I put in the parts of this great book, the "Bible" of physical anthropology, that I believe pertain to Germanic ethnology. Carletoon Coon is neither racist nor politically correct, he is simply factual and thorough. If you'd like to read the entire book click here. The Races of Europe
If you have any questions ask me here email Ken.
(Chapter V, section 1)
THE BRONZE AGE: IntroductionThe dividing line between the Neolithic and the age of metal is difficult to draw and essentially artificial. Like that of any other material, the introduction of copper and bronze into Europe was a gradual process. In much of the continent the use of this new substance was first implanted on established agricultural peoples, and for this reason it is generally supposed that the Bronze Age was a period of cultural diffusion but racial quiescence. This supposition is only a half-truth. In the areas of high civilization, in which metal was first notably used—Mesopotamia and Egypt—the continuity of local branches of the Mediterranean race remained quite constant in these thickly settled and well-established valleys. That this was by no means equally true of the lands to the north and west, we shall presently see.
The Bronze Age was a period of ethnic complexity. It is a unit only in the common use of a single metallic alloy by a number of peoples who obtained the technique of producing tools, weapons, containers, and ornaments of this substance from the lands of earliest civilization. Within its span occurred major shiftings of population, if not equalling, at least comparable to those of the Neolithic.
In the East, where bronze was early and iron late, the Bronze Age lasted for fifteen hundred years or more. In Mesopotamia and Egypt the efflorescence of high civilization occurred entirely within the Age of Bronze, and by the time that the harder metal had come in, the highest cultural levels had long been attained, and the two valleys had lost their cultural leadership.
In Europe, however, bronze furnished in many regions but a brief interlude of a few hundred years between stone and iron. Only in far peripheries, as in Britain, where iron arrived tardily, did the Bronze Age flourish long. Here, as in Mesopotamia and Egypt, it lasted nearly fifteen hundred years; but the two equal spans barely overlapped. A Neolithic child in Denmark might have had a Bronze Age father; similarly a Bronze Age Child in Britain might have been begotten by a lonely Kelt trained in the use of iron and visiting the western islands before his people.
During the Neolithic, the farmer or herdsman could shape most of the tools and containers which he needed from local materials. Trade was carried on more in luxury objects such as sea-shells, than in primary neces sities. But during the Bronze Age, trade affected everyone, for the metal with which ordinary tools and weapons were made came from relatively few places. Copper came from Spain, the Carpathian region, and the Caucasus. Tin was found in Bohemia, Cornwall, and again in Spain. Extensive trade necessarily arose to bring the products of these mining regions together.
In order to possess bronze objects, the European peoples needed some valuable commodity to give in exchange. In the north, this was of course amber. The principal amber road ran from Denmark to Saxony and Thuringia, to Bohemia, to the Inn River in Austria; and over the Brenner Pass to the Po. The people of Bohemia acted as middle-men, buying amber from the Danes with gold which they had obtained from Transylvania in exchange for tin. Thus, even in the Bronze Age, European culture rested upon a basis of interchange of local products.
This extensive trafficking in material objects must have implied considerable travel on the part of a large class of merchants. Such travel necessarily meant exchanges of populations in some degree. Childe believes that the earliest Bronze Age objects made in central Europe were cast by artisans who had emigrated from southern Russia or Asia Minor, forming little colonies in the barbarous European villages.
The Neolithic period in most of Europe fell in a wet, warm climatic age during which much of the continent was covered with forest, and this profusion of vegetation had hindered migrations and the development of pastoral nomadism. During the Bronze Age, however, the Sub-Boreal climate,1 which then prevailed, was more continental and drier; and regions which had formerly been forested now became parkland, or in many cases open steppes.
In many parts of the north European plain the drought may have been great enough to discourage agriculture and to force some peoples to rely wholly on their flocks and herds, thus changing their habit of life from farming to pastoral nomadism. Droughts of this kind also fostered tribal migrations and political disturbances in Mesopotamia and Anatolia, in the early part of the second millennium B.C., indicate that widespread movements of economic origin were prevalent at this time.
About the middle of the Bronze Age we find the first definite evidence of the domestication of the horse as an animal of traction. Horse-using nomads invaded Mesopotamia and brought about the Babylonian Dark Age. Others, the Hyksos, appeared in Egypt, where they first conquered the Delta, and then obtained control over the entire kingdom. In the absence of definite information, it has been supposed that these inroads were the indirect result of desiccation farther north, where the steppes had become too dry for cultivation, and the erstwhile farmers had turned to pastoral nomadism.
Although all movements on the eastern European plain were by no means westward, we may find, in later times, significant parallels to the Bronze Age migrations which brought the Hyksos to Egypt, the Nasžili-speakers to Asia Minor, and other barbarians to Mesopotamia. The westward migrations of the Scyths, Huns, Turks, and Mongols were simply consecutive events in a reciprocal sequence which may have commenced long before the days of Herodotus.
All Bronze Age movements were not entirely overland, however. Metal seekers from the eastern Mediterranean followed the megalith-builders along their sea route from the Aegean to the Italian islands, thence to Spain, and around Gibraltar to Britain and the north. During the Late Bronze Age movements of peoples may be established archaeologically, but the racial interpretation is complicated by the adoption of that unfortunate practice, cremation, which destroys the evidence which physical anthropologists require.
(Chapter V, section 10)
The Bronze Age in the NorthDuring the Early Bronze Age, Scandinavia and the eastern Baltic countries had been unable to obtain enough metal for tools and weapons, and hence had enjoyed the Late Neolithic efflorescence which we have already studied. Their first real metal period, therefore, was the Middle Bronze Age, later than the first Beaker settlement in England, or the Aunjetitz development in central Europe.
The Scandinavian Bronze Age probably began about 1500 B.C., and lasted for nearly a thousand years. It was a period of great prosperity, for Jutish amber brought bronze and gold objects to the north in trade. The limits of this cultural center, however, were restricted. Most bronze has been found in Denmark, since in Sweden and southern Norway metal was dear, and seldom discarded in graves. North of the sixty-eighth parallel of north latitude, the Arctic stone age prevailed throughout this period on the coasts of the Arctic Ocean and in the forests and mountains86 of Norway and northern Sweden, as well as in Finland.
During the Middle Bronze Age, cremation, which had begun elsewhere as early as Danubian Neolithic times, gradually crept in as a major substitute for the earlier inhumation, and by the beginning of the Late Bronze Age, it had become the only method of disposing the dead. For this reason skeletal material from the five hundred year stretch of the Middle Bronze Age becomes progressively scarce.
In Sweden we are limited to some twenty-one skulls, of which thirteen are those of males.87 They belong to types already familiar to us from the Neolithic, and show no change of population. If anything, however, the long-headed elements are even more in evidence, and the head form is prevailingly dolichocephalic. In Denmark again, twenty seems to be the limit;88 and here the old Neolithic population survived without perceptible alteration. The Bronze Age men were as tall as their predecessors, with a mean stature of 172 cm.; and the blend of long- and round-headed types struck the same high mesocephalic mean.
There is evidence that some of the Danes of this period were blond, since the hair, teeth, and clothing of a young woman, buried at Egtved, Jutland, were perfectly preserved by the tannic acid from the oak coffin in which she lay, under a mound. This hair, cut short on the forehead and hanging in a long bob at the rear, was apparently straight as well as fair. Unfortunately, the bones were not also preserved, and it is impossible to tell to which of the prevalent Neolithic and Bronze Age Danish racial types she belonged.89
On the whole we may be reasonably confident that the Middle Bronze Age in Scandinavia involved no important racial change. The same blend of at least three peoples, who had combined to create a brilliant Late Neolithic, were carried over into the age of metal.
In the far north of the Scandinavian Peninsula, out of reach of all but the most remote Bronze Age influences, we are led, on archaeological grounds, to believe that the older peoples continued to lead their simple existence. Although there is as yet no direct skeletal evidence of their survival, a body of collateral evidence from across the Baltic makes this, by parallel inference, certain.
At various points near the Esthonian coast of the Gulf of Finland, a remarkable group of skeletons has been found in cists under tumuli, probably dating from about 1200 B.C., near the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age, although they may possibly have been as much as seven hundred years later.90 (See Appendix I, col. 30) Ten male and five female skulls belong to one homogeneous racial type, extremely dolichocephalic, with a mean cranial length of 195 mm. The faces are very long, and also wide; the nose is of great height. The browridges are in many cases heavy, and the nasal bones high and projecting, but deep-set under a strong glabella. These skulls are similar in many respects to the Corded racial type, especially as exemplified by the dolichocephalic element in the Britsh Bronze Age population. Like the latter, they are associated with long bones which indicate tall stature. The males, in fact, averaged 172 cm.; the females 165.
Unlike the Corded group, however, these Esthonian skulls are as large in vault and face size as the Upper Palaeolithic group from central Europe, and equal the latter in a number of telltale dimensions, including cranial length, orbital width, and bizygomatic diameter. In the height dimensions of the vault and face, the Esthonian crania exceed all known European groups of any age.
