"An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary" A thru acreópian (Exhaustive, giving: bound morphemes, dialectal variants, etymologies, etc.

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An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary

by Bosworth and Toller

(from the Univeristy of Texas, Austin: LINGUISTIC RESEARCH CENTER) 

A. It is not necessary to speak of the form of what are often called Anglo-Saxon letters, as all Teutonic, Celtic, and Latin manuscripts of the same age are written in letters of the same form. There is one exception: the Anglo-Saxons had, with great propriety, two different letters for the two distinct sounds of our th: the hard þ in thin and sooth, UNCERTAIN and the soft ð in thine and soothe, vide Þ, þ. 2. The indigenous Pagan alphabet of our Anglo-Saxon forefathers, called Runes, it must be particularly observed, not only represents our letters, but the names of the letters are significant. The Runes are chiefly formed by straight lines to be easily carved on wood or stone. For instance, the Rune RUNE ác is not only found in inscriptions on wood and stone, but in Anglo-Saxon MSS. and printed books. In manuscripts and in books, it sometimes denotes the letter a; and, at other times, the oak, from its Anglo-Saxon name, ác the oak. v. AC, and RÚN.

B. The short or unaccented Anglo-Saxon a is contained in the following words, which are represented by modern English terms of the same import, having the sound of a in man; as Can, man, span, hand, land, sand, camp, dranc, etc. 2. The short a is often found in the final syllables of inflections, -a, -an, -as, -aþ, etc. It generally appears in the radix before a doubled consonant, as swamm a fungus, wann wan; or two different consonants, as mp, mb, nt, nc, ng, etc. -- Camp, lamb, plante, dranc, lang, etc. 3. The radical short a can only stand before a single consonant and st, sc, when this single consonant and these double letters are again followed, in the inflections or formative syllables, by a, o, u in nouns; and by a, o, u, e in adjectives; and a, o, u, and ia in verbs; as Dagas, daga from dæg, hwalas from hwæl, fatu from fæt, gastas from gæst, ascas from æsc; adj. Smales, smale, smalost, smalu, from smæl small; Lates, latu, latost, from læt late: Stapan, faran, starian, wafian. Grimm's Deut. Gram. vol. i. p. 223, 2nd edit. 1822. In other cases, the short or unaccented æ is used instead of a. See Æ in its alphabetical order. 4. The remarks in 3. are of great importance in declining words, for monosyllables, ending in a single consonant, in st or sc, change the æ into a, whenever the consonant or consonants are followed by a, o, u in nouns, and a, o, u, e in adjectives, vide Æ. 5. It must be remembered then, that a short a cannot stand in a word (1) when it ends in a single consonant, that is, when no inflections of a, o, u in nouns follow; as in Stæf, fræt: (2) when in nouns a single consonant is followed by e; as Stæfes, stæfe, wæter: (3) when the word has any other double consonants besides st, sc, though followed by a, o, u; as Cræft, cræfta, ægru n. pl. of æg: (4) in contracted words, when æ is not in the last syllable; as Æcer, pl. æceras, æcerum, contracted æcras, æcrum; wæpen, pl. wæpenu; mægen, pl. mægenu, contracted wæpnu, and mægnu. 6. Though I have given in C. 3. the reasons, which Grimm assigns for making the prefixed a- UNCERTAIN long, I believe it is generally short in A. Sax. as in Eng. a-bide = A. Sax. a-bídan = bídan, so a-cende = cende:-- Ic todæg cende [cende Surt; acende Spl. T; Th.] ðé ego hodie genui te, Ps. Spl. 2, 7. A-beran=beran to bear :-- Hefige byrðyna man aberan ne mæg a man is not able to bear heavy burdens, Mt. Bos. 23, 4. Ne here ge sacc nolite fortare sacculum, Lk. Bos. 10, 4. A-biddan = biddan to ask, pray :-- Abiddaþ [biddaþ Cott.] hine pray to him. Bt. 42; Fox 258, 21. Ic bidde ðé, Drihten I pray to thee, Lord, Gen. 19, 18. It is evident by these examples that words have the same meaning with and without the prefixed a-: this a- was not prominent or long, and therefore this prefix is left unaccented in this Dictionary. 7. a- prefixed, sometimes denotes Negation, deterioration, or opposition, as From, out, away; thus awendan to turn from, subvert, from wendan to turn; amód out of or without mind, mad; adón to do away, banish, composed of a from, dón to do, vide Æ. The prefixed a- does not always appear to alter the signification : in this case it is generally omitted in modern English words derived immediately from Saxon, -- thus, Aberan to bear; abrecan to break; abítan to bite. The prefixed a-, in such cases, seems to add some little force or intensity to the original signification of the word to which it is joined, -- thus, fǽran to make afraid; terrere: a-fǽran to terrify, dismay, astound; exterrere, perterrere, consternare, stupefacere.

C. The long Anglo-Saxon á is accented, and words containing this long or accented á are now represented by English terms, with the vowel sounded like o in no and bone. The following words have either the same or an analogous meaning, both in English and Anglo-Saxon: Hám home, án one, bán bone, hán hone, stán stone, sár sore, rap UNCERTAIN rope, lár lore, gást ghost, wrát wrote. Sometimes the accented or long á is represented in English by oa; as Ác an oak, gád a goad, lád load, rád road, brád broad, fám foam, lám loam, sápe soap, ár oar, bár boar, hár hoar, bat boat, gát goat, áta oat, áþ oath, láþ loath. Occasionally á becomes oe in English; as Dá a doe, fa UNCERTAIN a foe, tá toe, wá woe; but the oe, in these words, has the sound of o in no. The same may be said of oa in oak, goad. Hence it appears that the Anglo-Saxon á is represented by the modern English o, oa, and oe, which have the sound of o in no and bone; as Rád rode (p. of ride), rád a road, and dá, a doe. Deut. Gram, von Jacob Grimm, vol. i. pp. 358, 397, 398, 3rd edit. 1840. 2. The long á is often changed into ǽ as Lár lore, lǽran to teach, an one, ǽnig any. 3. The following is a precise summary from Grimm of the prefixed a-, long or accented. The prefixed á is long because it is a contraction and represents the preposition æf of, off, from, away, out of, or the preposition on on, in, upon, into, or as the Lat. in and Eng. un; as á-dúne for æf-dúne, á-wendian for æf-wendian, á-drædan for on-drædan, á-gean for on-gean, á-týnan to unshut, open, Ps. Spl. 38, 13, for on-týnan, un-týnan to open. Á, as an inseparable particle, is long because it represents the inseparable prefixed particles ar, ur, ir, in O. H. Ger. and O. Sax. commonly expressing the meaning of the Latin prepositions ab, ex, ad, etc: A. Sax. á-hebban, O. H. Ger. ur-hefan elevare; A. Sax. á-fyllan, O. H. Ger. ar-fullan implere; A. Sax. a-beran, O. H. Ger. ar-peran ferre, efferre; A. Sax. á-scínan, O. H. Ger. ir-scínan clarescere. The peculiar force which this particle imparts to different verbs may correspond (1) to the Latin ex out, as á-gangan to go out; exire: (2) to the English up, as á-hleápan to leap up; exsilire: á-fyllan to fill up; implere: (3) it expresses the idea of an origin , becoming, growing, á-blacian to blacken, to become black; á-heardian to grow hard: (4) it corresponds to the Latin re, as á-geban reddere, á-lósian redimere, á-sécan requirere: (5) it is often used merely to render a verb transitive, or to impart a greater force to the transitive meaning of the simple verb, -- á-beódan offerre, a-ceapian emere, á-lecgan ponere, á-sleán occidere: (6) it is used with intransitive verbs, where it has hardly any meaning, unless it suggests the commencement or beginning of the action, as á-hleahan ridere, á-sweltan mori: (7) it expresses the end, aim, or purpose of an action, as á-dómian condemnare, á-biddan deprecari, á-wirþan perire. But, after all, it must be borne in mind, that the various shades of its meaning are innumerable, and that, even in one and the same compound, it often assumes different meanings. For further illustration we must therefore refer to the compounds in which it occurs, Grm. ii. 818-832. I have, in justice to Grimm, given his motives for marking the prefixed á- long: I believe, however, it is short. See B. 6.

