Showing posts with label Angles. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Angles. Show all posts

18 March 2015

Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain

Anglo-Saxon warhelmet

Published, edited, images added, captions written & annotations/comments (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
Map: 6th-century-Britain-
areas colored red, are
(Written by: Encyclopædia Britannica's editorial staff)

Anglo-Saxon, term used historically to describe any member of the Germanic peoples who, from the 5th century AD to the time of the Norman Conquest (1066 AD), inhabited and ruled territories that are today part of England and Wales.

31 January 2014

Charudes (Harudes?)- Χαροῦδες, Hæredas or Heardingas

Hardangerfjord, Norway
Published, edited, annotations/comments (in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig

(websource: European Kingdoms)
Charudes (Harudes?)(Χαροῦδες)
This Germanic tribe was located on the westcoast of what is now Centraldannmark, in the northwest of the Syddanmark (Súðdenemearc) region and the western side of the Midtjylland (Mid-Jutland) region

30 December 2013

Published, edited, annotated 
(in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig

(websource: Wikipedia)
Northumbrian was a dialect of the Old-English (OE) language spoken in the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria.

07 November 2013

Peoples of Caledonia

Published, edited, annotated (in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig

by Scott Martin
Peoples of Caledonia 
If western Europe is barbaric, then Caledonia is downright primitive. Much of the land is untouched wilderness. The scattered inhabitants lives in tiny villages or isolated farmsteads. The cities are nothing more than fortified centers with populations of a few hundred. Caledonia is inhabited by five different peoples: Picts, Scots, Britons, Angles, and Northmen.

The Picts
The Picts are the oldest inhabitants of Caledonia, which derives its name from one of their ancient tribes, the Caledonii, who dominated the area when the Romans first arrived. The Picts are a small, dark (there are so many contradicting descriptions of the Pictish phenotype. Many reputable ancient Graeco-Roman

08 February 2013

Anglo-Saxon England : Britain before & after the Scando-Germanic advent c. AD 450



Before the Germanic invasions Celts -
Prior to the Germanic invasions Britain was inhabited by various Celtic tribes who were united by common speech, customs, and religion. Each tribe was headed by a king and was divided by class into druids (priests), warrior-nobles, and commoners. 

The lack of political unity made them vulnerable to their enemies. During the first century, Britain was conquered and subjugated by Rome. 

During the next three hundred years, Rome legions provided the politically discordant Britons the protection necessary to secure the country from attack.

Migration of the Germanic speaking people When Britain gained "independence" from Rome in the year 410AD, the Roman legions withdrew leaving the country vulnerable to invaders. Soon after the withdrawal of Roman troops, inhabitants from the north began attacking the Britons. 

In response to these attacks, individual towns sought help from the Foedarati, who were Roman mercenaries of German origin, for the defense of the northern parts of England.

As the legend has been told, a man named Hengest arrived on the shores of Britain with "3 keels" of warriors in 450AD. 

This event is known in Latin as the aduentus saxonum, or the coming of the Saxons. At this time, the Foedarati stopped defending Britain and began conquering the territories on the southern and eastern shores of the country.

These invaders drove the Britons to the north and west. The Saxons called the native Britons, 'wealas', which meant foreigner, and from this term came the modern word Welsh. Eight to ten years later many British aristocrats (Celts) and city dwellers began migrating to Brittany, an event known as the second migration. 

Although there were many different Germanic tribes migrating to England, several stood out from among the others, such as the Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians, and Franks. (Anglo-Saxon map) 
The Angles migrated from Denmark 

(Jutland was not at that time part of Denmark as there was no Denmark yet; no state, no kingdom nor any polity. Nor had the Scando-Teutonic languages [except East-Germanic] become separate languages. Late-Proto-Northwest Germanic "PNWGmc" was spoken in all Teutono-Gothonic [another term for Germanic] from Scandinavia to the areas of southern modern-day Germany. 

This was the period that Proto-NWGmc began glossogenesis, the formation of the tripartite NWGmc subfamily; North-Germanic "NGmc", e.g., Norse, Swedish, etc., West-Gmc, e.g., the High-German dialect of southern Germany, the Alps and Frankish, ancestor to modern standard-Hollandic or Dutch

The third branch is Peninsular-Germanic, direct ancestor to Ingvaeonic [a.k.a., Northsea Germanic & Anglo-Frisian], e.g., Anglic, Saxon, Frisian, Jutish, Anglo-Saxon,  English, Scots, Low-German, etc.) and the Saxons from northern Germany. 