This is a clear case of the blending of Upper Palaeolithic survivors, who had preserved a hunting life in their northern forest, with Corded horsemen and cultivators who had penetrated their fastness, bringing them their first direct contact with food-producing civilization. If the Upper Palaeolithic group survived in Esthonia, it could have done so in Norway as well. It is worth noting the exaggeration of the Corded facial and cranial heights in the Esthonian mixture, along with the Upper Palaeolithic retention of gross vault size and of face breadth. This will later be encountered in several living North European populations.
(Chapter V, section 13)
Summary and conclusions (Bronze-Age)The Bronze Age covered, in most of Europe, the brief span of some six centuries, as compared with an expanse three times as long in Egypt and Mesopotamia. During these six centuries, however, important racial changes took place in many parts of the European world, while in the two valleys from which European civilization emanated, the personnel remained constant. The parts of Europe most affected by Bronze Age movements of people were the north and west; and hence these activities may be interpreted as a late phase of the displacements initiated by the retreat of the last glacier, and continued by the discovery of the principles of food production. By the end of the Bronze Age, the centers of civilization had begun their movement northward and westward, toward Greece and Italy, movements which were later to push much farther in the same direction. It is perhaps no coincidence that, since the beginning of the Neolithic, people from the east and south had migrated to the north and west ahead of this progression.
Among the problems left over from the Neolithic which the evidence of the Bronze Age has helped to clarify is that of the immediate origin of the Danubians. In the Neolithic Danubian-like peoples cultivated the rich soil of southern Russia and of western Turkestan. We now know that they must have formed a large bloc of agriculturalists occupying Asia Minor as well, and probably also the Caucasus. Thus they may have come into the Danube Valley from either southern Russia or Anatolia, or both; and their earlier derivation from the agricultural higlands is established.
A second problem, which arose only during the Bronze Age, is the origin of the new racial type which appeared, shortly before 2000 B.C., apparently from nowhere, in Asia Minor, Palestine, and Cyprus. This new type was tall, round headed and frequently planoccipital; its nose was prominent and narrow; its face triangular and of moderate length. In its associated morphological features, it forecast the appearance of the Dinaric race.
Brachycephals of this type followed the old Megalithic sea route to Italy, the Italian islands, and Spain. In Spain some of them seem to have associated themselves with cultural phenomena known as the Bell Beaker complex. As the Bell Beaker people, these newcomers travelled from Spain to the Rhinelands and to central Europe, where they were the first disseminators of metal. Having appeared in the Rhineland in considerable numbers, they mixed with the older Borreby sub-stratum which had remained there since the Mesolithic, and with Corded people coming from the east. This triple combination moved bodily down the Rhine and across the North Sea to Britain. Thus, during the Early Bronze Age, England and Scotland were invaded by people of entirely new types, who came in numbers sufficiant to change the population of these countries in a radical manner. At the same time, other movements of these brachycephals from the eastern Mediterranean passed by sea from Spain to Ireland and from Ireland to Scotland.
The appearance of these early Dinarics on the Asiatic and European scene marks the advent of the third important brachycephalic racial type which we have encountered in our survey of the post-glacial prehistory of the white race. Unlike the Borreby and Alpine types, it cannot be easily or plausibly explained as a simple Palaeolithic survivor. Facially it is basically Mediterranean; it seems to be a Mediterranean type brachycephalized by some non-Mediterranean agency. 104
These Dinarics did not come from central Asia, nor from Mesopotamia or Egypt. Facially, they resemble the dolichocephalic residents of Asia Minor and the eastern Mediterranean coast lands of the period during which they first appeared, in that both have in common a high-bridged, high-rooted nose, high orbits, and a sloping forehead. Until further evidence is found, it is safer to hold that the culture-bearing Dinarics of the Bronze Age developed in the Syrian highlands, where a similar type of brachycephaly is now present, than to try to bring them from a distance.
Another Bronze Age event of racial movement was the gradual disappearance through amalgamation of the Corded people and of the Danubians, and the emergence of an intermediate long-headed form. This latter, which inhabited the immense stretch of territory from Germany and Austria to the Altai Mountains, occupied an intermediate position in the total roster of greater Mediterranean racial variations.
In Austria and Bohemia the high vault and narrow face of both Corded and Danubian strains persisted, but from southern Russia over to the Altai, the vaults were lower and the faces broader. Two variants thus appeared, a western and an eastern. There is evidence that the eastern group, at least, was partly if not prevailingly blond. Both eastern and western divisions may with some confidence be compared to the "Nordic" peoples who appeared historically during the Iron Age.
At the end of the Bronze Age, for a period of two or three centuries, the pall of cremation falls over the racial history of Europe. When the smoke has lifted during the Early Iron Age, we shall see what changes have taken place during this period of darkness.
(Chapter VI, section 1)
Race, Languages, and European PeoplesIn the preceding chapters, we have found it necessary to use archaeology as a system of landmarks by which to chart the movements of human groups and their relationships with one another; this study of race in terms of culture was essential. Ideas are originated, diffused, and conserved by people, and people interbreed. A complete and sudden replacement of one culture by another implies a drastic change of personnel, while a gradual merging of a new culture with an old one must equally imply the survival, at least in part, of the older population. By following these rules we have seen that racial and cultural movements are truly connected, and in no instance in which the skeletal record is adequate could any contradiction be seen.
The subject of this book, however, is race, not culture; although culture in the archaeological sense has been a valuable guide. But once we arrive at the period of history it is no longer necessary to deal exclusively with pots and axes and methods of burial; we may consider people as linguistic and political groups, with known names and ethnic relationships. This has already been possible with the civilized nations of preclassical antiquity, such as the Egyptians, the Sumerians, the Babylonians, and to a certain extent with the Cretans and Hittites, whose writings have so far furnished little or nothing in the way of documentary information, as well as with the early ancestors of the Greeks.
The peoples of central and northern Europe did not learn to write until relatively recent times-in most instances well after the beginning of the Christian era, and in some cases only within the current millennium.
But their identities are in many instances known to us from the writings of the classical geographers and historians, and, in the Dark Ages, from Arabic sources as well. Farther east, in central Asia, the diligence of Chinese historians has been of great assistance. In our study of the early part of the Iron Age, archaeology will still be needed; but by the time of the Christian era it will be possible, for our purposes, to dispense with it almost completely, for in treating fully historical and living cultures, language serves as the best-known, most easily designated, and most convenient framework available for the creation of units suitable for racial study.
Heretofore, we have said little about language. The speech of the peoples with whom we have dealt has been unknown to us in almost all instances. The exceptions are few: The Egyptians, as we well know, spoke a language of the Hamitic stock, with considerable Semitic influence. The Babylonians and Assyrians spoke Semitic, while the Sumerian language, although it can be read, has not yet been related with certainty to any other known tongue or linguistic family.1 During the third millennium, therefore, Hamitic and Semitic languages were used by civilized peoples, as was the still unclassified Sumerian.
Besides these known linguistic groupings found in antiquity, there was another group or rather collection of languages spoken in the eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor. These included Lydian, and its probable derivative Etruscan; languages of the Caucasus, some of which still survive; a few languages of the Himalayas, such as Burushaski;2 and a whole group in Greece and the Aegean Islands, if not farther west, known to us almost entirely by place names. Cretan may possibly have also belonged to this class of languages.
A school of linguistic experts headed by the late Professor Marr, and championed in the English-speaking world by Dr. Ephraim Speiser,3 would group all of these languages together, including a whole row of extinct tongues stretching around the so-called "Fertile Crescent" from Syria to Elam. The name given this group is "Japhetic," coined to complete, with Hamitic and Semitic, a Biblical trinity. The living examples of this alleged class or family of languages, notably Georgian and Circassian, employ a number of sounds unfamiliar to the Indo-European, Semitic, and Hamitic families, and reminiscent of American Indian languages.
No one denies the wide distribution and importance of these languages in ancient times, but there is serious doubt that they may be united into a single stock comparable to Semitic, Hamitic, Indo-European, etc. It is more likely that this grouping includes a number of independent families, but at present it is too early to say what these may be; especially since most of them are extinct and will never, in all likelihood, be resuscitated. At any rate, it is probable that some of the seafarers of the Late Neolithic and of the Bronze Age who migrated westward along the Mediterranean to Italy, the Italian islands, and Spain, and thence to Britain, France, and Scandinavia, spoke languages derived from the eastern Mediterranean. It is furthermore possible that modern Basque may be the only survivor of this linguistic migration; but this suggested relationship, referred to in the preceding chapter, must by no means be accepted as a certainty.
Today the members of the white race speak languages of the following linguistic stocks: Semitic, Hamitic, Indo-European, Ural-Altaic,4 Euskanan (Basque), and various languages of the Caucasus and Himalayas, which it would be futile to attempt to classify here. At present the two most important are Indo-European and Ural-Altaic. Yet in antiquity, while civilization of the first water was in the hands of Hamites, Semites, and Sumerians, all Indo-European and probably most Ural-Altaic speakers, if they existed as such, were illiterate barbarians.
Indo-European languages are spoken by more white people today than are all of the others put together, several times over. People speaking Indo-European languages have monopolized the cultural advances of modern science; but it must not be forgotten that, as late as the Middle Ages, Semites, Turks, and Chinese were more advanced than the majority of Indo-European speakers. The linguists tell us that the Indo-European speakers did not initially domesticate one useful animal, or one cultivated plant.