-a, affixed to words, denotes A person, an agent, or actor, hence, All nouns ending in a are masculine, and make the gen. in an; as from Cum come [thou], cuma a person who comes, or a guest: Swíc deceive [thou], swica a traitor: Worht wrought, wyrhta a workman, wright: Fóregeng foregoing, fóregenga a foregoer: Beád or gebéd a supplication, praying, beáda a person who supplicates or prays: Bytl a beetle or hammer, bytla a hammerer, builder. Some abstract nouns, and words denoting inanimate things, end in -a; and these words, having the same declension as those which signify Persons or actors, are masculine; as Hlísa, an; m. fame: Tíma, an; m. fame: Líchama, an; m. a body: Steorra, an; m. a star: Gewuna, an; m. a custom, habit.

a; prep. acc. To, for; in :-- A worlda world to or in an age of ages; in seculorum seculum, Ps. Th. 18, 8, =on worlda world, Ps. Lamb. 20, 5, = on worulda world, Ps. Th. 103, 6.

Á, aa, aaa; adv. Always, ever, for ever; hence the O. Eng. AYE, ever; semper, unquam, usque :-- Ac á sceal ðæt wiðerwearde gemetgianbut ever must the contrary moderate. Bt. 21; Fox 74, 19. Án God á on ecnysse one God to all eternity [lit. one God ever, in eternity], Homl. Th. ii. 22, 32. Á on écnisse usque in æternum, Jos. 4, 7. Ic á ne geseah 'I not ever saw' = I never saw, Cd. 19; Th. 24, 10; Gen. 375. Á = ǽfre: Nú, sceal beón á on Ii abbod now, there shall always [ever] be an abbot in Iona, Chr. 565; Th. 33, 2, col. 2. Nu, sceal beón ǽfre on Ií abbod now, there shall ever [alway s] be an abbot in lona, Chr. 565; Th. 32, 11; 33, 4, col. 1. He biþ aa [áá MS.] ymbe ðæt an he is for ever about that one [thing], L. Th. ii. 310, 25. Aa on worulda woruld semper in seculorum seculum, Ps. Th. 105, 37. Nú and aaa [ááá MS.], to worulde búton ǽghwilcum ende now and ever, to a world without any end, Bt. 42; Fox 260, 15. Á world for ever, Ex. 21, 6. Á forþ ever forth, from thence, Bt. Tupr. 303, 31. [The original signification seems to be a flowing, referring to time, which every moment flows on, hence ever, always, also to ǽ, eá flowing water, a river. In Johnston's Index Geog. there are nineteen rivers in Europe with the name of Aa -- Á.]

á, indecl; f. A law; lex :-- Dryhtnes á the Lord's law, Andr. Recd. 2387; An. 1196. vide Ǽ.

aac, e; f. oak: -- Aac-tún Acton Beauchamp, Worcestershire, Cod. Dipl. 75; A. D. 727; Kmbl. i. 90, 19. v. Ác-tún.

aad a pile :-- He mycelne aad gesomnode he gathered a great pile, Bd. 3, 16; S. 542, 22. v. ád.

áǽðan to lay waste; vastare. Gen. 1280: á ǽðan, Cd. 64; Th. 77, 24. v. ǽðan.

aam, es; m. A reed of a weaver's loom. Exon. 109 a; Th. 417, 22; Rä. 36, 8; Cod. Lugd. Grn. v. ám.

aar honour :-- In aar naman in honore nominis, Bd. 2, 6; S. 508, note 43: 5, 11; S. 626, note 36. v. ÁR; f.

aaþ an oath :-- He ðone aaþ gesæh he saw the oath. Th. Dipl. A. D. 825; p. 71, 12. v. Áþ.

a-bacan, ic -bace, ðú -bæcest, -bæcst, he -bæceþ, -bæcþ, pl. -bacaþ; p. -bóc, pl. -bócon; pp. -bacen To bake; pinsere, coquere :-- Se hláf þurh fýres hǽtan abacen the bread baked by the heat of fire. Homl. Pasc. Daye, A. D, 1567, p. 30, 8; Lisl. 410, 1623, p. 4, 16; Homl. Th. ii. p. 268, 9.

a-bád expected, waited :-- And abád swá ðeáh seofon dagas expectavitque nihilominus septem alios dies, Gen. 8, 12. v. abídan.

a-bæd, abǽdon asked; p. of abiddan.

a-bǽdan; p. -bǽdde; pp. -bǽded To restrain, repel, compel; avertere, repellere, cogere, exigere :-- Is fira ǽnig, ðe deáþ abǽde is there any man, who can restrain death ? Salm. Kmbl. 957; Sal. 478. Ðæt oft wǽpen abǽd his mondryhtne which often repels the weapon for its lord, Exon. 114a; Th. 437, 24; Rä. 56, 12. v. bǽdan.

a-bæligan; p. ode; pp. od To offend, to make angry; irritare, offendere :-- Sceal gehycgan hæleða ǽghwylc ðæt he ne abælige bearn waldendes every man must be mindful that he offend not the son of the powerful, Cd. 217; Th. 276, 27; Sat. 195. v. a-belgan, a-bylgan.

a-bær bore or took away; sustulit, Ps. Spl. 77, 76; p. of a-beran.

ABAL, afol, es; n. Power of body, strength; vigor, vires, robur corporis :-- Ðín abal and cræft thy strength and power, Cd. 25; Th. 32, 9; Gen. 500. [Orm. afell: O. H. Ger. aval, n: O. Nrs. afl, n. robur, vis: Goth. abrs strong: Grk. GREEK.]

a-bannan; p. -beónn, pl. -beónnon; pp. -bannen. I. to command, order, summon; mandare, jubere :-- Abannan to beadwe to summon to battle, Elen. Grm. 34. II. to publish, proclaim; with út to order out, call forth, call together, congregate, assemble; edicere, avocare, citare :-- Aban ðú ða beornas út of ofne command thou the men out of the oven, Cd. 193; Th. 242, 32; Dan. 428. Ðá hét se cyng abannan út ealne þeódscipe then the king commanded to order out [to assemble] all the population, Chr. 1006; Erl. 140, 8. v. bannan.

a-barian; . p. ede; pp. ed [a, barian to make bare; bær, se bara; adj. bare] To make bare, to manifest, discover, disclose; denudare, prodere, in medium proferre :-- Gif ðú abarast úre sprǽce si sermonem nostrum profers in medium, Jos. 2, 20: R. Ben. Interl. 46: Cot. 80.

a-bát bit, ate :-- He abát he ate, MS. Cott. Jul. E. vii. 237; Salm. Kmbl. 121, 15; p. of a-bítan.