There is some debate as to the exact origin of the Jutes, since linguistic evidence suggests that they came from the Jutland peninsula. 

While archaeological evidence suggests an origin from one of the northern Frankish realms near the mouth of the Rhine river. The Frisians and Franks migrated mainly from the lowcountries and northwestern Germany.

During the sixth and seventh centuries these Germanic invaders started to carve out kingdoms, fighting both the native Britons and each other for land.  

First called Saxons, the German invaders were later referred to as Angles, and in the year 601AD the pope referred to Aethelbert of Kent as Rex Anglorum ("Angles' king").

As time passed, the differences between the Germanic tribal cultures gradually unified until eventually they ceased referring to themselves by their individual origins and became either Anglo-Saxon or English. (map of England 650-750AD)

As Old-English began to evolve, four major dialects emerged which were Kentish, spoken by the Jutes, West-Saxon, the Saxon dialect, and Northumbrian and Mercian, subdivisions of the dialect spoken by the Angles. 

By the 9th century, partly through the influence of King Alfred, the West-Saxon dialect became prevalent in literature which aided the dialect's dominance among scholars.

Soon after the Germanic invasions, the inhabitants gave their settlements new names. The most common Saxon place names are those ending in -ton (fenced area), -wick (dwelling), -ham (home), -worth (homestead), -den (pasture), -hurst (wooded hill), and -burn (stream). 

c. 1000AD

Some settlement names began with more than one word which either stated personal possession or described a physical description of the area and would later evolve into one word. One example of this evolution would be the word Chatham which was originally Ceattan hám (Ceatta's home). 

Conversion to Christianity -

By the year 550AD, the native Britons had been converted to Christianity and the religion became firmly established within their culture. Attempts by the Britons to convert the Anglo-Saxon pagans were futile. 

At the end of the sixth century through the successful efforts of a Christian mission led by Augustine, a representative of the Roman church, Christianity was established within the highest echelons of English society by the prompt conversion of the kings of Essex, East-Anglia, Northumbria, and Kent. 

Sees were then established at Canterbury, Rochester, London and York. However, the four kingdoms soon relapsed into paganism, and initially, only Kent was reconverted. 

The evangelistic initiative then passed to the Scottish church and by the end of the seventh century, England had been reconverted.

After the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons, problems arose with the Celtic Christians (or the Britons). 

The Celtic church had ceased communication with Roman church for almost two centuries and did not practice the new theological ideas brought to the Anglo-Saxons by Augustine.

In particular, they used an older method of calculating the date on which Easter was to be held. Representatives from the two churches met with Oswiu, the king of Northumbria, who was then asked to choose between the two missions. 

Oswiu chose Rome. Although the Celtic church found favor with some of the later kings, the Roman church was the more dominant of the two. 

The largest number of Latin words was introduced as altar, mass, priest, psalm, temple, kitchen, palm, and pear. A result of the spread of Christianity. 

Such as the 8th century and the beginning of the Viking-raids. The first major raid by Vikings occurred in the year 793 at the Northumbrian monastery at Lindisfarne

The Vikings would continue major raids along most of the southern and eastern coasts of England for a decade. About 40 Scandinavian (Old-Norse) words were introduced into Old-English during this period.

Words acquired during this period pertained to the sea and the Scandinavian administrative-system. Some examples of these borrowings are law, take, cut, anger, wrong, freckle, both, ill, ugly, as well as, the verb form 'are'. 
They also introduced many new names as they founded new settlements with endings such as -scale, -beck, -by, and -fell. One example of a settlement name would be Portinscale or 'Prostitute's hut'.

English Surnames - 

Anglo-Saxons distinguished between two people with the same name by adding either the place they came from or the job they did to their first name. Modern surnames such as Baxter, Baker, Weaver, Fisher, Fowler, Hunter, and Farmer are Anglo-Saxon in origin.

Vikings had a different way of distinguishing between people of the same name. They added the name of the person's father or mother to the child's name. 

As an example, Harald, Erik's son would be known as Haraldr Eiriksson, or as we would say it today, Harold Erikson

Often Viking families alternated the name of the eldest so that Árn Gunnarsson might be the father and son of Gunnar Árnarson, and the grandfather and grandson of Árn Gunnarson.

The 9th century - During the ninth century, the Danes began a series of major raids on the whole of England. This ended in an agreement which left the Danes in control of half of the country. 