Linguistically, Indo-European is probably a relatively recent phenomenon, which arose after animals had been tamed and plants cultivated. The latest researches find it to be a derivative of an initially mixed language, whose principal elements were Uralic, called element A, and some undesignated element B which was probably one of the eastern Mediterranean or Caucasic languages.5 The plants and animals on which the economy of the early Indo-European speakers was based were referred to in words derived mainly from element B. Copper and gold were known, and the words for these commodities come from Mesopotamia.
Somewhere in the plains of southern Russia or central Asia, the blending of languages took place which resulted in Indo-European speech. This product in turn spread and split, and was further differentiated by mixture with the languages of peoples upon whom it, in one form or other, was imposed. Some of the present Indo-European languages, in addition to these later accretions from non-Indo-European tongues, contain more of the A element than others, which contain more of the B. The unity of the original "Indo-Europeans," could not have been of long duration, if it was ever complete.
They split, perhaps very early, into two groups, designated by the treatment of the palatal explosives of the K group. Among one branch, the so-called Satem, this was changed to spirants (S); the other, called Centum, preserved the original form of this sound, which also prevailed in the A or Finno-Ugric element. Centum speech became divided into a number of branches, of which surviving members are Keltic, Germanic, Italic, and Hellenic; Satem includes Slavic and Baltic, Armenian, Indic and Iranian, and probably Thracian,6 in the sense of a contributing factor in modern Albanian. Others, such as Ligurian, Illyrian7 and Tokharian B (all Centum), have long been extinct.
On the whole, the Indo-European languages have been spoken by people who combined agriculture with animal husbandry, who were organized into a patrilineal society with at least the germs of a differential class system, and who worshipped an Olympian pantheon of Gods. The initial formation of the Indo-European linguistic stock by blending does not antedate the age of metal; the common culture of the earliest Indo-European speakers, insofar as it existed as a unit, had much in common with those of both the peoples of the Aegean and Asia Minor on the one hand, and of central Asia on the other. The mythology of the Altaian Turks, for example, is so nearly identical with that of the early Scandinavians that some close association in the not far distant past is necessary.8 Furthermore, the ritual of the horse sacrifice9 is so integral a part of the religion of both Indo-European and Altaic-speaking peoples that recent diffusion alone cannot explain the identity.
Indo-European languages as we know them must have come from easternmost Europe or western central Asia at no very remote time. Their spread over most of Europe, and subsequently over the western hemisphere, Australia, and large segments of Asia in which they were originally not at home, is part of a general movement of expansion in which both race and culture have played their roles. Yet we cannot with complete assurance associate any one culture earlier than the Iron Age with any specific form of Indo-European speech. Although Homer's heroes fought with bronze weapons, we are not sure exactly when and by what agency the pre-Dorian Greek dialects arrived in the racially and culturally composite Hellenic world; nor do we know exactly who brought Na~ili speech to Asia Minor.
One whole school of European archaeologists and linguists associates the Corded people with the diffusion of Indo-European speech.10 Nehring, in a recent work of great detail and authority, would make the Danubians the original Indo-Europeans.11 He would explain the Altaic cultural similarities by dividing the Indo-European culture and vocabulary into two elements: (1) an early horizon in which the ox was the most important domestic animal economically, and agriculture of primary importance; (2) a later horizon of indirect Altaic inspiration, in which the horse was supreme and agriculture secondary.
At the moment the evidence is growing that certain forms of Indo-European speech were very ancient in more than one part of the Mediterranean basin. Whatmough has definitely identified Ligurian as Indo-European,12 and Ligurian was very old in Italy and in the Rhóne Valley. Sapir sees in Philistine a form of Indo-European;13 and would make the ark of the covenant a spirit-placing on wheels like the portable wicker shrines of the later Mongols. But neither of these identifications need carry us back earlier in history than the time of the troubles in Mesopotamia at the end of the third millennium, when northerners caused restless nights to the Babylonian kings, and the Hyksos invaded Egypt. It was after these disturbances that the chariot first appeared in Libya; hence, the first southward burst of horse-nomads may have affected both shores of the Mediterranean, whatever languages they brought with them.
The dates of the earliest certain appearances of Indo-European are about 1900 B.C., when the Našili dialect which was incorporated into Hittite entered Asia Minor. The earliest Greek probably entered Hellas at the same time. About 1400 B.C., the ancestors of the Aryans of India were crossing the passes of Afghanistan into the Indus Valley, and some six hundred years later, their relatives the Iranian ancestors were founding the Persian empire. From roughly 1000-900 B.C. onward, as the earliest possible date, the bearers of the Hallstatt culture in central Europe were spreading the use of iron, and the Hallstatt people almost certainly spoke lllyrian. In Italy, the Villanova people were without reasonable doubt diffusing Italic speech in the peninsula, while some forms of Illyrian were introduced by a number of peoples, among whom were probably the Veneti.
All of these Indo-European speakers, from 900 B.C. onward, were associated in some way with the diffusion of iron metallurgy from a center which is still to be determined. The most commonly proposed location is northern Anatolia and the Caucasus;14 whatever the history of the diffusion of Indo-European speech in the past, with the advent of iron, certain branches of it seem to have spread with great rapidity. The Hallstatt period in central Europe was followed by that of La Tène, the Late Iron Age, which lasted from 500 B.c. to the time of Christ; and this was the period of Keltic expansion and Keltic dominance, earlier than but parallel to the spread of Roman power and of Latin in the Mediterranean. After the phenomenal and immoderate scattering of the Kelts, who were destined to survive linguistically only on the western European fringe, far from their center of dispersion - the Germanic peoples began, in the days of the Roman empire, their swelling and pushing, from Denmark, southern Sweden, northern Germany, Holland, and the Norwegian coast. This reached every country in Europe and also North Africa. Unlike the spread of the Kelts, it was to achieve, in many quarters, linguistic and cultural permanence.
The expansion of the Germans was followed by that of the Slavs, the youngest of the Indo-Europeans to effervesce in an orgy of numerical increase and of migration. This took place in full historic time, in the seventh and eighth centuries of our era, but, unfortunately, the light of history was dim in the part of Europe in which most of their expansion occurred.
The foregoing digression into the field of comparative linguistics has a direct bearing upon the problem of the racial complexion of present day Europe. While it is not our primary purpose to discover the physical type or types of the undivided Indo-European ancestors, if they were ever actually undivided, it will be possible to find the common racial denominator, homogeneous or mixed, of the Iron Age spreaders of Indo-European speech and the accompanying cultures over Europe and parts of Asia. Once we have isolated the common factor, we may hope to locate its position in the roster of racial types previously known to us - for it must have been some type or types with which we have already become familiar in the earlier part of our study, and not a deus ex machina conjured up by linguists and politicians.
(Chapter VI, section 3)
The KeltsOne of the most controversial subjects in the whole of European history is the physical composition of the Keltic peoples. The name Keltic has been applied to many racial types, real and imagined, from short, brunet, round heads to blond brachyephals and Nordics. Many modern prehistorians take the stand that the Kelts were everywhere a small minority of aristocrats and conquerors, and that no special racial type accompanied their expansion in Europe. This position, however, becomes invalid when we examine the actual skeletons of Keltic speakers. There was a Keltic physical type, which the Kelts carried to their primary areas of colonization, and which will be described shortly.
Although earlier identifications, however likely, are still questionable, we may state that the Kelts as such first appeared in the European historical setting about the year 500 B.C. with the beginning of the La Tène civilization. The home of the Kelts, or at least the country in which they developed this brilliant Iron Age culture, lies without reasonable doubt in southwestern Germany, in the upper drainage of the Rhine,26 a country which had formed the western section of the original Hallstatt area. The easternmost outposts of the early Keltic domain were Bohemia and Galicia, while, on the west and south, it touched the territory of the Ligurians and of the Rhaetians. The Kelts, therefore, were situated northwest and west of the Illyrians proper, and south of the Germans, who at the time were confined to Scandinavia and northwesternmost Germany.
The Keltic languages are very closely related to the Italic group, of which Latin was a derivative. The period in which the Keltic languages became differentiated from other forms of Indo-European speech must, therefore, be as old as the departure of the ancestors of the Italici for Italy, and therefore must lead back to the Bronze Age.27 Keltic, like Italic, is divided into two branches - P-Keltic and Q-Keltic. It is considered likely that the phonetic separation which split both of the linguistic groups took place independently in each, and that the tendency for such a division was inherent in both Keltic and Italic at the time of their separation from one another. We do not know at what time the Goidelic or Q-Keltic dialect split off from the Brythonic or P dialect, but this cleavage again must have occurred at a reasonably early period, since the division was complete at the time of our earliest knowledge of these languages. Q-Keltic has survived only in Ireland, Scotland, and on the Isle of Man. All other known dialects, living and extinct, from Asia Minor to Wales, have been of the P variety.