abbad, abbod, abbud, abbot, es; m: abboda, an; m. I. an abbot; abbās, -- the title of the male superior of certain religious establishments, thence called abbeys. The word abbot appears to have been, at first, applied to any member of the clerical order, just as the French Père and English Father. In the earliest age of monastic institutions the monks were not even priests: they were merely religious persons, who retired from the world to live in common, and the abbot was one of their number, whom they elected to preside over the association. In regard to general ecclesiastical discipline, all these communities were at this early time subject to the bishop of the diocese, and even to the pastor of the parochial district within the bounds of which they were established. At length it began to be usual for the abbot to be in orders; and since the sixth century monks generally have been priests. In point of dignity an abbot is generally next to a bishop. A minute account of the different descriptions of abbots may be found in Du Cange's Glossary, and in Carpentier's supplement to that work :-- Se árwurða abbad Albínus the reverend abbot Albinus, Bd. pref. Riht is ðæt abbodas fæste on mynstrum wunian it is right that abbots dwell closely in their minsters, L. I. P. 13; Th. ii. 320, 30. Her Forþréd abbud forþférde in this year abbot Forthred died, Chr. 803; Erl. 60, 13. Se abbot Saxulf the abbot Saxulf, Chr. 675; Ing. 50, 15. Swá gebireþ abbodan as becometh abbots, L. Const. W. p. 150, 27; L. I. P. 13; Th. ii. 320, 35. II. bishops were sometimes subject to an abbot, as they were to the abbots of Iona :-- Nú, sceal beón ǽfre on Ií abbod, and ná biscop; and ðan sculon beón underþeódde ealle Scotta biscopas, forðan ðe Columba [MS. Columban] was abbod, ná biscop now, in Ií [Iona] , there must ever be an abbot, not a bishop; and to him must all bishops of the Scots be subject, because Columba was an abbot, not a bishop, Chr. 565; Th. 32, 10-16, col. l. [Laym. abbed: O. Frs. abbete: N. Ger. abt: O. H. Ger. abbat: Lat. abbas; gen. abbātis an abbot: Goth. abba : Syr. HEBREW abba father, from Heb. HEBREW ab father, pl. HEBREW abot fathers.] DER. abbad-dóm, -hád, -isse, -ríce: abboda.

abbad-dóm an abbacy, v. abbud-dóm.

abbad-hád the state or dignity of an abbot, v. abbud-hád.

abbadisse, abbodisse, abbatisse, abbudisse, abedisse, an; f. [abbad an abbot, isse a female termination, q. v.] An abbess; abbatissa :-- Riht is ðæt abbadissan fæste on mynstrum wunian it is right that abbesses dwell closely in their nunneries, L. I. P. 13; Th. ii. 320, 30: L. Const. W. 150, 21: Bd. 3, 8; S. 531, 14: Guthl. 2; Gdwin. 16, 22 : Bd. 3, 11; S. 536, 38.

abbad-ríce an abbacy, v. abbod-ríce.

Abban dún, e; f. Abingdon, in Berkshire, Chr. 985; Ing. 167, 5. v. Æbban dún.

abbod an abbot, L. I. P. 13; Th. ii. 320, 30. v. abbad.

abboda, an; m. An abbot; abbas :-- Swá gebireþ abbodan as becometh abbots, L. I. P. 13; Th. ii. 320, 35. v. abbad.

abbod-ríce, abbot-ríce, es; n. The rule of an abbot, an abbacy; abbatia :-- On his tíme wæx ðæt abbodríce swíðe ríce in his time the abbacy waxed very rich, Chr. 656; Ing. 41, l. On ðis abbotríce in this abbacy, Chr. 675; Ing. 51, 12.

abbodyase an abbess, Guthl. 2; Gdwin. 16, 22. v. abbadisse.

abbot an abbot. Chr. 675; Ing. 50, 15. v. abbad.

abbud an abbot. Chr. 803; Erl. 60, 13: Bd. 5, 23; S. 645, 14. v. abbad.

abbud-dóm, es; m, [= abbod-ríce, q. v.] An abbacy, the rule or authority of an abbot; abbātia, abbātis jus vel auctoritas :-- Abbuddómes, gen. Bd. 5, 1; S. 613, 18. Abbuddðme, dat. 5, 21; S. 642, 37.

abbud-hád, es; m. The state or dignity of an abbot; abbatis dignitas :-- Munuchád and abbudhád ne syndon getealde to ðysum getele monkhood and abbothood are not reckoned in this number, L. Ælf. C. 18; Th. ii. 348, 31.

abbudisse, an; m. An abbess :-- Ða sealde seó abbudisse him sumne dǽl ðære moldan tunc dedit ei abbatissa portiunculam de pulvere illo, Bd. 3, 11; S. 536, 38. v. abbadisse.

a-beág bowed down, Beo. Th. 1555; B. 775; p. of a-búgan.

a-bealh angered, Cd. 222; Th. 290, 4; Sat. 410. v. a-belgan.

a-beátan; p. -beót; pp. -beáten To beat, strike; tundere, percellere :-- Stormum abeátne beaten by storms, Exon. 21b; Th. 58, 26; Cri. 941. v. beátan.

a-beden asked, Nicod. 12; Thw. 6, 15: Bd. 4, 10; S. 578, 31; pp. of a-biddan.

abedisse, an; f. An abbess; abbatissa :-- Ðære abedissan betæhton committed to the abbess, Chr. 1048; Erl. 181, 28. v. abbadisse.

a-began; p. de; pp. ed; v. trans. To bend, bend down, bow, reduce, subdue; incurvare, redigere, subigere :-- Weorþe heora bæc swylce abéged eác dorsum illorum semper incurva, Ps. Th. 68, 24: Chr. 1073; Erl. 212, 1: 1087; Th. 356, 10. v. bégan.

a-bégendlíc; adj. Bending; flexibilis, Som. v. a-bégan.

a-behófian; p. ode To behove, concern; decere :-- Mid máran unrǽde ðone him abehófode with more animosity than it behoved him, Chr. 1093; Th. 360, 4. v. be-hófian.

a-belgan, ic -beige, ðú -bilgst, -bilhst, he -bylgþ, -bilhþ, pl. -belgaþ; p. -bealg, -bealh, pl. -bulgon; pp. -bolgen, v. trans. [a, belgan to irritate] To cause any one to swell with anger, to anger, irritate, vex, incense; ira aliquem tumefacere, irritare, exasperare, incendere :-- Ne sceal ic ðé abelgan I would not anger thee, Salm. Kmbl. 657; Sal. 328. Oft ic wífe abelge oft I irritate a woman. Exon. 105b; Th. 402, 20; Rä. 21, 32. He abilhþ Gode he will incense God, Th. Dipl. 856; 117, 20. Ic ðe abealh I angered thee, Cd. 222; Th. 290, 4; Sae. 410: Beo. Th. 4550; B. 2280. God abulgan Deum exacerbaverunt, Ps. Th. 77, 41: Ex. 32, 29. Nú hig me abolgen habbaþ irascatur furor meus contra eos. Ex. 32, 10. He him abolgen wurþeþ he will be incensed against them, Cd. 22; Th. 28, 4; Gen. 430. Wæs swýðe abolgen erat graviter offensus, Bd. 3, 7; S. 530, 8.

a-beódan; p. -beád; pp. -boden; v. a. [a, beódan to order] To announce, relate, declare, offer, command; referre, nuntiare, annuntiare, edicere, oflerre, jubere :-- Ðæt he wolde ðæt ǽrende abeódan that he would declare the errand, Ors. 4, 6; Bos. 86, 20: Cd. 91; Th. 115,14; Gen. 1919: 200; Th. 248, 9; Dan. 510.

a-beoflan To be moved or shaken, to tremble; moveri, contremere :-- Ealle abeofedan eorþan staðelas movebuntur omnia fundamenta terrae, Ps. Th. 81, 5. v. beofian.

a-beornan; p. -bearn, -barn, pl. -burnon; pp. -bornen, v. intrans. To burn; exardere :-- Fyr abarn exarsit ignis, Ps. Th. 105,16. v. beornan.

