-day Provence), encompassing the rest of modern France, Belgium and some of Switzerland.

28 July 2013

The medieval Iranians of France, Spain & Portugal, yes, blond Iranians in western Europe


File:Roman Empire 125.png
Published, edited, images added &
comments/annotations (in redletter) by Kenneth S. Doig

The Alans, or the Alani, occasionally termed Alauni or Halani, were a group of Sarmatian tribes, nomadic-pastoralists of the 1st millennium AD who spoke an Eastern-Iranian (in the same Indoeuropean macrophylum as Germanic, Celtic, Italic, Slavic, Hellenic, etc.) language which derived from Skytho-Sarmatian and which in turn evolved into modern Ossetian.
ALAN WARRIOR C. 5TH CENTURY AD
ORIGINAL IRANIANS WERE A
NORDIC/MEDITERRANEAN RACE
 

Name

02 April 2013

Brief Gaulish glossary (selected words)


PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

Gaulish

(from alphadictionary.com)
Notes for Glossary:
a', e', i', o', u' - long vowels: [a, e, i, o, u] respectively
CC - Common Celtic
OI - Old Irish
MI - Middle Irish
MB - Middle Breton


Glossary:

aballo- (an apple) [IE *amlu-, *samlu- 'apple'?, OI uball]
adiat (aspiration)
aesus (m) (an age) [Latin aes, Irish aois]
allos (other, second) [IE *alyo-, OI aile]
ambi- (around)
ardus (high) [IE *er@d- 'high', CC *ardwo-]
are (before, at, on) [IE *par-, Greek para, Latin prae, OI ar]
arganto-, argento- (silver) [IE *arg'- 'white, to shine']
art- (a bear) [IE *arkt-, *Hart- 'a bear']
artuas (stone plates; pl.)
ater (m) (father) [IE *pa'te'r 'a father']

17 August 2012

VAGINA GENTIUM, PRON./WAH-
GHEENAH GHENT-EE-OOM/

("NATIONS' WOMB")
 GERMANIA SUPERIOR c.300 BC.
FRUMHÁIMLANDAN GERMANISKAZ
Õ
ÞÉUD
Õ. IN JÉRÉ c. 300 JÉRU
FAÚRI KRÍSTÉ 

"A COMPARATIVE GERMANIC
 GRAMMAR" (Google Affiliate Ad)
PUBLISHED, EDITED, FORMATTED, IMAGES ADDED & ANNOTATIONS/COMMENTARY (IN RED) BY KENNETH S. DOIG
KWÉNU NORÞWEGES


(websource eHow)
Germanic tribes are readily identifiable based on their common linguistic and ethnic origins. Germanic tribes first formed in Northern Europe, and subsequently migrated throughout Europe, spreading their language and culture while assimilating themselves within varying other tribes to become a dominant society. 'Beowulf and Old Germanic Metre' (Google Affiliate Ad)

In mixing with local populations, Germanic tribes helped to comprise early history for varying regions by laying down the foundations for future nation-states and countries that formed as a result of Germanic-tribe migration throughout Europe. 

21 May 2012

European Absolutism And Power Politics

PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG



Absolutism

L'Etat, C'Est Moi

Date: 1998


(from The International World History Project Website)







Introduction
Louis XIV (1643-1715) of France is remembered best as a strong-willed monarch who reportedly once exclaimed to his fawning courtiers, "L'etat, c'est moi" (I am the state). Whether or not he really said these words, Louis has been regarded by historians as the typical absolute monarch - a symbol of his era. Similarly, historians have often referred to this period, when kings dominated their states and waged frequent dynastic wars against one another as an age of absolutism.

01 October 2011

GAUL : DEFINITION



PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

Gaul


ROMAN EMPIRE c. 271 AD

Definition


ROMAN AQUADUCT
Gaul (Latin Gallia, French Gaule) is the name given by the Romans to the territories where the Celtic Gauls (Latin Galli, French Gaulois) lived, including present France, Belgium, Luxemburg and parts of the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany on the west bank of the Rhine, and the Po Valley, in present Italy. The ancient limits of Gaul were the Rhine River and the Alps on the east, the Mare Nostrum (Mediterranean Sea), the Po Valley and the Pyrenees on the south, and the Atlantic Ocean on the west and North

29 September 2011

How To Divide Languages from Dialects – Structure or Intelligibility?