The Keltic expansion, which began about 500 B.C., was a rapid and extensive one. The Kelts were an extremely mobile people who conquered md wandered far, and at the time of their expansion were apparently numerous as well. Their well-known migrations carried them over the Alps into Italy, down into southeastern Europe where they invaded Greece, and even over into Asia Minor where they established the short lived Galatian colony. Their main expansion, however, lay to the west. Belgium and northern France became great Keltic centers, from which some of them migrated down into northern Spain. This westward movement carried them also into the British Isles, where the Q-Keltic people settled Ireland, and their P-Keltic brethren established themselves in England and Wales. Large sections of Scotland were to remain free for the most part from these Keltic invaders until after the time of Christ, when the Goidels crossed over from Ireland.
The question as to the linguistic identity of the previous inhabitants, the Picts, is an open one. At present, the tendency is to consider them, and the pre-Goidelic Cruithni of Ireland, as speakers of some early form of Keltic. The further question as to whether or not the Goidels crossed England in their journey to Ireland is likewise open, but the prevailing tendency is to bring them over the old sea road from northern Spain, which they had previously entered by way of France, and to deny that they sojourned in England at all.
In their period of development in southwestern Germany, the relationship between the Kelts and Illyrians must have been intimate, for the Kelts received iron from a Hallstatt source, and were actually, during the Early Iron Age, participants in a Hallstatt form of culture. The major factor which served to differentiate La Tène from Hallstatt culture was the incorporation, by the former, of many elements derived from the classical Mediterranean world. The Kelts were situated at a favorable spot for the reception of such influences; Greek influences moved up the Rhóne and Sabne from Marseilles, while those from Rome crossed the Alpine passes into Bavaria and Switzerland and thence into the Keltic homeland.
In addition to the Hallstatt Iron Age base and classical accretions, we must further acknowledge the influences of some eastern European grassland culture, for the Kelts rode astride as well as in chariots, and the P-Kelts introduced trousers to western Europe. This garment was central Asiatic in origin, and was typical of the Scyths, whose period of cultural efflorescence in the east was contemporary with and parallel to that of the Kelts in the west. Philologically, there are a number of close linguistic connections between the Kelts and the Indo-Iranians, which may reflect this or an earlier cultural contact. It is most likely, however, that the principal contact between the Keltic-speaking peoples and the Iranian horsemen of the eastern European plain took place during the early years of the great Keltic expansion.
Turning back from Keltic expansions to Keltic origins, we find no cultural disturbances in southwestern Germany which would permit the arrival of the Kelts from elsewhere between the Hallstatt epoch and the early La Tène. Before the Hallstatt, however, the spread of the Late Bronze Age Lausitz culture into this region from eastern Germany may conceivably have brought a large number of people, impossible to identify because of their practice of cremation. These people may well have been the bearers of Keltic speech. Since the related Italici were themselves Urnfields cremators before they succumbed to indigenous burial rites in Italy, this identification is rendered more than likely. Hubert has, indeed, postulated an earlier Ligurian-speaking population in the Keltic cradle-area.28
The derivation of the Kelts from a Hallstatt cultural horizon, in part of the earliest region of Hallstatt development, while the main current of Hallstatt cultural expansion was borne by Illyrian speakers, seems incongruous. One must remember, however, that the Nordic skeletal type with which the Illvrians were identified in Lower Austria was confined, in its purely dolichocephalic form, to the lowland country north of the Bavarian foothills, while the Keltic area of development was, in its strictest limits, within the highland zone. Here the Kelts developed their own culture independently of the Illyrians and retained their own language.
Keltic cranial material from the southwest German center of Keltic development is surprisingly scarce. Schliz has described six skulls, and notices of three others have appeared in more recent publications.29 Of these nine, one is dolichocephalic, four are mesocephalic, and four are brachycephalic. Although this small group is far from sufficient to disclose the racial type of the Kelts in their homeland, it is enough to show us that a round-headed element played a considerable part in the development of this ethnic group. The brachycephals involved are large headed and powerfully built, with long faces, and rather high orbits; the foreheads are sloping and only slightly bowed at the junction of the facial and cranial planes. The inference is that these brachycephals were derived from the older combination of Bell Beaker and Borreby types which was formed in the upper Rhine country at the beginning of the age of metal, and which persisted into the Hallstatt period. These seem to have mixed with the expected intrusive Nordics. We must really wait until we examine larger series of Keltic crania from elsewhere, however, before passing judgment on the final result of this blend.
A better picture of the La Tène type may be obtained from the study of its early eastern extension. Hellich's series from Bohemia30 (see Appendix I, col. 33) is the only single group of central European La Tène crania of any consequence. This includes 27 male crania, most of which are dolichocephalic, but which contain a significant minority of brachycephals. In general, the La Tène skulls are not in any important metrical way distinguishable from those of the preceding periods of which we have clear knowledge - that is, Aunjetitz and Hallstatt. They represent merely a sub-variety of the same general combination of types, with a brachycephalic accretion which makes the total series mesocephalic.31 But there are other features, however, which render them as a group slightly different; the vault has a tendency to be low in proportion to its breadth, and the upper face is long in proportion to the total face, for the Keltic jaw, although broad at the gonial angles, is not as deep as that of other Iron Age Nordics. A composite series of eleven male crania from the type site of La Tène on Lake Neufchatel in Switzerland, and nearby burial places,32 is almost exactly the same as the Bohemian series; the vaults of the Swiss La Tène people, who may in part be identified with the Helvetii, are even lower than those of the Bohemians. As one might expect, the Swiss series con-tains a number of high brachycephals, with cranial indices as high as 90;33 but on the whole, most of the few Kelts whose remains have been studied in Switzerland were no different from those in Bohemia.
Less than a dozen skulls serve to identify the Keltic racial elements in Austria and in the Dinaric Alpine mountain zone.34 On the whole, this evidence is not satisfactory, but it serves to indicate that the regular mesocephalic type and one or more types of brachycephals were present. The most southeasterly Keltic skull known is one from Kupinovo, near Belgrade in Serbia, which belonged to a Dinaric brachycephal similar to those found at Glasinac, and this again witnesses the persistence of this Dinaric element during the Iron Age in or near the modern Dinaric area.
Before turning to the abundant remains of the Kelts in France and the British Isles, it may be well to review what evidence we have for their racial type in central Europe. Here the Kelts seem to have been a composite people, a blend of the different brachycephalic elements left over from the Bronze Age in the mountainous zone of southern Germany, and invaders of Nordic type from the plains to the north and east. One supposes that the Keltic linguistic element came with the later group.
Sculpture from Greece and Rome gives us a picture of the living Kelts who reached the lands of classical civilization by eastward and southward movements. The well-known Dying Gaul and similar statues show a strongly muscled type with mesocephalic or brachyeephalic head form, a rather short face with a square jaw. a straight and rather prominent mesorrhine nose, with horizontal or elevated tip and full nostrils, heavy browridges, a broad forehead, and stiff, bristly hair. This type, while familiar enough in western Europe. is not one which accords with the majority of the Keltic skeletons. The typical Keltic face was long in the upper portion, shallow in the mandible, long and narrow of nose, often with a convex profile, and the forehead was extremely sloping and the vault low. This has its most frequent counterpart today in the British Isles. While the type selected by the classical sculptors to represent the Kelts must have had its living models, these may have been drawn from the brachycephalic minority.
Most of the La Tène material from France comes from the north, from the Maine region, where the Keltic settlement seems to have been particularly strong. Fortunately, large and competent series of the Gauls of this district, before and after the Roman conquest, furnish adequate information.35 (See Appendix I, col. 34.) Both groups are alike, showing that submission to Roman rule did nothing to change the physical type of this particular people.
The Gauls as so represented were mesocephalic, mesoprosopic, and on the upper borders of leptorrhiny. The vault, as with all characteristic La Tène Keltic groups, is not distinguished for its height, and in the large and more reliable post-Roman series, it is definitely low. Like their relatives in central Europe, these Gauls were not noted for tall stature; a mean of 166 cm. is only moderate.
In other parts of France, the Keltic racial continuity was of variable intensity; in Lorraine and Beaune,36 the usual type was found; but in Haute Savoie and Vendée the earlier brachycephalic population is strongly represented in Keltic tombs,37 while out on the tip of Brittany, Neolithic sinivors of Mediterranean type, with perhaps some Gaulish admixture, persisted until the period of Roman conquest.38 Only in the north, therefore, did the Kelts make a firm imprint in the early population of what was to become the French nation.
The Kelts in the British Isles are known to us by a large series of Brythonic crania from England and southern Scotland, assembled by Morant39 (see Appendix I, col. 35); these are three millimeters longer headed than the Bohemian and Swiss series, but nearly identical in vault dimensions with the French; facially they are the same as all of the others. Smaller collections of Goidelic crania from Ireland show the skulls from this country to be exactly the same as those from Great Britain.40 Several morphological features distinguish these skulls, of the typical, or mesocephalic, group - which in the British Isles seems largely to lack the brachycephalic minority which accompanies the main type in central and eastern Europe. The forehead is quite sloping; the vault, when seen from behind, gives a cylindrical impression, rather than that of a rhomboid or rectangle, as with other Nordic crania. The upper face is quite long, the mandible wide at the back, and relatively shallow. The nose is often very prominent.