a-beran; p. -bær; pp. -boren. I. to bear, carry, suffer; portare, ferre :-- Ðe man aberan ne mæg which they are not able to bear, Mt. Bos. 23, 4. Hí ne mágon nán earfoða aberan they cannot bear any troubles, Bt. 39, 10; Fox 228, 3: Andr. Kmbl. 1912; An. 958: Ps. Th. 54, 11. II. to take or carry away; tollere, auferre :-- Abær hine of eowdum sceápa sustulit eam de gregibus ovium, Ps. Spl. 77, 76: Ps. Grn. 50,12. v. beran.

a-berd, -bered; adj. Sagacious, crafty, cunning; callidus. Wrt. Voc. 47, 36: Lchdm, iii. 192, 10; 188, 26: 186,17.

a-berend-líc j adj. [berende bearing] Bearable, tolerable, that may be borne; tolerabilis :-- Aberendlíc broc bearable affliction, Bt. 39, 10; Fox 228, 4, note 5.

a-berstan; p. -bearst, pl. -burston; pp. -borsten [a, berstan] To burst, break, to be broken; perfringi. v. for-berstan.

a-bet; adv. Better; melius :-- Hwæðer ðé se ende abet lícian wille whether the end will better please thee. Bt. 35, 5; Fox 166, 23. v. bet.

a-beþecian; subj. ðú abeþecige; p. ode; pp. od [be, þeccan to cover] To uncover, detect, find hidden, to discover, disclose; detegere :-- Búton ðú hit forstele oððe abeþecige unless thou steal it, or find (it) hid,Bt. 32, l; Fox 114, 9.

a-bicgan; p. -bohte; pp. boht; v. a. [a, bycgan to buy] To buy, pay for, recompense; emere, redimere :-- Gif fríman wið fríes mannes wlf geligeþ, his wérgelde abicge if a freeman lie with a freeman's wife, let him buy her with his wergeld, i.e. price, L. Ethb. 31; Th. i. 10, 7. v. a-bycgan.

a-bídan, ic -bíde, ðú -bídest, -bítst, -bíst, he -bídeþ, -bít, pl. -bídaþ; p. -bád, pl. -bidon; pp. -biden; v. intrans. To ABIDE, remain, wait, wait for, await; manere, sustinere, expectare :-- Hý abídan sceolon in sin-nihte they must abide in everlasting night, Exon. 31b; Th. 99, 28; Cri. 1631. Hér sculon abídan bán here the bones shall remain, 99a; Th. 370, 18; Seel. 61. Abád swá ðeáh seofon dagas expectavit nihilominus septem alios dies, Gen. 8, 12. We óðres sceolon abídan alium expecta-mus? Mt. Bos. 11, 3. Ic abád [anbídode Spl.] hǽlu ðíne expectabam salutare tuum, Ps. Surt. 118, 166. Sáwla úre abídyþ Driht anima nostra sustinet Dominum, Ps. Spl. C. 32, 20. Windes abidon ventum expecta-bant. Bd. 5, 9; S. 623, 19. Ðǽr abídan sceal maga miclan dómes there the being [Grendel] shall await the great doom, Beo. Th. 1959; B. 977: Exon. 115 b; Th. 444, 27; Kl. 53. [Laym. abiden; p. abad, abed, abeod, abod, abaod, abide, pl. abiden.] v. bídan.

a-biddan, ic -bidde, ðú -bidest, -bitst, he -bit, -byt, -bitt, pl. -biddaþ; p. -bæd, pl. -bǽdon; pp. -beden To ask, pray, pray to, pray for, obtain by asking or praying; petere, precari, postulare, exorare, impetrare :-- Wilt tú wit unc abiddan drincan vis petamus bibere t Bd. 5, 3; S. 616, 30. Abiddaþ [Cott. biddaþ] hine eáþmódlíce pray to him humbly, Bt. 42; Fox 258, 21. Se ðe hwæt to lǽne abit qui quidquam mutuo postulaverit, Ex. 22, 14. Ne mihte ic lýfnesse abiddan nequaquam impetrare potui, Bd. 5, 6; S. 619, 8. Ðá sendon hý tuá heora ǽrendracan to Rómánum æfter friðe; and hit abiddan ne mihtan then they sent their ambassadors twice to Rome for peace; and could not obtain it, Ors. 4, 7; Bos. 87, 39. He abiddan mæg ðæt ic ðé lǽte duguða brúcan he may obtain by prayer that I will let thee enjoy prosperity, Cd. 126; Th. 164, 5; Gen. 2660. v. biddan.

a-biflan, -bifigan; p. ode, ede; pp. od, ed To be moved or shaken, to tremble; moveri, contremere :-- For ansýne écan Dryhtnes ðeós eorþe sceal eall abifigan a facie Domini mota est terra. Ps. Th. 113, 7. v. bifian.

a-bilgþ, a-bilhþ anger, an offence, v. a-bylgþ.

a-biran to bear, carry; portare, Bd. 1, 27; S. 491, 31. v. a-beran.

a-bísegien should prepossess, Bt. 35,1; Fox 154, 32. v. abýsgian.

a-bit prays, Ex. 22,14; pres. of a-biddan.

a-bítan, ic -bíte, ðú -bítest, -bítst, he -bíteþ, -bit, pl. -bítaþ; p. -bát, pl. -biton; pp. -biten; v. a. To bite, eat, consume, devour; mordere, arrodere, mordendo necare, comedere, devorare :-- Gif hit wíldeór abítaþ, bere forþ ðæt abitene and ne agife si comestum a bestia, deferat ad eum quod occisum est, et non restituet, Ex. 22,13. He abát his suna he ate his children. Salm. Kmbl. p. 121,15. Ðæt se wód-freca were-wulf tó fela ne abíte of godcundre heorde that the ferocious man-wolf devour not too many of the spiritual flock, L. I. P. 6; Th. ii. 310, 31. Míne scép sind abitene my sheep are devoured. Homl. Th. i. 242, IO. Ðú his ne abítst non comedas ex eo. Deut. 28, 31. v. bítan.

a-biterian, -bitrian; p. ode; pp. od To make sour or bitter; exacer-bare. v. biterian, biter bitter.

a-bi-tweónum; prep. dat. Between; inter :-- Ic wiht geseah horna abitweónum [homum bitweónum, Grn; Th.] húðe lǽjdan I saw a creature bringing spoil between its horns, Exon. 107b; Th. 411, 19; Rä. 30, 2. [Sansk, abhi; Zend aibi.] v. bi-tweónum.

a-blácian, -blácigan; p. ode; pp. od To be or look pale, grow pale; pallere, obrigescere :-- Ablácodon obriguerunt, Ex. 22, 16? Lye. Ic blácige palleo, Ælfc. Gr. 26, 2; Som. 28,42. Blácian from blícan, p. blác to shine: blǽcan to bleach, whiten, fade. Observe the difference between blác, blǽc pallid, bleak, pale, and blæc, blaces, se blaca black, swarthy. DER. blácian pallere.

a-blǽcan; p. -blǽhte; pp. -blǽht [a, blǽcan to bleach] To bleach, whiten; dealbare, Ps. Vos. 50, 8: 67,15.

a-blǽcnes, -ness, e; f. A paleness, gloom; pallor, Herb. 164; Lchdm. i. 294, 3, note 6. v. æ-blǽcnys.

a-blændan to blind, deaden, benumb, v. ablendan.

a-blann rested; p. of. a-blinnan to leave off.

a-bláwan; p. -bleów; pp. -bláwen To blow, breathe; flare, efflare :-- On ableów inspiravit. Gen. 2, 7. Út ablawan to breathe forth. Hexam. 4; Norm. 8, 20. Nǽfre mon ðæs hlúde býman abláweþ never does a man blow the trumpet so loudly,Exon. 117b; Th. 451, 27; Dóm. 110. God ðá geworhte mannan and ableów on his ansýne líflícne blǽd God then made man and blew into his face the breath of life, Hexam. 11; Norm. 18, 25.

