THE NORDISH GALLERY--PHOTOS & DESCRIPTIONS OF VARIOUS NORTHERN EUROPEAN RACIAL TYPES

Published, formatted, edited, some images added & annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig
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Insular and Anglo-Saxon Art and Thought in the Early Medieval Period By Hourihane, Colum (EDT) (Google Affiliate Ad)

(from the SNPA website)

The Nordish Gallery

(note, the is only a portion of the gallery)


The Nordish Gallery is a revision of the earlier "Race Gallery". We have attempted to outline the principal physical types of northern Europe (the Nordish group), their origins, physical attributes, and geographical distribution. 



The types we have attempted to describe indicate fundamental population elements, described as if in vitro, and it should be noted that types themselves ("in vivo") do not constitute "pure populations". Typical features are recapitulated to varying degrees in individuals, in accordance with the presence of other population elements. Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon (Google Affiliate Ad)

The SNPA's system of classification is essentially an adaption of (as well as a departure from) the early typology of Carleton Coon, as outlined in his The Races of Europe (1939), and may in this regard diverge from certain other contemporary systems.

As of today, no single unified system of classification is recognized, partly as a result of the continuing ostracism of racial anthropological research from the realm of scientific endeavors. Please enjoy our attempt at an outline.
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First, a quick comment on Nordids. Nordids, a.k.a. Nordics, are strongly depigmented, orthognathic and leptomorphic dolicho-mesocephals of northern Europe. 

The general Nordid type probably evolved through the blending of gracilized (gracile means fine, sharp facial features) northern European Cro-Magnoids (robust, broad-faced Upper-Paleolithic types) with various types. 
Including tall leptomorphs associated with the Battle-Axe and Boat-Axe peoples, who entered Europe from the Eurasian steppes (carrying the Corded type with them), penetrating the various Nordid-formative territories in several consecutive waves.Physical Anthropology By Stein, Philip/ Rowe, Bruce M. (Google Affiliate Ad)

The resulting blends were subsequently stabilized, and the resultant types further specialized, to yield the present Nordid varieties. The ancestral Corded type (named after its association with the Corded-Ware culture), with its high vault and long head, was skeletally nordiform (approaching a Nordid), or perhaps Mediterranid (of a larger, more robust variety).

Classic and Contemporary Readings in Physical Anthropology By Sandford, M. K., Ph.D./ Jackson, Eileen M., Ph.D. (Google Affiliate Ad) It should be duly noted that the question of Nordid origin is a much debated subject, and the foregoing account (which reflects the views of the SNPA) should not be embraced without criticism: it is merely one of several possible explanations. 

Carleton Coon, and others with him, suggested that the Nordid was essentially a depigmented Mediterranid,(this is basically the view I hold, but I would NOT bet my life on being 100% correct) derived from the combination of Corded and Danubian strains, and thus not immediately affiliated with the northern European Upper-Paleolithic survivals.

Dalo-Falid
However, there can be no doubt as to the partial affiliation of the Nordid types to the larger-framed, broader-faced Cro-Magnids of present-day northern Europe. Exploring Biological Anthropology By Williams, Frank Lengle (Google Affiliate Ad)

(the Dalo-Falid [a.k.a. Fälisch, Falid/Faelid/Phalian derive from the German term fälisch, which was coined by Professor Hans F. K. Günther, Universities of Jena, Berlin & Freiburg, "fälische Rasse". 

It refers to Westfalen (Westphalia), where the type was believed to be especially numerous. The Dalisch/Dalo-element derives from the Swedish toponym Dalarna, where the type was first identified by Paudler in 1924 (dalische Rasse). Phalian] and Brünn types)

The fact that Cro-Magnoids have been subject to gracilization in a Nordoid direction is witnessed by the existence of Paleolithic pre-Corded intermediate Cro-Magnoid-Nordoid skulls in the Scandinavian region (K.E. Schreiner, Crania Norvegica II, 1946). 

The Corded type seems responsible for the relative high-headedness of the Nordid types, as compared to adjacent Cro-Magnid varieties. 

Nordids are in a sense a northern equivalent of the southern Mediterranid leptomorphs, existing in a general dichotomy with broader-featured Europid Cro-Magnoids. 

This duality may be a reflection a general distributional trend, recalling the dichotomy between the Cro-Magnoid and Capellid/Aurignacid varieties of Paleolithic Europe.