The skeletal material from Ireland (see Appendix I, col. 36) is not numerous enough to permit regional studies, or other statistical niceties; it in Great Britain there are, on the contrary, a number of local series sufficient to show that the racial complexion of that island was not, during the Iron Age, completely uniform. One of these, that of the erroneously named "Danes' Graves" at Driffield, Yorkshire,41 containing 29 male crania, is identical in every known respect with the Aunjetitz skulls from central Europe - a pure (if the adjective pure may be used of a composite type) Hallstatt or Nordic local population; purely dolichocephalic, in contrast to the usual Keltic mesocephaly; and relatively high-vaulted, again non-Keltic, although the stature, 167 cm., is presumably no different from that of the Kelts.42
It is impossible to derive this group from the local Neolithic, which was noted for its extreme absolute cranial length; or from the dolichocephalic element of the Bronze Age, which was again larger, longer, and higher-skulled; it resembles not only the earlier Aunjetitz and Hallstatt, but also, although to a lesser degree, the contemporary Scandinavian Iron Age people in the period immediately before the Germanic Völkerwanderung. All of the archaeological material found in the Danes' Graves has never been satisfactorily identified.43 Although the dominant Keltic tribe of that neighborhood, the Parisii, seems culturally represented, it is unlikely on archaeological as well as on racial grounds that the majority of the men buried in these graves came from the Maine, whence the usual Brythonic tribes migrated to England. Two of the fibulae found in the scanty remains have Scandinavian affinities; despite this clue, however, we must leave open the question of the immediate origin of the Danes' Graves people, and render the verdict: "Central European Nordics found in Yorkshire during the late Iron Age, provenience unknown."
Another local group which shows aberrant tendencies is that of eleven male crania from Berkshire, of which the length, breadth, and circumference alone are available;44 the figures are 193.3 mm., 149.6 mm., and 552.2 mm. The cranial index is 77. These mesocephalic crania are so much larger than those of the total Iron Age population that some other origin must be postulated. One recalls the extravagant dimensions of both Neolithic and Bronze Age crania in England, and may only suppose that this local group represents a relatively unaffected survival. Since both Bronze Age and Neolithic racial types may be picked out of any moderate-sized gathering of living Englishmen, or of their transatlantic relatives, it is not surprising to find a few in Berkshire during the Iron Age.
The descriptions of the Kelts, in Britain, in France, and in other parts of Europe, at the hands of classical authors, give us a definite picture of their pigmentation. Blondism was by no means characteristic of the Kelts as a whole. Rufosity was common, and the hair color was essentially mixed. Caesar himself noted the contrast between the ordinary Gauls and the partly Germanic Belgae, to whom he had to turn to find real blonds for his triumph. Furthermore, the Romans noted the Keltic practice of bleaching the hair to simulate a blond ideal, as in Greece.
On the whole, the Kelts were a mixed group in race as in culture; their ancestry includes both long heads of some central European Nordic type, which was in turn a combination of several Mediterranean sub-types, and brachycephals from the region in southwestern Germany in which the Dinarics of Early Bronze Age introduction had blended with earlier round heads of Mesolithic origin. Out of this combination, the Kelts developed an easily identified national type, of considerable constancy, which was a to be of some importance in the world, especially in Britain and the nations derived from her.
(Chapter VI, section 4)
The RomansBefore proceeding to study the rest of the Iron Age Indo-European speakers in their homes north of the Alps, let us examine the racial position of those near linguistic relatives of the Kelts, the Italici, who lived south of that barrier, and who played a rôle of the utmost importance in the history of Indo-European speech. The racial problem in Italy is nearly as complicated as in Greece, but the recent work of Whatmough, paralleling that of Myres, makes its solution equally possible. 45
We have already witnessed the accretion of various racial elements in Italy up to and through the Bronze Age. To a Neolithic Mediterranean sub-stratum were added tall, long-headed Megalithic invaders who came by sea, and Dinaric brachycephals from the eastern end of the Mediterranean. In the late Bronze Age, Urnfields people crossed the Alps from the north, and settled in northern Italy. Some of them built the terremare settlements in the Po Valley, while their descendants or others like them were responsible for the Villanova settlements in the Bologna region, and similar sites as far south as Latium. These collective Urnfields peoples came from central Europe, rather than from the nearer Swiss center. The Italic languages, like Keltic, were without reasonable doubt introduced by the Urnfields people. Like Keltic, they split into P and Q forms, with Oscan and Umbrian as P, and Latin and Faliscan as Q. Latin itself, in its historic form, was a mixture of Villanovan Italic plus Etruscan plus some altered Greek, plus early Mediterranean words, including plant names. 46 The non-Italic accretions bear witness to the influences which met the early Romans, while its major Italic character throughout attests the persistance of the Romans in retaining the nucleus of their own speech through centuries of Etruscan overlordship.
We know comparatively little about the racial composition of the early Italic people in pre-Roman times. Two crania from Remedello 47 are both those of dolichocephals of moderate size; one of them, which is certainly a male, has a stature of 168 cm. Two early Romans 48 were likewise dolichocephals of the same size and proportions as many of the Nordic groups north of the Alps; while a third, from the pre-Republican cemetery of Corneto Tarquinia, which can be more accurately defined, resembles a small male series of eight Christian Roman skulls, dating from the first to fourth centuries A.D. 49 These nine male crania are identical metrically with the means for the La Tène Kelts in Bohemia, and the Gauls and Gallo-Romans of the Marne. The same mesocephalic, leptorrhine form is found in each case.
Historically, the Romans should have been a mixture of Villanovan Italic northeners with Etruscans and Neolithic and Bronze Age predecessors. 50 The little crania material at hand points entirely in the northern direction, and confirms the relationship between Kelts and Italici, insofar as it may be used. On the other hand, the addition of Etruscan mesocephals with Dinaric and Mediterranean elements would not greatly alter the early Kelt-like Italic metrical form.
The early Romans, judging from the busts of their descendants in the days of Augustus, and of descriptions, were not very tall, as a rule, but were often of heavy body build. Their skulls were flattish on top, and rounded on the sides, like those of the Kelts. The facial features included the well-known "Roman" nose, which may have been partly derived from an Etruscan source. On the whole, the well-known sculptures of Caesar, Augustus, and others, although not reliable from the standpoint of accurate measurement, indicate that a mesocephalic to brachycephalic head form was admired. Their facial type is not native to the Mediterranean basin, but is more at home in the north. Nevertheless, the Romans considered the Kelts who invaded Italy tall and blond; hence the blondism of the Romans, including rufosity, must have been in the minority. 51
More detailed information may be obtained by studying the remains of Romans who died away from home in the colonial service of the empire. For example, an officer of the sixth legion, named Theodorianus, stationed at York, came from the small city of Nomentum, in Latium. Three others, also buried at York, were also native Romans. 52 These four were all of one type, and very much alike: dolicho- to mesocephalic, with low vaults, low, broad foreheads, very aquiline noses, and short, broad, square faces. The skulls of two other pure Roman officers from Bath and Gloucester are the same, as is one from Lincoln. 53
A group of eight male Roman crania from Rheinzabern on the Rhine, 54 belonging to real Romans from Italy, are the same as the individuals from Britain, and almost identical with the eight male males from Rome itself of the Christian period, and the early Roman from Corneto Tarquinia. These scattered references from various quarters, although few, are so alike that we must conclude that the Romans, however mixed, had formed a characteristic local or national physical type, which was mainly of Italic origin, and closely related originally to the Keltic.
The Italici, however, were not the only Indo-European speakers to invade Italy from the north. The Ligurians, of whom we have no certain skeletal remains, probably entered from Gaul, and may have been earlier than the Italici. On the eastern watershed of the Italian peninsula and in the Po Valley lived, in early protohistoric and historic times, various tribes of Illyrian speakers, notably the Veneti. To the Illyrian group may have belonged the people who buried in the cemetery of Novilara, on the central Adriatic coast, 55 about the eight century B.C., contemporaneously with the Villanova people. The site belonged to a tribe called the Piceni, who in the seventh and sixth centuries developed a high culture and later declined, becoming subjects of Rome.
The doubt as to their ethnic origin may be partly dispelled by a knowledge of their physical remains. A series of eighteen male and thirteen female skulls is homogeneously dolichocephalic, with the low mean male cranial index of 71.2; the skulls are high-vaulted, narrow-faced, and leptorrhine. The series is very similar to those of Hallstatt Illyrians farther north, and the stature, 165.5 cm. for males, is tall enough to support this. Whether or not they spoke Illyrian, they were of Illyrian racial type, and the Illyrian invasion of northeastern Italy was undoubtedly a real on in the racial sense.
(Chapter VI, section 5)
The ScythiansWhat the Kelts were to western Europe, the Scythians and their relatives became, at about the same time, to the treeless plains to the east. Riding astride, wearing trousers, and sleeping in covered wagons, they spread rapidly over the grasslands of eastern Europe and western central Asia, shifting so adroitly that Darius with his army could not catch them, and disappearing almost as rapidly from the face of eastern Europe as they had appeared. Like the Kelts, they were both dazzling and ephemeral. But unlike the Kelts, their way of living, perfectly adapted to the grass-lands on which they roamed, was destined long to survive their identity as a people.