a-blawung, e; f. A blowing, v. bláwung.

a-blend, se a-blenda; adj. Blinded; cæcatus :-- Wénaþ ða ablendan mód the blinded minds think. Bt. 38, 5; Fox 206, 6. v. pp. of a-blendan.

a-blendan; p. -blende, pl. -blendon; pp. -blended, -blend; v. a. To blind, make blind, darken, stupify; cæcare :-- Ða gyldenan stánas ablendaþ ðæs módes eágan the golden stones blind the mind's eyes, Bt. 34, 8; Fox 144, 34. Swá bióþ ablend so are blinded, 38, 5; Fox 206, I. Ic sýne ablende bealo-þoncum I blinded their sight by baleful thoughts, Exon.72b; Th. 270, 22; Jul, 469. He ablende hyra eágan excæcavit oculos eorum. Jn. Bos. 12, 40. Ablended in burgum blinded as l am in these dwellings, Andr. Kmbl. 155; An. 78. Wæs ablend was blinded, Mk. Bos. 6, 52 : Num. 14, 44. v. blendan.

a-bleoton sacrificed; p. pl. of a-blótan.

a-bleów blew; p. of a-bláwan.

a-blican; p. -blác, pl. -blicon; pp. -blicen; v. n. To shine, shine forth, to appear, glitter, to be white, to astonish, amaze; dealbari, micare :-- Sóþ-líce on rihtwísnysse ic ablíce ego autem in justitia apparebo [micabo], Ps. Spl. T. 16, 17. Ofer snáw ic beó ablicen super nivem dealbabor, Ps. Spl. 50, 8.

a-blicgan; p. ede; pp. ed To shine, to be white, to astonish; con-sternare :-- Ic eom ablícged consternor, Ælfc. Gr. 37; Som. 39, 42.

a-blignys, -nyss, e; f. An offence, v. a-bylgnes.

a-blindan to blind, Abus. I, Lye. v. a-blendan.

a-blinnan; p. -blann, pl. -blunnon; pp. -blunnen To cease, desist; cessare, desistere, Ps. Spl. 36, 8: Bd. 4,1; S. 563,16.

a-blísian; p. ode; pp. od To blush; erubescere :-- óþ eówre lyþre mód ablísige donec erubescat incircumcisa mens eorum. Lev. 26,41.

a-blótan; p. -bleót, pl. -bleóton; pp. -blóten To sacrifice; immolare. v. blótan.

a-blýsgung, -blýsung, e; f. The redness of confusion, shame; pudor, R. Ben. 73.

a-boden told; pp. of a-beódan to bid, tell.

a-bogen bowed; pp. of a-búgan, -beógan to bow, bend.

a-boht bought; pp. of a-bicgan to buy.

a-bolgen angered, Ex. 32,10; pp. of a-belgan to offend, anger.

a-boren carried; pp. of a-beran to bear.

a-borgian; p. ode; pp. od To be surety, to undertake for, to assign, appoint; fidejubere :-- Gif he nite hwá hine aborgie; hæfton hine if he know not who will be his borh, let them imprison [lit. have, detain] him, L. Ath. i. 20; Th. i 210, 8.

a-bracian; p, ode; pp. od To engrave, emboss; cælare :-- Abracod cœlatum, Cot. 33.

a-bradwian To overthrow, slay, kill; prosternare, occidere, Beo. Th. 5232; B. 2619. v. a-bredwian.

a-bræc broke; p. of a-brecan to break.

a-bræd, -brægd drew, Mt. Bos. 26, 51; p. of a-bredan, a-bregdan to move, drag, draw.

a-breátan; p. -breót, pl. -breóton To break, kill; frangere, concidere, necare :-- Abreót brim-wísan, brýd aheorde slew the sea-leader, set free his bride, Beo. Th. 5852; B. 2930. v. a-breótan.

a-brecan, ic -brece, ðu -bricst, he -bricþ; p. -bræc, pl. -brǽcon; pp. -brocen To break, vanquish, to take by storm, to assault, destroy; frangere, effringere, expugnare :-- Abrecan ne meahton reced they might not break the house, Cd. 115; Th.-150, 14; Gen. 2491, He Babilone abrecan wolde he would destroy Babylon, Cd. 209; Th. 259, 10; Dan. 685. Hú ǽnig man mihte swylce burh abrecan how any man could take such a town, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44,16. DER. brecan.

a-bredan, he -brit =-brideþ, -bret=-bredeþ; p. -bræd, pl. -brudon; pp. -broden; v. a. To move quickly, remove, draw, withdraw; vibrare, destringere, eximere, retrahere :-- Abræd hys swurd, exemit gladium suum, Mt. Bos. 26, 51. Gif God abrit if God remove, Bt. 39, 3; Fox 216, 5. Of móde abrit ðæt micle dysig he removes from his mind that great ignorance. Bt. Met. Fox 28, 155; Met. 28, 78. Hond up abræd he raised his hand, Beo. Th. 5144; B. 2575. Lár Godes is abroden of breóstum the knowledge of God is withdrawn from your breasts, Cd. 156; Th. 194, 31; Exod. 269. v. bredan.

a-bredwian; p. ade; pp. ad To overthrow, slay? kill? prosternare? occidere? -- Ðeáh ðe he his bróðor bearn abredwade [abradwade Th.] although he had overthrown [exiled? killed?] his brother's child, B. 2619.

a-brégan; p. de; pp. ed To alarm, frighten; terrere :-- Mec mæg gríma abrégan a phantom may frighten me, Exon, 110b; Th. 423, 7; Rä. 41, 17. Abregde, p. Bd. 3, 16; S. 543,12 : Ps. Spl. T. 79,14.

a-bregdan; p. -brægd, pl. -brugdon; pp. -brogden To move quickly, vibrate, remove, draw from, withdraw; vibrare, destringere, eximere, retra-here :-- Ðe abregdan sceal deáþ sáwle ðíne death shall draw from thee thy soul, Cd. 125; Th. 159, 22; Gen. 2638. Hwonne of heortan hunger oððe wulf sáwle and sorge abregde when from my heart hunger or wolf shall have torn both soul and sorrow, 104; Th. 137, 22; Gen. 2277. Hine of gromra clommum abrugdon they drew him from the clutches of the furious, 114; Th. 150, 4; Gen. 2486. v. bregdan.