Description:
The Dalo-Falid is quite tall, and rather wide in most features, especially when compared to the more gracile Nordid. The neck is thick, the shoulders broad, and the general impression is of great strength and robusticity.

                              
There is a certain extent of sexual dimorphism, and whereas the men are typically very "masculine", the women develop corresponding features only to moderacy; they are often large-featured, however in a distincively female way.

The Dalo-Falid head is meso- to dolichocephalic, and is characterized by a wedge-like shape. The face is broad and somewhat short, often giving the impression of a compressed Nordid

This undoubtedly reflects the partial contribution of Dalo-Falid or a similar Cro-Magnid strain to the historical formation of the Nordid types. The maxillary bones are strongly developed.

The forehead is short and rather steep, and a characteristic supraorbital bulge is often seen, especially in men. In combination with deep-set eyes, which are also common in Dalo-Falids, this feature tends to give the type a “primitive” aspect.

The nose is relatively short, yet thin (meso- to leptorrhine), and often protrusive. The profile is mostly straight, with a slight tendency towards concavity (rather than convexity). In women, Alpinid-like noses are not uncommon.

The lower jaw is massive and broad, and the gonial angles are clearly visible, even flaring. The Dalo-Falid deviates from the Brünn in this latter respect, and while it is usually broad-faced, it seldom approaches the facial flatness common among Irish Brünns. 

However, the Dalo-Falid type is strongly orthognathous, with a nearly vertical mouth region, an impression which is reinforced by the thinness of the lips.

Furrows and folds appear at a relatively early age (in men, firstly), particularly on the forehead and along the sides of the nose and mouth. The skin is a bright rosy color, approaching red, which is less common in Nordids. 

The pigmentation of the Dalo-Falid type is nearly as light as that of Nordids. The hair is typically blond or brown, with a tendency towards rufosity, and the eyes are gray or blue.

Geographical distribution:

Dalo-Falids are found in Northwestern Germany and surrounding areas, including southern Scandinavia and the Netherlands. It is mostly blended with Nordid and Borreby in the central areas, and Baltid towards the east.
Nordish Race-Gallery

Hallstatt-Nordics (Scando-Germanic Nordic/Indo-European Nordic, Götatypen, Østerdalstypen, Gothic-Nordic, etc.)



Examples Examples from The Races of Europe (Carleton S. Coon 1939): 

 Western Finn      Englishman (Ipswich)   Norwegian

Modern-day Nordic Celebrities



Sweden         Veteran-Swedish actor 
               Max Von Sydow. He is the
               quintessential Hallstatt-
               Nordic


Etymology:

Hallstatt is the name of an Austrian village and a nearby archaeological site where extensive human remains, corresponding skeletally to the classic Nordid type, were discovered.

Other names:

- Götatyp (Lundman; "Gothic type", with reference to the Swedish region of Götaland)
- Norrøntype (K.E. Schreiner; Norw., "Norse type")
- Skandonordid (Lundman; also used in a more general sense)
- Teutonordid (von Eickstedt, Paudler)
- Østerdalstypen (Halfdan Bryn; Østerdalen is a long valley in eastern Norway)

Origins:
Relatively unmixed Nordids. For some brief speculation on the topic of Nordid origins, please read the introduction to The Nordish Gallery.

Description:
The Hallstatt Nordic is the 'classic' Nordid type, and metrically identical to the original central European Nordid type preserved in Iron Age skeletal material.

The typical Hallstatt Nordid is a leptosome - tall and lean, with relatively long legs and a short body, moderately broad shoulders and relatively short arms. The impression is of a long and slender type, and corpulence is particularly rare. Sexual dimorphism is not significant.

The face is oval to slightly rhomboid in shape, with a narrow, somewhat sloping forehead - but much less so than is the case with the Keltic type - and browridges which are present but rather weakly developed. 

The nasion depression is moderate, while the nose, which is typically parallel in slope with the forehead, is mostly straight or slightly convex, with a high incidence of wavy forms. The nasal index is leptorrhine, and there is usually a noticeable transition from the nasal skeleton to the soft parts of the nose.

The lower jaw is long and deep with a well-developed chin, and the distance from the lower teeth to the chin is often remarkable. The gonial angles are compressed and usually not visible. 

The malars are small and typically flattened in front, and the zygomatic arches bend outward to some extent. The mouth is small, and the lips rather thin.