About 700 B.C. the Scyths were first noticed in the lands to the north of the Black Sea.56 Their domain reached from north of the Danube and east of the Carpathians across the fertile plains of eastern central Europe and southern Russia to the River Don. From this country they were supposed to have ousted the somewhat mysterious Cimmerians. Although the Don formed their eastern boundary, beyond it lived other groups of nomadic peoples culturally similar to the Scythians. These included the Sarmatians, their immediate neighbors to the east, who were, according to Herodotus, the result of a mass marriage of Scythian youths and Amazon maidens. The speech of the Sarmatians was said to be somewhat different from that of the Scythians, owing to the inclusion of Amazon words and an Amazonian manner of pronunciation. Beyond the Sarmatians lived the Massagetae, and beyond them the Saka. The word Saka, however, was used by the Persians as a general term, to include all of the nomadic peoples to the north of the Iranian plateau, in the two Turkestans.
In costume, in weapons, in methods of transportation, in living quarters, and in the totality of material culture, these people formed a continuous cultural zone from the Carpathians to China. It has been the custom to consider the Scythians a people of Asiatic origin who developed this high and specialized form of pastoral nomadism in central Asia and brought it with them to eastern Europe. Proponents of this school have suggested that the Scythians were a mongoloid people, and that they employed some Altaic form of speech. Another school holds that they were European in physical type, and spoke Iranian, while their cultural breeding ground lay somewhere to the east of the Caspian.
We do not know what language the Scythians spoke, nor is it likely that its exact affiliation will ever be definitely established. Their geographical position, however, and their association with the ancient Persians, makes the Iranian hypothesis very likely. This theory is further strengthened by the study of the language of the Ossetes, a living people of the Caucasus, who are supposed, on historical grounds, to be descendants of the Alans, a branch of the Sarmatians. Their language is definitely Iranian.
Although the general manner of living enjoyed by the Scythians does resemble in a remarkable degree that of the later Huns, Turks, and Mongols, one looks in vain for some of the cultural traits of these later Altaic speakers which may be ascribed to a relatively recent Siberian origin. These include the yurt or collapsible felt-domed house, and the Turko-Mongol type of shamanism. The Turks and the Mongols, without question, took over almost completely the whole Scythian style of culture, but they added to it elements of their own which reflected their former habitat and manner of life. A few traits connect the Scythfans with their neighbors to the north, the Finns; among these might be cited the sweat bath.
The Scythians proper possessed a type of feudal organization headed by a king, who ruled over four provinces each of which had local governors; These Scythian kings were all buried in a royal burial ground in the region called by the Greeks the Land of the Gerrhi, which was situated in the bend of the Dnieper River near Nicopol. No matter where the Scythian monarch died, his remains would be deposited, in a funeral chamber, with great ceremony and with an extravagant quantity of human sacrifice, underneath a huge mound erected for that purpose. The richness of the burials, and the wholesale suttee, are reminiscent of the ancient Sumerians, and of the early Egyptians. The eventual Sumerian origin of this Scythian custom is not unlikely.
This region of the Royal Scythian burying round has been a source of great activity for both treasure hunters and archaeologists. The Scythians had a definite idea that this was the place in which their kings were naturally at home, and while it may not be wise to stress this point too much, it would seem that this location may have reflected their notions as to their original dwelling place, or at least that of their royal clan. Similarly, the Mongols in later times buried their dead in a restricted area in the Altai Mountains, which they considered holy ground.
During the first century B.C., the Sarmatians penetrated westward, crossing the Don, and driving the Scythians from their former homes. About 200 A.D., the Goths took the Scythian country from the Sarmatians, and in turn adopted much of the Scytho-Sarmatian culture, becoming great horsemen and learning to live in wagons. The Alans were the only branch of the Sarmatians to retain their integrity in face of this Germanic onslaught. They built up a great kingdom between the Don and the Volga, reaching as far as the Caucasus, including in it most of northwestern Turkestan. Between 350 and 374 A.D., the Huns destroyed the Alan kingdom. Some of the Alans went westward with the Huns, others accompanied the Vandals to North Africa, and a few, as previously mentioned, survive in the Caucasus as Ossetes.
Although these Iranians (if the Scythians and Sarmatians really were Iranians) were replaced by Altaic speakers in southern Russia, and throughout the breadth of their Asiatic domain, this process took some time, and Iranian languages clung on for a long while in Kashgaria and in the oases of Russian Turkestan. Undoubtedly, the Scythians and their relatives were not destroyed, but were absorbed and reinccrporated.
In studying the racial type of the Scythians, one must remember that they were not considered a homogeneous group by Herodotus, who is our chief historical source. They consisted of an inner clan called the Royal Scyths or True Scyths, who were the nobles and leaders, and, as a second element, the whole group of nomadic tribes of which the Royal Scyths were the integrating force. Herodotus also makes it clear that the Scythians kept many slaves. Only the Royal Scyths refused to own slaves, but employed youths of pure Scythian blood as bodyguards, and sacrificed these in their tombs. Thus, the Royal Scythian burial mounds must contain a relatively pure Scythian group.
One must not imagine that the Scyths and their slaves were the only inhabitants of southeastern Europe during the last seven centuries before Christ and the first two of our era. Herodotus mentions the agricultural Scythians, who were probably some earlier sedentary people or peoples who remained as underlings of the Scythians and their providers of cereal food. We must remember that much of the Scythian territory had been farmed as early as Neolithic times.
FIG. 29. SCYTHIANS FROM THE KUL OBA VASE.
Redrawn from Minns, E. H., Scythians and Greeks, p. 201, Fig. 94.
FIG. 29. SCYTHIANS FROM THE KUL OBA VASE.
Redrawn from Minns, E. H., Scythians and Greeks, p. 201, Fig. 94.
There can be little doubt, even before examining the skeletal evidence, that the Scythians and Sarmatians were basically if not entirely white men and in no sense mongoloid. The only definite description of them which we have from classical literature is that of Hippocrates, who called them white-skinned and obese, but this designation was employed by the father of medicine to prove one of his environmental theories. In later times, the Alans are described as having golden hair.
Fortunately, we are not limited to literary references. The Scythians themselves, under the influence of powerful Greek colonies on the north shore of the Black Sea, and particularly in the Crimea, produced a dis tinctive style of realistic art in gold repoussée. These tepresentations in-clude a number of portraits of Scythians in very realistic and life-like poses. They show a well-defined type of heavily bearded, long-haired men with prominent, often convex, noses. The browridges are moderately heavy, the eyes deep set. These faces are strikingly reminiscent of types common among northwest Europeans today, in strong contrast to those shown in the art of the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Hittites, which are definitely Near Eastern. The face, therefore, is definitely Nordic, while the body build looks often thick-set and very muscular, but this may be due to the clothing, which includes baggy trousers and jackets with full sleeves. The pointed caps which they wear and the long hair make it impossible to form a useful opinion of their head form, but this is unnecessary, since we may soon discover it from reference to the cranial material. Persian representations of Saka show exactly the same type, depicted by the followers of an entirely different school of art, and hence this type cannot have been an unfounded convention.
There is, in the anthropometric literature, sufficient data to permit the reconstruction of the Scytho-Sarmatian cranial type or types. The most extensive group, and that which may be used as a basic series, is Donici's collection of seventy-seven Scythian crania from kurgans of Bessarabia, which was one of the favored Scythian pasture lands during the height of their domination.57 (See Appendix I, cot 37.) The fifty-seven male crania of this series are not homogeneous, but fall into two types, a long-headed and a round-headed, with the former greatly in the majority.
The means of these Scythian skulls show them to be low mesocephals of moderate cranial dimensions, but with a low vault height. The cranial means are, in fact, almost identical with those of the Keltic series from France and the British Isles. They resemble the Aunjetitz and Hallstatt skulls only as much as the Keltic series mentioned resemble these latter. They are, furthermore, metrically identical with the previously studied skulls from the Minussinsk region of southern Siberia, which may have been contemporaneous with them.
One of the peculiarities of the Scythian skulls is a low mesene upper facial index, lower than that of the Kelts or of the Minussinsk people. Donici has shown, however, that this low upper facial index is mostly associated with the brachycephalic element in the group, and the same is true of many of the chamaeconch and mesorrhine skulls. When the brachycephalic element is eliminated, therefore, one finds these skulls to be narrower faced, and narrower nosed, and to fit more nearly into a central European Nordic category. Other series of Scythian crania from southern Russia and from the Caucasus show the same general characteristics as that of Donici's type series, but are in most cases purely dolichocephalic, which leads one to suppose that the brachycephalic element in the Rumanian skulls may have been at least partly of local origin.58
Other collections of Scythian crania vary in their mean cranial indices from 72 to 77. Those from the Kiev government, a Scythian center, have a mean of 7359 A series of eighteen Sarmatian crania from the Volga, although otherwise the same as the others, has a cranial index of 80.3.60 However, one hesitates to consider this typical of the Sarmatians as a whole, since both the Alans61 and the early Ossetes62 were long headed. The former preserved the original Scythian Nordic type until the ninth century A.D.