DIALECTMAP OF THE NETHERLANDS. FOR BEING SUCH
A SMALL COUNTRY WITH NO LARGE NATURAL BARRIERS
TO TRIBAL MOVEMENT/WANDERINGS, IT HAS THE MOST
DIALECTS OF ANY NATION I KNOW OF, MANY OF WHICH
ARE UNINTELLIGIBLE TO EACH OTHER...GUESS WHAT, THAT
MEANS THOSE "DIALECTS" ARE SEPARATE LANGUAGES.
THREE GERMANIC CLOSELY-RELATED WEST-GMC TONGUES
MAKE UP NETHERLANDIC, FRANKISH, THE BASIS FOR THE
NATIONAL STANDARD, HOLLANDIC OR DUTCH, FRISIAN,
AN INGVAEONIC TONGUE WITH SHARED TRAITS WITH
ENGLISH, ANGLO-SAXON, MODERN SAXON. MODERN
SAXON (ONE OF THE LOW-GERMAN LANGUAGES) IS THE
THIRD.  IN THE EAST ARE SAXON-BASED DIALECTS,
IN THE CENTER, AND AS A SUBSTRATUM EVERY-
WHERE IS FRANKISH/HOLLANDIC & IN THE NORTH
& ALONG THE COAST FRINGES ARE FRISIAN-BASED
DIALECTS. VERY CONFUSING. K.DOIG 

PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG

LANDASPRÆCA ÐÁRA NIÐORLANDA

(authored by Robert Lindsay, from his blog, "robertlindsay.wordpress.com")

EALDE GALLIA c. 100 AD. HÉR SÍEHEÞ MAN SUMA
ÐÁRA MONGENA CELTISCENA SPÆCA ÐE ÐÆNNE
 IN ÐÆM LANDE GESPRECENA WÆRON
LANDE,
There are many ways of dividing languages from dialects. The three general methods are:
 1. Historical
 2. Structural
 3. Intelligibility

20 September 2011

ANCIENT FRANCE : GAUL


MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 19, 2011

ANCIENT FRANCE



PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG


Perhaps no other military events in Roman history are as well known then the climatic campaigns known collectively as the Gallic Wars. Long known to have been the primary adversaries to Rome, the Gauls were epitomized as the barbarians at the gates of this great city. In reality very few sources of information outside of Cesar's accounts exists of early Gaulish society and culture, and these have to be viewed with the understanding of a certain bias towards the tribal people of Europe.


The Romans did their best to remove these Celtic traditions from their Empire, but eventually the Romanized culture of Gaul manged to preserve much of it's local identity and traditions. Later as the Roman Empire
crumbled Gaul was again invaded, this time by Germanic tribes known as the Franks. 

10 July 2011

EARLY HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL FRANCE: A BRIEF OVERVIEW

Published by K.S. Doig


A General Overview
From the 9th to the 11th century the peoples and lands dominated by west Frankish kings were transformed. The Carolingian protectorate of local order collapsed under the pressures of external invasions and internal usurpations of power. Growing populations and quickening economies were reorganized in principalities whose leaders struggled to carry on the old programs of kings, bishops, and monks; one of these lands, centered on the Paris-Orléans axis and later known as the Île-de-France, was the nucleus of a new dynastic kingdom of France. 

This kingdom may be spoken of as Capetian France (the first king of the new dynasty having been Hugh Capet), but it was not until the 13th century that this France came to approximate the modern nation in territorial extent. The emergence of a greater France as a social and cultural entity preceded the political expansion of Capetian France; already in the 12th century crusaders, when speaking of "Franks" from Romance-speaking lands, meant something like "Frenchmen," while the persistence of old boundaries between populations of Romance and Germanic speech perpetuated the idea of a greater west Frankland.

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