The cephalic index mean of the modern Hallstatt Nordid is low mesocephalic (C.I. ca. 77), although dolichocephaly is not uncommon among individuals. The head, when seen from above, looks like a long oval, somewhat flattened on both sides. 

When seen from behind, the impression is of a rhomboid or rectangle. The occiput is curved or projecting, and flattening is rare or nonexistent.

The skin, which is a pinkish white, is typically fine-textured and thin. This thinness has the effect of pronouncing the bony parts of the face and making the muscles of the body stand out in relief. 

The bones of the Hallstatt Nordid, and of the Nordid group as a whole, are small in comparison to the Cro-Magnid varieties.


The hair color of the Hallstatt Nordid is characteristically and almost exclusively blond, with ash-blond shades in one-third to one-half of the cases, the remainder having golden blond to medium brown shades. 

Rufosity is virtually absent. There is a small brunet minority that is anthropologically Nordid, but aberrant pigmentation does not necessarily indicate non-Nordid admixture.

The Nordid eye is typically light-mixed blue, with a large pure light-eyed minority. Here also there is a small dark-pigmented minority.

Geographical distribution:
The Hallstatt Nordid type is found in its greatest concentration on the southern Swedish plain and in the adjacent long valleys and lowlands of southeastern Norway. 

Outside of this kernel, which Carleton Coon described as "a refuge of the classic Nordic race", non-Nordid (mostly Cro-Magnoid) admixture increases rapidly, and no true predominantly Hallstatt Nordid population may be found. 

The type has blended with broader-featured, more robust Cro-Magnids in Denmark, northern Germany and the Be-Ne-Lux countries (Dalo-Falid, Borreby), and is present at lower levels in the British Isles, where the related Keltic type is more common. 

The type is inseparably tied to the ancient Germanic migrations, and Hallstatt Nordid individuals may be found anywhere where there are traditions of Völkerwanderung settlement.

Keltic-Nordic


Etymology:
In the course of their migrations throughout Europe and elsewhere, the Celtic peoples brought with them a conglomeration of physical types, among which this special Nordid variety seems to have been particularly numerous. 

Carleton Coon consequently chose the term “Keltic” for the present-day equivalent type. We have retained the archaic spelling with K, considering its great proliferation.
Other names:
- Iron-Age Nordic (used by Coon as an alternative to Keltic Nordic, but also to denote any Iron-Age central-European Nordid)

Origins:
The Keltic Nordid type probably shares its earliest formative history with the Hallstatt variety, or a similar proto-strain (for some brief speculation on the topic of Nordid origins, go here). 

The migratory existence associated with the ancestry of the Keltic type clearly involved the absorption of several non-Nordid strains, most importantly central European Dinarid (probably by association with the Bell-Beaker culture of the Neolithic and Bronze-Ages). 

In this respect, one might say it is intermediate between the Hallstatt and Norid types. Additionally, the Keltic Nordid has mixed with Atlanto-Mediterranid (cf. North-Atlantid), the latter of which is probably present at a low level in the Keltic Nordid population as a whole.

Description:

The modern Keltic Nordid type is tall, slender, and moderately broad-shouldered. The head form is typically mesocephalic, with a mean cephalic index of 79, which is slightly higher than the present Hallstatt mean. 


Nordids of this type are particularly low-vaulted, with foreheads of much greater slope than those of the Hallstatt type, recalling a more typically Dinarid feature. 

The vault, when in posterior view, gives a characteristically cylindrical impression, as opposed to the more nearly rhomboid or rectangular vault shape of the Hallstatt variety. 

The Keltic face is relatively long and narrow, and the chin is moderately to strongly developed. The temples, malars, and gonial angles are typically compressed, and not visible.

The Keltic nose is long, large and high-bridged, characteristically prominent, and narrow to medium in breadth. The profile is usually straight, but wavy or concavo-convex (dinariform) profiles are not uncommon.
Introduction to Physical Anthropology 2011-2012 By Jurmain, Robert/ Kilgore, Lynn/ Trevathan, Wenda/ Ciochon, Russell L. (Google Affiliate Ad)

A particularly convex-nosed and Dinaroid tendency is associated with certain British urban areas. The lips are thin to medium, and little everted. 

The hair, which ranges in color from a blackish brown to a platinum-like ash-blond, is most commonly medium brown in pigment. It is generally of a much darker tone than what is common among Hallstatt Nordids, a fact well illustrated by some the more recent photographic material presented below. The eyes are predominantly light-mixed.