Of especial interest is a rich kurgan in the Royal Scythian burial district,63 near Alexandropol; this was one of the most imposing kurgans of Russia, not only for its size but for the quantities of gold placed with the dead king, and of animals sacrificed for his convenience. The kurgan contained five skulls in the primary interment; one of these was a large male of Corded type.64 Another is a brachycephal with a vault especially wide behind, with a broad face and a narrow nose, resembling a Turkish or perhaps a Bell Beaker type; two are narrow skulls of the normal Scythian Nordic variety, while the fifth, that which occupied the king's chamber, is of moderate size, long headed, with a low vault, sloping forehead, a high, prominent nose, and wide flaring zygomatic arches. The malars are large, and there is, in this respect, a slight mongoloid suggestion. One may not, however, on this evidence alone, identify the Royal Clan with Turks or Mongols.
We know very little of the stature of the Scythians. Nine male skeletons from the Polish Ukraine, associated with crania of standard Scythian type, have a mean of over 170 cm.65
It is tempting to find the origin of the Scythians in the previous population of the southern Russian plain. A series of Bronze Age crania from the lower Volga region is identical, at least in indices, with the later Scythian group, and so is that from the Ukrainian Urnfields. Three skulls of so-called "Cimmerians" likewise show no important deviation.66
Furthermore, an important series of Early Iron Age crania from the Sevan district of Armenia, probably dated from the earlier half of the first millennium B.C., and probably therefore earlier than the Scyths in Europe, or at least as early as their first appearance, is exactly like the more dolichocephalic element in the Scythian group, and manifestly Nordic. The vault, like that of the Scyths, is low, the nose leptorrhine, the face leptene, with more compressed zygomata.67 (See Appendix I col. 38.) Morphologically, these Armenian skulls are characterized by a medium forehead slope, moderate browridges and muscular development; a moderately deep nasion depression, and straight or lightly convex nasal profile; a projection of the occiput which is most marked in the lower segment, and accompanied by some lambdoid flattening; a typical compression in the malar region. This series serves a double purpose: to show that a Nordic type entered into the modern Armenian blend, and to define the Iranian variety of Nordic which may have been likewise involved in the settlement of Persia and of India.68 Furthermore, it is very similar, both metrically and morphologically, to the early Germanic cranial group, and this virtual identity draws together the two geographical extremes of an originally united family.
We have seen that the Scythians and Sarmatians, although they undoubtedly included in their ranks many individuals of different political affiliations, formed nevertheless a quite constant principal racial type, which was essentially Iranian and a form of Nordic. In its characteristic low vault, as in other dimensions, it specifically resembled the earlier eastern European and central Asiatic Nordic form. It was essentially a member of the racial cluster associated with the spread of Satem Indo-European speech in both eastern Europe and Asia.
(Chapter VI, section 6)
The Germanic PeoplesWe have already dealt with the expansions of two great Indo-European peoples, the Kelts and the Scythians, who, during the second half of the first millennium before Christ, nearly divided the European continent, north of the Alpine mountain barrier, between them. Other groups, such as the Thracians, who occupied large expanses of territory in the Balkans, have been neglected because of lack of information.
The first millennium of the Christian era witnessed two more such spreadings of Indo-Europeans; those of the Germans and of the Slavs, the former to have lasting results in the west, the latter in the east. Unlike the Kelts and the Scyths, these two later groups, tardy to receive the civilization of the classical world, were destined to people many countries permanently with their descendants, and to implant their tongues in many regions.
Of these two, the Germanic expansion was the earlier. The period of Teutonic migration was that of the famous Volkerwanderung, which began with the precocious but futile invasion of Italy by the Cimbri and Teutons, who fought the Romans between 114 and 102 B.C., and which did not end until the adoption of Christianity by the Norwegians in the eleventh century put an end to the piratical practices of the Vikings. Its period of greatest vitality fell between the second and fifth centuries of the present era.
The home of the Germans before their expansion was only in a restricted sense the modern Germany. The tribes of which this people was composed occupied Denmark, southern and central Sweden, Norway, and the northern coastal strip of Germany, from the mouth of the Elbe to the Baltic shore. The islands of the Baltic near Sweden, namely Gotland and Bornholm, were densely populated.
One must not suppose that these early Germans were the unaltered descendants of their Bronze Age predecessors, for there is strong archaeological evidence that a new people entered Scandinavia at the beginning of the retarded Iron Age of this region.69 The Hallstatt artefacts are entirely different in character from those of the Late Bronze Age, and the burial rite changed completely, while the old nature worship which the Megalithic sea people had brought to Scandinavia now disappeared abruptly, being replaced by religious phenomena which we can associate definitely with the classical Norse style of worship. The Norse pantheon, with its family of gods and its Valhalla, is closely related to the systems of Greece and Rome, of India, and of the other Indo-European divisions.
he principal civilizing agency in the development of the Germanic culture was that of the Kelts, but the Kelts were niggardly teachers, for they blocked the Germans from direct intercourse with the classical world. It was not until the days of the Roman Empire and of the Byzantines that the Germans, after driving their way through the vanishing Keltic domain, reached these civilizing influences. But the earlier Scandinavians had already possessed a distinctive Bronze Age culture, which was not entirely lost.
Furthermore, certain strong cultural elements in the time of Germanic efflorescence bore strong marks of an eastern inspiration; such as the ship burials, which resembled the Royal Scythian interments in every detail except for the substitution of ships for wagons; and the art, as expressed in wood carving, which carried over the richness of the eastern animal style, and which reached its highest development in Norway. The Germans, like the Kelts, had been subjected to a very strong influence from the plains to the east.
Linguistically, the early Germanic tongues were much in the debt of the Kelts. Many of the words needed to express new things were of Keltic origin. Hubert, the Keltic authority, believed that the Germanic languages were the garbled borrowings of some Indo-European speech by a people to whom the Indo-European phonemes were difficult.70 It is true that consonantal shifts from K to H, and the like, are more extreme than those in other Indo-European languages. It is very likely that the ances-tral Germanic speech was introduced into Scandinavia by the invaders who brought the Hallstatt culture to that backward region.
It is the task of the physical anthropologist to help the archaeologist and linguist discover the identity of these Iron Age invaders, whose arrival in Scandinavia cannot be put back earlier than the sixth or seventh centuries B.C. This should be relatively easy, for the newcomers buried while the older population presumably continued cremating their dead. The Danish series is the most extensive, with 42 adult male crania71 (see Appendix I, col. 39); of these only one has a cranial index of over 78. The series is strongly dolichocephalic, with a mean of 72.3. There is no trace of the brachycephalic element which had been so important in Denmark from the beginning of the Neolithic through the Bronze Age.
The Danish Iron Age crania form a homogeneous group. They belong definiiely in the same class with the other Iron Age Nordics of Lausitz Urnfields inspiration, and more particularly the purely long-headed element in the Keltic blend, for the low vault and cylindrical transverse profile of the Keltic crania are also common here. Except for the lesser breadth of head and face, and greater vault length, they closely resemble the Keltic crania of Gaul and of the British Isles, and those of the Scythians, while they are virtually identical with the Armenian Iron Age skulls discussed in the last section. The Danish Iron Age crania, then, are probably the same as those of the ancestral proto-Kelts before their arrival in southwestern Germany, and of the ancestors of the Scythians and eastern Iranians. These Danes were a tall people, however, for the stature of 25 males was 171.5 cm. This agrees with that of the earlier peoples of the same region, and with that of the Scythians.
In this Danish series there was, without doubt, a selection on the basis of differential methods of disposal of the dead; the numerous Bronze Age population, compounded of Megalithic, Borreby, and Corded elements, could not have disappeared completely. After the various elements in the Danish population have had time to blend, we shall see them reappear.
The Swedish population of the Iron Age, best represented by a smaller group of 14 males72 (see Appendix I, col. 40), was essentially the same as that in Denmark. There are, however, a few differences - the vault is higher, the face wider, the upper face shorter. Perhaps these more peripheral Scandinavians showed a little of the older blood.
During the Iron Age, Norway was, for the first time, definitely settled by people comparable in civilization to those in Denmark and southern Sweden; it is likely that many of the earlier inhabitants of Jutland and the Danish archipelago had fled to the southwestern corner of that country, while other migrations came across from southern and central Sweden.
The most extensive Iron Age series from Norway is that of Schreiner, which contains 27 male crania.73 (See Appendix I, col. 41.) These are quite different from those of either Denmark or Sweden. They are larger and much more rugged, with heavy browridges and strong muscular markings. Metrically, they approach the Upper Palaeolithic series of Morant; and they could fit easily into the range of the central European Aurignacian group. The Mesolithic crania of Stångenäs and MacArthur's Cave would not be out of place here. Yet in most dimensions, they fall a little short of the Upper Palaeolithic mean.
They are purely dolichocephalic, with a cranial index of 71.7. On the whole, they are just what one would expect from a Danish Iron Age - Upper Palaeolithic cross, with the latter in the majority, and this explanation agrees well with the archaeological data. The stature, 169.5 cm., fits both types. There is another possibility, however, that they had a strong Corded element. That some Corded blend entered into this mixture was indeed likely, but it is impossible to substitute the Corded for the Palaeolithic element, since the high vault of the former is not in sufficient evidence, and the faces of the Norwegians are wider than either Corded or Nordic.