Alfred the Great eventually fought the Vikings to a standstill at Edington which produced the Treaty of Wedmore in 878AD. This led to an uneasy peace and the establishment of the Danelaw

The fighting would continue, and in 886AD, Alfred captured London from the Danes. The name Englaland ("Angle-land") was used at the end of this century.

The 10th century- The Aristocracy

Anglo-Saxon territory was divided into seven separate kingdoms commonly referred to as the heptarchy. Each kingdom was ruled by a king, the king's sons who were called aethlingas and the ruling-nobility known as the eoldermenn. (Anglo-Saxon village) The basic unit of land was called the hide which was enough land to support one family and varied in size from 40 acres to 4 square miles.

Approximately one hundred hides formed the unit known as the 'hundred', and each village or shire contained many hundreds. (another Anglo-Saxon village) 

For each hundred, one leader known as the hundredeolder was responsible for administration, justice, and supplying military-troops, as well as, leading its forces. The office was not hereditary, but by the tenth century the office was selected from among a few outstanding families.

The thane, (þegn) similar to the knight, stood at the lowest echelon of the aristocracy. Good service by a thane resulted in gifts, the land-grants, and elevation to eoldermann. Members of the clergy held the title of thane as they were considered one of god's thanes, and bishops generally held the position of eolderman.

The middle-class

The middle-class was divided into three main classes of freemen, also known as ceorlas (churls, cf. Swe, Icel, Germ karl): The geneatan, a peasant-aristocracy who paid rent to their overlord, the kotsetlan, and the gebur, or lower-middleclass. All ceorlas had the right and duty to serve in the fyrd, (which was one of the names) the Anglo-Saxon military.

 Ceorlas won promotion through economic prosperity or military-service. If a ceorl possessed five hides of land, he became entitled to thane-rights, but could not be elevated to the position of thane or eoldermann.

The lower-class -

 At the lowest end of the social strata was the slave or bondsmen, also known as the theow. Although they were slaves or bondsmen, they were entitled to certain provisions, such as grain. The slaves were allowed to own property and could earn money in their spare time which allowed them to buy their freedom. When times were difficult people sold themselves into slavery to ensure they were provisioned.
The early Anglo-Saxon society was organized around clans or tribes and was centered around a system of reciprocity called comitatus. The eoldorman expected martial service and loyalty from his thanes, and the thanes expected protection and rewards from the lord. 

By the middle of the ninth century the royal family of Wessex was universally recognized as the English royalfamily and held a hereditary right to rule. Succession to the throne was not guaranteed as the witan, or council of leaders, had the right to choose the best successor from the members of the royalhouse.


As stated above, the military-organization was called the fyrd, which consisted of highly trained thanes chosen from each hundred. Thanes became 'professional' warriors because their position within the society depended upon it. In peace time the thanes had to serve one month out of every three in rotation, so there was always a sizable force on call. 

Loyalty to a lord was the thane's greatest virtue, and if their lord or king died in battle, his men were expected to die avenging his death, as it was considered dishonorable to leave the battlefield on which the militaryleader had been slain. Those who did were executed by their lord's successor for their disloyalty. The fyrd also served as a policeforce when not at war.

Religion and the church's role -

 (St Alpheges church) (St. Wereburg) Besides the spiritual functions of the church, the Church also fulfilled the functions of a 'civilservice', and for the nobility, an educational system.

The Church and the government needed men who could read and write in English and Latin to write letters and keep accounts. (illuminated manuscripts) The words 'cleric' and 'clerk' have the same origin, and every nobleman would have at least one priest to act as a secretary.


The economy of the early middle-ages was not cash based. (Anglo-Saxon clothing) Even though coins were minted, their use was not widespread, and most goods were bartered. (jewelry and pottery) Trade relied upon transport to be effective, and water was the preferred method of transport. For this reason, the most successful markets were near rivers.

Slavery was an important part of the Anglo-Saxon economy. Almost all the slaves traded in the early middle-ages were captured in raids or warfare. It seems to have been the practice to kill the leaders of the losing army and enslave the local villagers. The English conquest of Cornwall led to the enslavement of many of the indigenous Celts. At the Westminster Council of 1102AD, slavery was abolished.

Feasts and festivals - Feasts and festivals were very popular among the pagans, and despite religious reforms of the Christian church, these would continue among Christian Anglo-Saxons. A feast would be held every week in observance for the designated saint of that week. 