á-brémende ever-celebrating, Exon. 13a; Th. 24, 20; Cri. 387. v. bréman.

a-breótan; p. -breát, pl. -bruton; pp. -broten To bruise, break, destroy, kill; frangere, confringere, concidere, necare :-- Billum abreótan to destroy with bills, Cd. 153; Th. 190, 14; Exod. 199. Yldo beám abreóteþ age breaks the tree. Salm. Kmbl. 591; Sal. 295. Hine seó brimwylf abroten hæfde the sea-wolf had destroyed him, Beo. Th. 3203; B. 1599. Stánum abreótan lapidare, Elen. Kmbl. 1017; El. 510.

a-breóðan; p. -breáþ, pl. -bruðon; pp. -broðen To unsettle, ruin, frustrate, degenerate, deteriorate; perdere, degenerare :-- Hæleþ oft hyre hleór abreóðeþ a man often unsettles her cheek, Exon. 90a; Th. 337, note 18; Gn. Ex. 66. Abreóðe his angin he frustrated his enterprise, Byrht. Th. 138, 59; By. 242. Hí abruðon ða ðe he toþohte they frustrated that which he had thought of, Chr. 1004; Ing. 178, 1. Eálá ðú abroðene folc degener O populus, Ælfc. Gr. 8; Som. 8,10. Hic et hæc et hoc nugas ðæt is abroðen on Englisc,Ælfc. Gr. 9, 25; Som. ii, 2.

abret, abrit takes away, Bt. 39, 3; Fox 216, 5. v. abredan.

a-brocen broken, v. a-brecan.

a-broden, a-brogden opened, freed, taken away. v. abredan, abregdan.

abrotanum = abrotonon southernwood, Herb. 135; Lchdm, i. 250,16. v. súðerne-wudu.

a-broten ? crafty, silly, sluggish; vafer, fatuus, socors :-- Abroten vel dwǽs vafer, Ælfc. Gl. 9; Som. 56,114. Abroten ? for abroðen.

a-broðen degeneratus; pp. of a-breóían.

a-broðennes, -ness, e;f. Dulness, cowardice, a defect, backsliding; ignavia, pusillanimitas. DER. a-broðen.

a-brugdon withdrew, Cd. 114; Th. 150,4; Gen. 2486; p.pl. of a-bregdan.

a-bruðon frustrated, Chr. 1004; Ing. 178, l; p.pl. of a-breóðan.

a-bryrdan; p. -bryrde; pp. -bryrded, -bryrd, v. trans. To prick, sting, to prick in the heart, grieve; pungere, compungere :-- Ná ic ne beo abryrd, God min non compungar, Deus metis. Ps. Spl. 29,14. v. bryrdan.

a-bryrdnes, -ness, e; f. Compunction, contrition; compunctio, con-tritio. v. bryrdnys, a-bryrdan.

a-brytan; p. -brytte; pp. -brytt To destroy; exterminare, Ps. Spl. C. 36, 9. v. brytan.

a-búfan; adv. [a + be + ufan] ABOVE; supra :-- Swá wæ ǽr abúfan sǽdan as we have before above said, Chr. 1090; Th. 358, 15. DER. búfan.

a-búgan; p. -beág, -beáh, pl. -bugon; pp. -bogen To bow, bend, incline, withdraw, retire; se vertere, declinare, inclinare, averti :-- Abflgaþ eádmðdlíce inclinate suppliciter. Coll. Monast. Th. 36, 3. Ac ðé firina gehwylc feor abúgeþ but from thee each sin shall far retire, Exon. 8b; Th. 4, 22; Cri. 56. Ðǽr fram sylle abeág medu-benc mon'g there many a mead-bench inclined from its sill, Beo. Th. 1555; 8.775. v. búgan.

a-bulgan = abulgon angered. Ps. Th. 77, 41; p. of a-belgan.

a-búnden ready; expeditus, Cot. 72; pp. of a-bindan. v. bindan.

a-bútan, -búton; prep. acc. [a + be + útan] ABOUT, around, round about; circa :-- Ðú tæcst Israhela folce abútan ðone rnúnt thou shall take the people of Israel around the mountain. Ex. 19, 12. Abuton hi circa eos, Mk. Bos. 9, 14. Abúton stán about a stone, L. N. P. L. 54; Th. ii. 298, 16.

a-bútan, -búton; adv. ABOUT; circa :-- Besæt ðone castel abútan beset the castle about, Chr. 1088; Th. i. 357, 29. Besǽton íone castel abúton they beset the castle about, Chr. 1090; Th. i. 358, 25.

a-bycgan, -bicgan; p. -bohte, pl. -bohton; pp. -boht [a, bycgan to buy, procure]. I. to buy, pay for; ernere, redirnere, L. Ethb. 31; Th. i. 10, 7. II- to perform, execute; præstare :-- Áþ abycgan jusjuran-dumpræstare, L.Wih. 19; Th. i. 40,18.

a-byffan; p. ode; pp. od To mutter; mutire. Cot. 134. v. byffan.

a-bygan, v. trans. To bow, bend; incurvare, Grm, ii. 826. v. a-began.

a-býgendlíc; adj. Bending, flexible; flexibilis. DER. un-abýgendlíc.

a-bylgan, -byligan, -bylgean; p. de; pp. ed To offend, anger, vex; offendere, irritate, exacerbare :-- HI hine oft abylgdon [MS. -dan] ipsi sæepe exacerbaverunt eum. Ps. Th. 105, 32. Da mod abylgean flra ðara nýhstena animos proximorum offendere, Bd. 3, 19; S. 548, 17: Hy. 6, 22. v. a-belgan.

a-bylg-nes, æ-bylig-nes, æ-bylig-nys, -ness, e; f. [abylgan to offend] An offence, scandal, anger, wrath, indignation; offensa, ira, indignatio :-- He him abylgnesse oft gefremede he had oft perpetrated offence against him, Exon. 843; Th. 317, 35; Mðd. 71.

a-bylgp, -bilgþ, -bilhþ, e;f. An offence, wrong, anger; offensa, injuria, ira :-- He sceal Cristes abilgþe wrecan he ought to avenge offence to Christ, L. Eth. 9, 2; Th. i. 340, 13: L. Pen. 16; Th. ii. 284, 6. v. æ-bylgþ.

a-byligd, e; f. Anger; indignatio, Ps. Th. 77, 49. v. a-bylgþ.

a-byrgan, -byrgean, -byrian To taste; gustare :-- We cýðaþ eów tet God ælmihtig cwæþ his ágenum múðe, ðæt nán man he mðt abyrgean nánes cynes blðdes. Ǽlc ðæra ðe abyrgþ blðdes ofer Godes bebod sceal forwurþan on éccnysse we tell you that God Almighty said by his own mouth, that no man may taste any kind of blood. Every one who tastes blood against God's command shall perish for ever, Homl, intitul. Her is hálwendlíc lár, Bibl. Bodl. MSS. Junii 99, fol. 68. Se wulf for Gode ne dorste ðæs hæfdes abyrian the wolf durst not, fat God, taste the head, Homl. Brit. Mus. MSS. Cot. Julius, E. 7, fol. 203, Bibl. Bodl. MSS. Bodley 343- v. byrgan.

a-býsgian, -býsgan, -býsean, -bisegian; p. ode, ade; pp. od, ad [a, býsgian to ÍKsy] To occupy, preoccupy, prepossess; occupare :-- Ðeáh unþeáwas oft abísegien ðæt mðd though imperfections oft prepossess the mind, Bt. 35, i; Fox 154, 32. Biþ hyra seó swíþre symble abýsgod ðæt hi unrihtes tiligeaþ 'dexlera eorum dextera iniquitatis. Ps. Th. 143, 9. Biþ hyra seó swíþre symble abýsgad dextera iniquitatis, 143,13.

a-bysgung, -btsgung, e; f. Necessary business, employment; occupatio. Past. 18, i; Hat. MS. 25a, 27, 29, 30.

a-bywan; p. de; pp. ed; v. trans. To adorn, purify, clarify; exomare, purgare :-- Beóþ monna gǽstas beorhte abýwde þurh bryne fýres the souls of men are brightly adorned [clarified] through the fire's heat, Exon. 63 b; Th. 234, 24; Ph. 545. v. býwan.