Illustrations:


Examples from The Races of Europe (Carleton S. Coon 1939):

 England          Ireland


Keltic-Nordic Celebrities




Geographical distribution:
Modern Keltic Nordid populations are for the most part descended from Celtic and Frankish tribes on the northwestern European mainland and on the Isles across the British Channel. 

The type is concentrated in the British Isles and in the Be-Ne-Lux nations, and an old Keltic enclave in the Swiss Alps forms a secondary center.

Elsewhere, the Keltic Nordid type has found breeding ground overseas in North America, down under in Australia, and in South Africa, and it still figures as the predominant Europid racial type in most extra-European British and Dutch former colonies.

Special subtypes:

- Aran-type
- urban-British type of more pronounced Dinaroid affiliation


East-Nordic 


Origins:
Stabilized blend of a dominant high-headed Corded element with less important eastern European gracilized low-headed Cro-Magnoids, the former of which is often resurgent in East-Nordid individuals. 

Other elements, e.g. Hallstatt Nordid, may have been involved, but they are secondary to the above-mentioned. For further speculation on the topic of Nordid origins, please review the main page of the Nordish Gallery.

Description:

The East-Nordid type is dolichocephalic, leptoprosopic and leptorrhine, and similar in most features and measurements to the Hallstatt type, and there is considerable phenotypical overlap between the two. 

The main points of morphological departure involve the usually higher vault and forehead, and often more prominent (and sometimes convex) nasal skeleton, of the East-Nordid. 

These features, which are highly variable, are traits associated with a Corded morphology, and serve to illustrate the greater contribution of this highly specialized strain to the eastern variety, as contrasted with the Hallstatt and Keltic types. 

The latter of which is even characterized by a somewhat low and receding forehead. Body hair is not as strong as with the Hallstatt type, and the facial features are typically softer.

Illustrations:


Examples, Russians














 Trønder


Etymology:
Trønder is the designation in Norwegian of any speaker of the dialect Trøndersk, including any inhabitant of Nord- and Sør-Trøndelag, two central Norwegian provinces that are geographically crucial to the distribution of the type in question. Trøndertype is cognate to Swedish Trönde(r)typ in Lundman's typology.

Other names:
- North Germanic mesocephal, the (K. E. Schreiner)
- Vestlandstypen (C. F. Larsen; No., "Westland's type")

Origins:
In the Upper Paleolithic, parts of the Scandinavian Peninsula were inhabited by large-framed, robust Cro-Magnids, similar to the modern Dalo-Falid and "Brünn" varieties. 

As time passed, continual interbreeding with later (and perhaps earlier) arrivals contributed to a decrease in the number of "pure" populations of this type (yet relatively unaltered forms may be found e.g., in certain mountain isolates, and individuals nearly everywehere in Scandinavia do not seldom recapitulate fully Cro-Magnid features). 

The most important arrival, in this respect, was that of the Battle-Axe and Boat-Axe peoples, who carried with them the Corded type, a tall, high-headed, dolichocephalic leptosome of the eastern steppes, which was perhaps more closely related to members of the Mediterranid parafamily than to the aforementioned Cro-Magnids. 

This type was probably material to the formation of the Iron Age Nordid types in general, but in the central regions of the Scandinavian Peninsula (entering from the northeast) it played a particularly interesting role, as it combined with local Cro-Magnids to form the special form known as the Trønder type. 

This type has retained much of its Corded prevalence in the central Swedish and Norwegian provinces, becoming increasingly Cro-Magnid toward the sothwestern parts of Norway, a distribution indicative the historical dispersal of the Battle-Axe and Boat-Axe peoples in the peninsula. 

The Trønder population has thus evolved as a gradient type, internally variable yet mostly stabilized. The average Trønder is a Corded-Cro-Magnid intermediate, a Nordid approximation, combining traits from both formatives with varying amounts of Hallstatt Nordid and Borreby strains.

Description:
The Trønder is a variable strain, ranging in type from large, Irish-looking Cro-Magnid individuals (cf. Brünn) and tall, slender Battle-Axe survivors (Corded type), to almost completely Nordid populations (to the point at which it is more sensible to talk about Trønder-influenced Nordids).