Halloween, a tradition handed down from the Celts and altered by the Romans, preceded the Christian feast of Hallowmas, or All Saints' Day. Halloween was the last evening of the year and was regarded as a propitious time for examining the portents of the future. Several of our modern festivals have Old-English names. 

For example, the word Easter evolved from the name of the pagan Saxon goddess Eostre, whose festival was celebrated in April. The word Yule comes from the pagan midwinter celebration of geol (pronounced 'yule'). 

Law and Order -

 When the Germanic tribes migrated from the continent, they brought with them a well developed legal system. The hundred court was the lowest echelon of the judiciary system and met every four weeks. Above the hundred court was the shire court which met twice a year, usually around Easter and Michaelmas (29 September). The officials presiding over the shire court were the eoldorman, the bishop and the king's shire-reeve (or sheriff).

During a lawsuit, the accused would be allowed to give an oath with the aid of oath-helpers to prove his innocence. This may seem comical today, but the Anglo-Saxon villages were so small that many of the villagers would have been aware of the circumstances of the crime.

 If the accused were actually guilty, oath helpers would have been difficult to find. If the defendant maintained his innocence, but was not able to gather enough oath helpers, he would be allowed to prove his innocence through 'trial by ordeal'.

Trial by Ordeal - The ordeal was administered by church-officials, and before the trial began, the accused was given the opportunity to confess. If he did not confess, he was given the choice between two ordeals: water or iron. For the cold-water ordeal, the accused was given holywater to drink and was then thrown into the river; the guilty floated; the innocent sank. 

During the, hot-water ordeal the accused placed his hand into boiling water and retrieved a stone. For the iron ordeal, the accused carried a glowing iron bar nine feet. After the hot-water and iron-ordeals, the defendant's hand was bandaged after the ordeal. If the wound healed without festering, the guilty was presumed innocent. 

As there were no jails or prison-officers, there were only three options when passing sentence: fines, mutilation, or death. For crimes such as arson, obvious murder, and treachery to one's lord, no compensation could be offered .

 For these crimes, the only punishment was death and forfeiture of one's property to the king. The church did not advocate capital punishment and preferred mutilation to death, as this allowed the guilty man to expiate his crime and save his soul. 

10 January 2013

The origins of the words ‘England’ & ‘The English’ & the definition of "englishness"

Published, formatted, edited, annotated (in red) & images added by Kenneth S. Doig

(from The England And English History website)
The origins of the words ‘England’ and ‘The English’ 

The words ‘English’ and ‘England’ come from the Anglo-Saxon. The Anglo-

25 October 2011



It is believed that the first people who inhabited Scotland came from the south. What we know today is that they lived in shelters made of wood and skins and that they made different kinds of stone tools (arrowheads, blades, flakes and awls). They were nomadic communities who lived by hunting and fishing, and traces of their way of life were found at Kinloch on the Island of Rum in the Inner Hebrides. They made all sorts of stone jewelry and their houses were of stone, like the ones found on the Bay of Skaill on the west coast of Orkney.

Some of these places were abandoned and Archeologists can't explain why. However, they left magnificent stone circles like the ones at Stenness, the Ring of Brogar and Callanish on the Isle of Lewis. Until today these stones circles are an enigma. Yet, Archeologists don't know if these places were temples or astronomical observatories. Scotland was populated by four separate groups of people.

The Picts lived mostly in the north and northeast and may have spoke a kind of Celtic language which was lost completely. The Scots were Celtic settlers who moved into the western Highlands from Ireland in the fourth century. The third group were the Britons, who inhabited the Lowlands and it is believed that they gave up their old tribal way of life by the sixth century.

06 September 2011






The author theories are not new, it would make sense that there would be more tribes than just the traditional three, "the Angles, Saxons and Jutes". It seems that all three of these appellations were "umbrella" terms for other sibling-tribes of kindred blood, institutions, culture, religion and speech. The "sibling-tribes" were of the same ethnic nation but often had formed other polities, kingdoms and states.

02 September 2011


WYNFRITH (c. 680-755 AD)



757AD. Sigeberht of Wessex deposed by Cynewulf and the counsellors of the West Saxons
Cynewulf succeeds to Wessex

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle relates how Cynewulf and the counsellors of the West Saxons deprived Sigeberht of the kingdom because of his unjust acts, all except for Hampshire. Sigeberht remained in Hampshire until he killed Cumbra, the ealdorman who had been most loyal to him, and then Cynewulf drove Sigeberht into the Weald, where he was slain by a swineherd. Cynewulf then ruled for 29 years, until he was himself slain by Sigeberht's brother Cyneheard (see entry under 786).