AC, ach, ah, oc; conj. X. but; sed :-- Ne com ic tii towurpan, ac gefyllan non veni solvere, sed adimplere, Mt. Bos. 5, 17. Brytwalas fultumes bǽdon wið Peohtas, ac hi næfdon nǽnne the Brito-Welsh begged assistance against the Picts, but they had none, Chr. 443; Erl. ii, .34. II. for, because; nam, enim, quia :-- Ne se aglǽca yldan þðhte, ac he geféng hraðe slǽpendne rinc nor did the wretch mean to delay, f or he quickly seized a sleeping warrior, Beo. Th. 1484; B. 740. Ðú ne þearft onsittan wige, ac ne-fuglas [wig, eácne MS.] blðdig sittaþ þicce gefylled thou needest not oppress with war, because carrion birds sit bloody quite satiated (lit. thickly filled). Cd. 98; Th. 130, 12; Gen. 2158. III. but also, but yet; sed etiam, sed et, sed tamen :-- Ná læs weoruld men, ac eac swylce ðæt Drihtnes eowde not only men of the world, but also [sed etiam Bd.] the Lord's flock. Bd. 1,14; S. 482, 25. Da cwican nð genihtsumedon ðæt ht da deádan bebyrigdon, ac hwæðere ða ðe Kfigende wǽron nðht dðn woldon the living were not sufficient to bury the dead, but yet those who were living would do nothing, Bd. l, 14; S. 482, 32: 2, 7; S. 509, 13. Ac swylce tunge mín (Élce dæge smeáþ rightwísnysse ðíne sed et lingua mea tota die meditabitur justitiam tuam, Ps. Spl. 70, 26. [R. Glouc. Orm. ac: Laym. ac, æc, ah: Scot. ac: O. Sax. ak: O. H. Ger. oh; Goth, ak.]

ac; adv. interrogative. Why, whether; nonne, numquid :-- Da du geho-godest sæcce sécean, ac ðú gebettest mǽrum þeódne when thow re" solvedst to seek warfare, hadst thou compensated the great prince ? Beo. Kmbl. 3976; B. 1990. Ac [ah MS.] ætfileþ ðé seld unrihtwísnesse numquid adnaret tibi sedes iniquitatis 1 Ps. Surt. 93, 20. Ac hwá démeþ who shall judge? Salm. Kmbl. 669; Sal. 334. Ac forhwon fealleþ se snaw why falleth the snow? 603; Sal. 301.

ac-, v. ag-, ag-lǽca, ah-, ah-lǽca.

ÁC, ǽc; g. e; f. I. an OAK; quercus, robur :-- Ðeós ác nece quercus, Ælfc. Gr. 8; Som. 7, 46. Sume ác astáh got up into an oak, Homl. Th. ii. 150, 31. acc. Ac an oaken ship. Runic pm. 25; Kmbl. 344, 21. Geongre ace of a young oak, L. M. l, 38; Lchdm, ii. 98, 9. Of ðære ác [for áce], Kmbl. Cod. Dipl. iii. 121, 22. II. ác; g. Sees; m. The Anglo-Saxon Rune J-. = a, the name of which letter, in Anglo-Saxon, is ic an oak, hence, this Rune not only stands for the letter a, but for ác an oak, as J... byþ on eorþan elda bearnum flǽsces fódor the oak is on earth food ofthefiesh to the sons of men, Hick. Thes. vol. i. p. 135; Runic pm. 25; Kmbl. 344, 15. Ácas twegen two A's, Exon. 112a; Th. 429, 26; Ru. 43,10. [R. Glouc. ók: Chauc. ók, áke, oak: O. Frs. ék: Dut. eek, eik: JVorth Frs. ik: L. Ger. eke: N. Ger. eiche: M. Ger. eich: O. Ger. cin: Dan. eg: Swed, ek: 0. Nrs. eik. Grn. starting from Goth, ayuk in aiw-dup, i.e. aiw-k-dup nis rev atom, supposes a form ayuks, contracted to áiks, the equivalent of which would be ac, which would, therefore, indicate a tree of long durability.]

a-cægan to name. v. a-cigan.

a-cænned = a-cenned brought forth; pp. of acennan.

a-cænnednys, -cænnys nativity, v. a-cennednes.

a-cærran to avert; acærred averted, v. a-cerran.

a-calan; p. -cól, pl. -cólon To become cold; algere, frigescere :-- Nó acól for ðý egesan he never became cold for the terror, Andr. Grm. 1267. v. calan.

ACAN; ic ace, ðú æcest, æcst, he æceþ, æcþ, pl. acaþ; p. óc, pl. ócon; subj. ic, ðú, he ace; pp. acen; v. n. To AKE, pain; dolere :-- Gif mannes midrif [MS. midrife] ace if a man's midriff ake, Herb. 3,6; Lchdm. i. 88, 11: Herb. Cont. 3, 6; Lchdm, i. 6; 3, 6. Acaþ míne eágan my eyes ake, Ælfc. Gr. 36, MS. D; [mistiaþ=acaþ, Som. 38, 48]; dolent mei oculi, Mann. [Laym. p. oc: R. Glouc. p. ok: Chauc, ake: N. L. Ger. aken, æken.]

Ácan-tún, es; m. [ácan == ácum. pl. d. of ác an oak, tun a town] Acton, Suffolk :-- Ðæt hit cymþ to Ácantúne; fram Ácantúne [MS. Ácyn-túne] ðæt hit cymþ to Rigindúne till it comes to Acton; from Acton till it comes to Rigdon, Th. Diplm. A. D. 97 2; 525, 22-24. v. Ác-tún, and ðæt adv.

acas, e; f: acase, axe, an; f. An axe; securis :-- Acas, Mt. Lind. Stv. 3, 10. Acase, Lk. Rush. War. 3, 9 [id. Lind. Acasa, a Northumbrian form]. Axe, Mt. Rush. Stv. 3,10. v. æx.

ác-beám, es; m. An oak-tree; quercus, Ettm. p. 51.

ác-cærn, ác-corn an acorn, v. ǽcern.

accutian? to prove; probare :-- Accuta me proba me, Ps. Spl. M. 138, 22.

ác-cyn, -cynn, es; n. [ác oak, cyn kind] A species of oak; ilex, Mann.

ác-drenc, -drinc, es; m. Oak-drink, a kind of drink made of acorns; potus ex quercus glandibus factus. v. ác, drenc.

ace ake, pain. DER. acan to ake. v. ece.

a-cealdian; p. ode; v. intrans. To be or become cold; algere, frigescere, Past. 58, 9. v. a-cólian, calan.

a-ceápian; p. ode; pp. od To buy. v. ceápian.

a-cearfan to cut of :-- Acearf abscindet, Ps. Spl. C. 76,8. v. a-ceorfan.

a-célan; p. de; v. intrans. To be or become cold; algere, frigescere :-- Ðæs þearfan ne biþ þurst acéled the thirst of this desire is not become cold, Bt. Met. Fox 7, 34; Met. 7,17. v. célan, calan.

Acemannes burh, burg; g. burge; d. byrig, beri; f: ceaster, cester; g. ceastre; f. [æce ake, mannes man's, ceaster or burh city or fortress] Bath, Somersetshire :-- Hér Eádgár to ríce féng at Acemannes byrig, ðæt is at Baðan here, A. D. 972, Edgar took the kingdom at Akeman's burgh, that is at Bath, Chr. 972; Th. 225,18, col. 3. On ðære ealdan byrig, Acemannes ceastre; ac beornas Baðan nemnaþ in the old burgh, Akeman's Chester; but men call it Bath, Chr. 973; Ing. 158, 26. At Acemannes beri at Akeman's bury, Ing. 158, note g. v. Baðan.

acen pained, v. acan.