The eastern central Swedish provinces, and the central Norwegian provinces of Nord- and Sør-Trøndelag, form the northeastern geographical extreme of the Trønder type, which is characterized by great vault height (reflecting Corded prevalence). 

This type is concentrated in the valley of Orkdal in Sør-Trøndelag, predominating as a population element in all territories north of the Dovre mountains, from Nordmøre in the west, through Jämtland and all the way to the Baltic coast. 

The western and southwestern Norwegian inland population continues the type in in most anthropological respects, but the Cro-Magnid element gains in importance the further one gets from the Orkdal area. 

One exeption to this rule is the population of Hardanger, members of which seem much more fully Corded and much less Cro-Magnid than adjacent Trønders. Cro-Magnid prevalence establishes a Trønder end-type in the southeastern region of Setesdal (Valle type).

The Trønder is the tallest Scandinavian type (with the exception of the Tydal type, which is at any rate a marginal phenomenon), which accordingly makes it one of Europe's tallest. 

It is a slender type, although not as slender as the local Hallstatt Nordid, and its bones are larger and heavier than what is considered typically Nordid. 

Sexual dimorphism is strong, and Trønder females are seldom correspondingly big-boned, but pedomorphism is less common than in Nordids proper, and robust females are not uncommon. 

The head form is high mesocephalic (c.i. typically 78-80; with the exeption of the "Hardanger type", which is dolicho-mesocephalic), and the face is of considerable length. The forehead is very high, and at the same time both broader and much less sloping than that of the Hallstatt Nordic. Hallstatt Culture (Google Affiliate Ad)

Frontal bosses, a non-Nordic trait, are frequently found, and the temporal region is much fuller. In addition, the transitions from frontal to temporal and frontal to parietal regions are smooth and difficult to find, whereas on the Nordid head they are clearly marked.

The nose is typically straight or convex, with a wide display of wavy forms (the "Hardanger type" is, for instance, frequently convex-nosed), and the transition between bone and cartilage is difficult to locate without palpation (feeling with the fingers), another feature which serves to distinguish the general Trønder type from the local Nordid. Race, Ethnicity, and the Cold War By Muehlenbeck, Philip (EDT) (Google Affiliate Ad)

The zygomatic arches of the Trønder type are less prominent than those of the Hallstatt Nordid, and the gonial angles are compressed and not visible. The skull is more rounded and the occiput less prominently curved than that of the Nordid type.

The Trønder is typically blue-eyed, and light-mixed blue is the predominant color. The hair is wavy and ranges in color from darkish brown to golden blond. 

Rufosity (red hair) is common, whereas ash-blond shades, a typical Hallstatt Nordic trait, are rarer. The skin is coarser in texture and tougher than regular Nordid skin, and the hair is more abundant on beard and body.

On the whole, Trønder types give the impression of more robust, powerful and masculine Nordids.

Illustrations:Examples from The Races of Europe 
(Carleton S. Coon 1939)
Examples from Nordens rastyper: geografi: och historia (Bertil Lundman):



Valle, Norway


Dalarna, Sweden

Dalarna, Sweden

Liv Ullmann
(Norway)


Other Examples



England


Bergen, Norway

Geographical distribution:
Brachycephalic (Borreby and Strandid) populations that inhabit the islands and promontories. Trønders are by far the most common element in the Norwegian population, whereas the Swedes are predominantly Nordid.

The Trønder type proper is essentially restricted to the Scandinavian peninsula. The zone of maximal concentration stretches from eastern central Sweden, through the provinces of Trøndelag, and southwestward from there on until it approaches the southern Norwegian coastal areas. 

Coastal settlements are characterized by a prevalence of Trønder types in the innermost reaches of the fjords (e.g. the "Hardanger type"), contrasted with the significantly more

Most of the Norwegian Vikings who settled in Iceland, Scotland, and northeastern England, were from the western part of the country, where Trønder types predominate. Accordingly, Trønder-like types are frequently seen in areas of erstwhile Norse settlement.

(*) In the Baltics, bordering on the Scandinavian peninsula, Trønder-like types are not uncommon. A combination of Corded and local Cro-Magnid elements. 

It is nowadays represented by the largely unreduced West-Baltids (an eastern Dalo-Falid or Brünn cognate), has resulted in a Baltic Trønder approximation. This could be the type referred to as "Aistin" or "Aisto-Nordid" by Lundman, and "Fenno-Nordid" by others
























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