The Chronicle adds that Cynewulf often fought great battles against the Britons. This keeps up the tradition of his predecessor Cuthred (in 743 and 753), though Cynewulf's battles against the Britons are not individually recorded.

Cynewulf's relations with the Mercians are more difficult to follow. In the first couple of years of his reign, Cynewulf witnesses a charter of Æthelbald of Mercia in 757 (S 96), and his own earliest charter is confirmed by Offa of Mercia in c.758 (S 265); this may imply some West Saxon dependence on the Mercians. Another charter of Offa's of 772 (S 108) is witnessed both by Cynewulf of the West Saxons and by Ecgberht of Kent. However, Cynewulf's other five charters (S 260-4, from 758 to 778) make no mention of Mercian overlordship, and Cynewulf fought Offa at Bensington in 779. Cynewulf attended the meeting with the papal legates with Offa in 786, but the report of the legates gives us no hint as to the relations between Offa and Cynewulf at that point. It seems likely that Cynewulf maintained West Saxon independence after the first couple of years of his reign, but his appearance in a charter of Offa of 772 suggests how precarious and hard-fought that independence may have been.

25 August 2011

The Bog-People : Ingwi's Friend's, Who Sacrifice Humans to Nerthus

Here lived the Bogfolk, in the northern
part of the map

Published by Kenneth S. Doig

Click here to find out more!These were the bog-people, some of whose tribes became the English and Lowland Scots.The Ingaevones or, as Pliny has it, apparently more accurately, Ingvaeones ("friends of Yngvi"), as described in Tacitus's Germania, written c. 98 CE, were a West Germanic cultural group living along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, Frisia and the Danish islands, where they had by the 1st century BCE become further differentiated to a foreigner's eye into the Frisii, Saxons, Jutes and Angles. The postulated common group of closely related dialects of the Ingvaeones is called Ingvaeonic or North Sea Germanic.All the Ingvaeonic tribes by their Latin names: Reudigni, Ambrones  Aviones, Anglii, Varini, Eudoses, Suardones, Nuithones, Frisii, Saxones. Wikipedia-K.Doig

20 August 2011

Possible Scytho-Cimmerian-Galatian Connections to the Lost Tribes of Israel

Published by Kenneth S. Doig


I believe that the western Indo-Europeans are not descended from the lost tribes of Israel but they may have resided near or next to each other for a period of time. I believe it is good to give viewpoints that I, myself do not believe. K.Doig

The Historical Background

According to conventional history, the British Isles, Gaul
(France and Belgium), and the northwest European coastline, in
ancient times, were settled by peoples of Celtic culture. A
predominant element among the Celts, were the Galatians to whom
belonged the Cymbri in Denmark, the Cimry and Caledonians in
Britain, and the Galli in Gaul.

The Galatians were ascribed
Cimmerian origin by Classical writers which is substantiated
by archaeological evidence and other sources. The Cimmerians had
first appeared on the fringes of the Assyrian Empire shortly
after the majority of northern Israelites had been exiled, and
all areas of their early appearance were those to which
Israelites had been transported. The Cimmerians from the Middle
East area moved to the west where they merged with and

19 August 2011


Gmc descendant of W.
Coast Norwegians who
settled Iceland
Gmc Swedes

Photos and informative captions by K.S. Doig

(note, first and foremost, history, linguistics, etc., are about people, I myself always used to hate it when they  never showed you or told you what the people looked like.
Naturally, I am a normal, yes, NORMAL male and prefer to post pics of attractive women. No, I don't hate Gays, my cousin is Gay, she is an M.D. & I attended her gay
wedding. K.Doig)

Gmc Norwegian

Germania, Germani, Germanica have all been used to refer to the group of peoples comprising of the German Tribes in the first centuries CE (AD), We have good and reliable written information from the Roman author Tacitus' Germania and Agricola, as well as other sources.
Modern Ancestor
of Gmc tribes, a Dane

The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions or Völkerwanderung, is a name given by historians to a human migration which occurred within the period of roughly AD 300–700 in Europe, marking the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages.
Gmc woman, a Netherlander

18 August 2011


Winter on Æglalande
The Kimbric Peninsula or Jutland in present-
day western Denmark

Published by Kenneth S. Doig

The Angles

The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. Ancient Angeln preceded all modern national distinctions and was probably not coterminous with the modern.