ácen oaken, v. ǽcen.

a-cennan, ðú -censt, he -cenþ; p. -cende; pp. -cenned; v. a. To bring forth, produce, beget, renew; parere, gignere, renovare, renasci :-- Swá wíf acenþ bearn as a woman brings forth a child, Bt. 31,1; Fox 112, 2. On sárnysse ðú acenst cild in dolore paries filios. Gen. 3, 16. Ða se Hǽlend acenned wæs cum natus esset Jesus, Mt. Bos. 2, l. Crist wæs acenned [MS. acennyd] on midne winter Christ was born in mid-winter, Menol. Fox l; Men. 1. Gregorius wæs of æðelborenre mægþe acenned Gregory was born of a noble family, Homl. Th. ii. 118, 7. Eal edniwe, eft acenned, synnum asundrad all renewed, born again, sundered from sins, Exon. 59b; Th. 214, 19; Ph. 241. Ðonne se móna biþ acenned [geniwod, v. geniwian] when the moon is changed [born anew], Lchdm, iii. 180,19, 22, 28. v. cennan.

a-cenned-líc; adj. Native; nativus. Cot. 138.

a-cennednes, -cennes, -cennys, -cænnednys, -cænnys, -ness, e; f. Nativity, birth, generation; nativitas, ortus :-- Manega on his acennednysse gefag-niaþ multi in nativitate ejus gaudebunt, Lk. Bos. 1,14: Ps. Spl. 106, 37.

a-ceócian? p. ode; pp. od To choke; suffocare. v. a-þrysman.

a-ceócung, e; f. A consideration; ruminatio. Wrt. Voc. 54, 62. v. a-ceósung.

a-ceorfan; p. -cearf, pl. -cufon; pp. -corfen To cut off; abscidere, succidere, concidere :-- Of his ansýne ealle ic aceorfe, ða ðe him feóndas syndon concidam inimicos ejus a facie ipsius. Ps. Th. 88, 20.

a-ceósan; p. -ceás, pl. -curon; pp. -coren To choose, select; eligere. DER. ceósan.

a-ceósung [MS. aceócung], e; f. A consideration; ruminatio, Wrt. Voc. 54, 62.

acer a field. Rtl. 145,18. v. æcer.

a-cerran; p. -cerde; pp. -cerred To turn, return; vertere, reverti :-- Úton acerran ðider ðǽr he sylfa sit, sigora waldend let us turn thither where he himself sitteth, the triumphant ruler, Cd. 218; Th. 278, 6; Sat. 217.

a-cerrednes, -ness, e; f. An aversion, v. a-cerran.

ach but; sed :-- Ach ðæs weorodes eác but of the host also. Andr. Reed. 3182; An. 1594. v. ac; conj.

ác-hal; adj. Oak-whole or sound, entire; roboreus, integer. Andr. Grm. 1700.

á-cígan; p. de; pp. ed To call; vocare, evocare :-- Acígde of corþre cyninges þegnas he called the thanes of the king from the band., Beo. Th. 6233; B. 3121. Sundor acígde called him alone, in private, Elen. Kmbl. 1203; El. 603. Hine aclgde fit evocavit eum, Bd. 2,12; S. 513,19.

ac-lǽc-cræft, es; m. [ac-lǽc = ag-lǽc miseria, cræft ars] An evil art; ars mala vel perniciosa :-- Ðú ðé, Andreas, aclǽccræftum lange feredes thou, Andrew, hast long betaken thyself to evil arts, Andr. Kmbl. 2724; An. 1364.

a-clǽnsian; p. ode; pp. od To cleanse, purify; mundare :-- Hyra nán næs aclǽnsod, búton Naaman se Sirisca nemo eorum mundatus est, nisi Naaman Syrus, Lk. Bos. 4, 27.

Ác-leá = Ác-leáh; g. -leáge;f. [ác an oak, leáh a lea, ley, meadow; acc. leá = leáh, q. v.] The name of a place, as Oakley :-- Sinoþ wæs ge-gaderod æt Ácleá a synod was assembled at Acley or Oakley, Chr. 789; Ing. 79,14. Ácleá, Chr. 782; Erl. 57, 6: 851; Erl. 67, 26; 68, 3.

ác-leáf, es; n. An oak-leaf; quercus folium :-- Ácleáf, Lchdm, iii. 311: L. M. 3, 8; Lchdm, ii. 312, 19.

a-cleopian; p. ode; pp. od To call, call out; clamare, exclamare. DER. cleopian, clypian.

aclian; p. ode; pp. od [acol, acl excited by fear] To frighten, excite; terrere, terrore percellere. PER. ge-aclian.

ác-melu, g. -meluwes; n. Acorn-meal; querna farina, L. M. 1, 54; Lchdm, ii. 126, 7.

ác-mistel, e; f. Oak mistletoe; quercus viscum :-- Gením ácmistel take mistletoe of the oak, L. M. l, 36; Lchdm, ii. 88, 4.

a-cnyssan; p. ede; pp. ed To expel, drive cive; expellere. v. cnyssan.

a-cofrian; p. ode; pp. od To recover; e morbo consurgere, con-valescere :-- Acofraþ will recover, Lchdm, iii. 184,15.

acol, acul, acl; adj. Excited, excited by fear, frightened, terrified, trembling; agitatus, perterritus, pavidus :-- Wearþ he on ðam egesan acol worden he had through that horror become chilled, trembling, Cd. 178; Th. 223, 24; Dan. 124. Forht on móde, acul for ðam egesan fearful in mood, trembling with dread, 210; Th. 261, 14; Dan. 726. Acol for ðam egsan trembling with terror. Exon. 42 b; Th. 143, 20; Gú. 664. Forht and acol afraid and trembling. Cd. 92; Th. 117, 18; Gen. 1955. Wurdon hie ðá acle they then became terrified, Andr. Kmbl. 2678; An. 1341. Fyrd-leóþ galan aclum stefnum they sung a martial song with loud excited voices, Cd. 171; Th. 215, 4; Exod. 578.

a-cólian; p. ade, ode; pp. ad, od To become cool, cold, chilled; frigescere :-- Ræst wæs acólad his resting-place was chilled. Exon. 119 b; Th. 459, 28; Hö. 6. Ðonne biþ ðæt werge líc acólad then shall be the accursed carcase cooled, Exon, 100a; Th. 374, 12; Seel. 125. v. cólian.

acolitus = GREEK A light-bearer; lucifer :-- Acolitus is se ðe leóht berþ æt Godes þénungum acolite is he who bears the light at God's services, L.Ælf.P.34; Th.ii.378,7: L.Ælf.C.14; Th.ii.348,4. v.hádll. state, condition; ordo, gradus, etc.

acol-mód; adj. Of a fearful mind, timid; pavidus animo :-- Eorl acolmód a chief in trembling mood, fearful.mind, Exon. 55 b; Th. 195, 36; Az. 166. pegnas wurdon acolmóde the thanes were chilled with terror, Andr. Kmbl. 753; An. 377.

acordan; p. ede; pp. ed To ACCORD, agree, reconcile; reconciliare, Chr. 1119; Ing. 339, 30.

a-coren chosen; pp. of a-ceósan. v. ceósan, gecoren.

a-corenlíc; adj. Likely to be chosen; eligibilis :-- Biþ swíðe acorenlíc is very estimable, Past. 52, 8; Swt. 409, 36.

a-corfen carved; pp. of a-ceorfan.

a-costnod tried; pp. of a-costnian. v. costnian.

a-cræftan; p. de; pp. ed To devise, plan, contrive as a craftsman; excogitare :-- Úton ðeáh hwæðere acræftan hú we heora, an ðyssa nihta, mágan mǽst beswícan let us however plan how we can, in this night, most weaken them, Ors. 2, 5; Bos. 47,19.

a-crammian; p. ode; pp. od To cram,fill; farcire. v. crammian.

a-creópian; p. ede; pp. ed To creep; serpere, scatere :-- Ðá lǽfdon híg hit [Manhu] sume, óþ hit morgen wæs, and hit wearþ wyrmum acreóped dimiserunt quidam ex eis usque mane, et scatere cæpit vermibus, Ex. 16, 20.

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