The ethnic name has had various spellings. The earliest attested is Anglii, a Germanic tribe mentioned in the Germania of Tacitus. It is an adjectival form. One individual of this identity would be an Anglius (male) or an Anglia (female), which in the plural is Anglii or Angliae. The masculine is used for the generic form.

Pope Gregory the Great is the first known to have simplified Anglii to Angli, the preferred form for the Anglii in Britain, which he did in an epistle. The country remained Anglia in Latin. Meanwhile, English had changed its vowels. Alfred's Orosius uses Angelcynn (kin) for England or the English people; Bede, Angelfolc (folk); however, we also find Engel, Englan (the people), Englaland and Englisch.

Angles is used as root in French (and Anglo-Norman) words Angleterre (Angleland, i.e. England) and Anglais (English).

The famous Sutton Hoo helmet

The picture on the right is a reconstruction made from the surviving fragments of a helmet found at Sutton Hoo. The smooth brown parts are a base to support the actual fragments which are the rough parts. This is one of only four known Anglo-Saxon helmets. The original helmet was made from iron with tinned-bronze decorative plates and is the most exquisitely crafted of all the known early medieval helmets from anywhere in Northern Europe as shown in the replica below. The decorative figures include flying dragon and boar heads. Similar designs have been found on objects from Sweden and Germany and scholars still argue over their meaning.

29 July 2011

The Germanic invasions of Britain

Published by Kenneth S. Doig

The withdrawal of the Romans from England in the early 5th century left a political vacuum. The Celts of the south were attacked by tribes from the north and in their desperation sought help from abroad. There are parallels for this at other points in the history of the British Isles. Thus in the case of Ireland, help was sought by Irish chieftains from their Anglo-Norman neighbours in Wales in the late 12th century in their internal squabbles. This heralded the invasion of Ireland by the English. Equally with the Celts of the 5th century the help which they imagined would solve their internal difficulties turned out to be a boomerang which turned on them.

Our source for these early days of English history is the Ecclesiastical History of the English People written by a monk called the Venerable Bede around 730 in the monastery of Jarrow in Co. Durham (i.e. on the north east coast of England).

According to this work — written in Latin — the Celts first appealed to the Romans but the help

14 July 2011

The origins of the words ‘England’ and ‘The English’

The West-Germanic tribes, there were 7, that were in
Jutland and in extreme northern Germany, were called
"Ingvaeones" by Roman historian Tacitus. They all share
the same unique differences in their dialects from the rest of
Germanic. The language group is called "Ingvaeonic" or
"North-Sea Germanic" The Jutes lived to the North of the Angles
& the Saxon South of the Angles. This was around 100 AD.
There is evidence that that the Anglo-Justish tribes shared
a slightly different haplogroup/DNA than the Saxons, even
though they spoke virtually identical dialects, religions, culture,
etc. This is backed up by DNA test in modern-day England
& Scotland. The predominant DNA of modern-day English
south of the Thames, where the Saxons mainly settled, is
different. The DNA of the English in eastern England &
north of the Thames &the Scots in eastern Scotland
were parts of various Anglian (Anglo-Jutish) Kingdoms,
like Mercia, and the gigantic Northumbria stretching
from central England into central Scotland to a wee bit
North of Edinburgh. The majority of the northeastern
Brits is more similar f not identical to the present day
people in Frisia and SW Denmark. No surprise, but why
is the Saxon DNA different? I believe that sometime after
100 AD many of the Angles and Jutes immigrated
south, to southern Belgium, whence they invade
Britain in earnest around 450. Frisian's always been
said to be English's closest relative, but (some) linguist now
believe that English is much closer to some Germanic,
Hollandic-Ingvaeonic dialects still spoken in extreme
northern France and southern Belgium, along the North-
Sea. There is also much evidence of an independent branch
of IE spoken in the area between Frisia, thru the Netherlands
Belgium to northern Gaul, it was neither Gmc or Celtic &
the ancient Belgae were a linguistic enigma to Caesar & others
and many of the placenames in these areas does not fit Celitc,
Romano-Gaulish or Germanic but still are Indo-European.
The language, now called Nordwestblock was never written down
was extinct around 100 AD, Read about it here  K.S. Doig
Published & images added by Kenneth S. Doig

The origins of the words ‘England’ and ‘The English’

Good folks who follow this blog