The central coastal Norwegians of the Iron Age must have been in part true descendants of the Upper Palaeolithic people of central Europe, who moved northward and westward with the retreat of the last ice, and remained relatively undisturbed in the centers of its last melting until the arrival of new immigrants in the Iron Age. There must, however, have been regional differences of type in Norway at this time which persisted until the modern period; late Viking Age series from Jaeren, Tønsborg, and Skien74 in the south show the presence of a brachycephalic type, massive in build and of great cranial size, which is metrically related to the Borreby group of Denmark and northern Germany. These may represent colonists or refugees from Denmark.
A late group from Sogn75 in the north, includes mesocephalic crania with extremely low vaults and smaller dimensions, associated with black or brown hair preserved in the graves. Metrically, they suggest modem Lapp crania in most respects, and serve to mark the northern Norse borderland, beyond which Norwegian settlements were, in the Viking period, only sporadic. These various series place Norway for the first time in history in the full light of physical anthropology, and show that the land of the Vikings was the last periphery of the Nordic world, in which ancient but fully evolved forms of humanity blended with the newcomers from the south and east.
Linguistically, the Germanic peoples who invaded other parts of Europe from Scandinavia and North Germany have been divided into two groups: East Germans and West Germans. The speakers of East Germanic included the Goths, Vandals, Gepidae, and Burgundians. The Goths claimed to have crossed the Baltic from Sweden (not from the island of Gotland) to the mouth of the Vistula. The Vandals and the Gepidae presumably had the same origin. From the Vistula, the East Germans expanded southward and eastward into the Scythian country, where the Gepidae seized control of Hungary, and the Goths finally established an important kingdom on the north shore of the Black Sea.
From here, the history of these tribes is well known. They all had important relationships with the Roman Empire, and adopted Christianity. The movements of the Goths into Greece, Italy, and France do not merit detailed description. The Visigoths pushed westward, occupied southern France shortly after 400 A.D., and moved down into Spain where they were gradually absorbed into the population of the northern provinces. The eastern Goths who fell under the rule of the Huns met a similar fate. Of a once numerous and mobile Gothic nation no trace remains. The same is true of the Gepidae, and of the Vandals, who went from eastern Europe to France, Spain, and North Africa, whence they were subsequently deported to Byzantium. No doubt, Gothic and Vandal blood flows in the veins of some modern Spaniards as well as of the peoples in other countries through which they passed. But this eastern branch of the Germans failed to make any lasting impression upon the racial map of Europe.
Although there is not much data concerning the physical type of these eastern Germans, there is enough to enable us to come to some definite conclusions. A series of Goths from the Chersonese north of the Black Sea, dated between 100 B.C. and 100 A.D., includes three male and eight female skeletons.76 All of these are long headed, and they belong to a large, powerful Nordic type which reflects their Swedish origin, for they are no different from the Swedish Iron Age crania which we have already studied.
A later group of Gepidae dated from the fifth or sixth centuries in Hungary shows the persistence of this same type; despite historical blending with the Huns, of eight skulls at our disposal, all but three fail to show definite traces of mongoloid mixture, and in these three the non-Nordic traits are not manifested metrically. One is forced to the conclusion from this series, as from that of the Goths in the Chersonese, that the East Germanic peoples who took part in these wanderings preserved their original racial characteristics so long as they retained their political and linguistic identity.
The same conclusion results when one examines the Visigothic skulls from northern Spain which date from the sixth century A.D.77 Here a series combined from several cemeteries shows us exactly the same Nordic type, with tall stature and with a high-vaulted skull, a long face, and a broad law; in this respect resembling, in a sense, the earlier Hallstatt crania, but more particularly those of the western Germanic group, especially the Hannover Germans and the Anglo-Saxons.
The western branch of Germanic-speaking peoples, while historically less spectacular, was destined to be far more important in the eventual peopling of Europe. This included the ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons, of the Frisians, and of the Germans proper. Among the latter may be listed the Franks, the Alemanni, the Bavarians, the Thuringians, and the Chatti, whose descendants are the Hessians. Under the Franks may be listed the ancestors of the Flemish- and Dutch-speaking peoples whose closely related languages are a mixture of low Franconian and Saxon elements. All of these peoples worked their way southward, and in some cases westward, gradually and without ostentation; the Alemanni to Switzerland and Austria, the Bavarians to the principality which bears their name, the Thuringians to Bohemia as well as to Thuringia, and the Franks to the upper Rhine country, Belgium, and France. The Burgundians, members of the eastern branch of Germans, sophisticated like the Goths from contact with the Roman Empire, crossed the Rhine ahead of the Franks, and occupied Rhenish Gaul at the same time that the Vandals were admitted under Roman sanction.
The prototype of the western German peoples who migrated from the region about the mouth of the Elbe is well represented by a series of skulls from Hannover which includes 41 male crania.78 (See Appendix I, col. 42.) Metrically, these differ from the Danish Iron Age skulls in being slightly longer, somewhat broader, and considerably higher. The foreheads are broader, and the face is wider, and in many cases a bit longer. These skulls deviate from the normal Nordic type of central European origin with which we are familiar in their greater size and roibusticity, and particularly in their greater vault height.
The skulls of the Anglo-Saxons who invaded England in the fourth and fifth centuries of the present era79 (see Appendix I, col. 43) are almost identical with this Hannover group. It is to this same specific category that the Spanish Visigothic skulls to which we have already referred belong. To it must be added two series of old Frisians from northern Holland,80 which are identical in every respect. The skulls of these old Saxons, old Hanoverians, and old Frisians differ in a number of ways from those of other Nordics which we have studied. They arc larger than the Aunjetitz group and the Danes, and in fact any other series of Indo-European speakers that we have met, except the Norwegians. They lack the low vault and sloping forehead common to the earlier Nordics of Denmark, the Gauls, and the Scyths. The vault is moderately high; while the cranial index is on the border of dolicho- and mesocephaly. Compared with the other Nordics, the forehead is relatively straight, the browridges are greater, the muscular markings more pronounced, the cranial base wider, the face longer and somewhat wider.
The type represented by these three groups and by the Visigoths seems to be a variant of the Nordic type to which the early Indo-European speakers belonged. Its difference is one of size, and it appears to have attained this distinction through a mixture, in southern Scandinavia and Germany, between the older local population, consisting of a combination of Megalithic, Corded, and Borreby elements, and the purely Nordic Danish Iron Age group. The resultant type approaches in some respects, but does not even approximate in size, the coastal Norwegian population which we have already studied, and it deviates far less from the central European Nordic than does the Norwegian group.
This physical type is accompanied by tall stature, of about 170 cm., and by a considerable heaviness and robusticity of the long bones. The bodily build was clearly heavier and thicker set than that of the previously studied Nordics. That it was characteristically blond is attested by the pigmentation of living examples as well as by numerous early descriptions. This type, being a mixed variety of central European Nordic combined with old northwestern European elements, is not a true Nordic in the sense in which the word has been used in this work, and its common and exclusive designation as Nordic in popular parlance as in scientific works is responsible for much of the confusion prevalent in the identification of that racial type today. Since it is found among both West and East Germans of the period of dispersal, it is essentially the Germanic or Teutonic racial type. The eccentric linguistic position of the Germanic peoples in the total Indo-European family has its racial connotations.
One of the principal outlets for this movement from the northwestern coasts of Germany was the Anglo-Saxon invasion of the British Isles.81 This had begun by 250 A.D., when the Saxons raided the southern and eastern coast of England. It was a period of general turmoil, for Irish pirates were plundering the coast of Wales at the same time. The Romans were hard put to defend themselves against this double peril, and despite their military and naval precautions, the raids grew in volume and frequency.
In 406-407 A.D., large invasions of Germanic peoples crossed the Rhine and pillaged the Roman settlements in most of Gaul. This broke off communications between Rome and Britain. With Gaul out of Roman control, there could be no hope of holding Britain. Hence, in 409 A.D., the Emperor Honorius issued a decree bidding the inhabitants of Britain to shift for themselves in the future. From this point on the Saxons received little opposition, and settled in great numbers. Since the Saxons were not townsmen, they did not occupy the cities which they plundered, and the urban population established by the Romans in England maintained its identity for a century or longer before the towns were abandoned or became Anglicized.
The earliest Saxon contacts were Viking raids in which they not only pillaged the coastal settlements but also rowed far up the rivers, establishing temporary camps in the upper waters. When the main body of Saxons under Cerdic marched from the region of the Wash across Lincolnshire to the upper Thames Valley, the invaders found that other Saxons of more temporary habits had preceded them. Hence it is necessary, in studying early Saxon remains, to distinguish between mixed communities in which raiders had taken native women to wife, and pure Saxon settlements in which whole families and villages had emigrated at the beginning of the period of serious settlement.
The Saxons occupied, for the most part, empty country. This was because they were accustomed to low-lying land with a deep, rich soil, and had formed, in their earlier home, the habit of tilling this in strips with deep ploughs drawn by eight oxen. The Kelts, whose agriculture was more cursory in character, preferred the uplands already made treeless by nature, and cultivated in square fields. They remained for the most part on territory frequented by the Bronze Age and Neolithic men before them. The Saxons, who liked forests as well as lowlands, cleared the marshes and river valleys of trees, and drained and planted them. Owing to this fundamental difference in methods of agriculture, the two peoples overlapped little at first, and the Saxons and Britons occupied adjoining territories in many parts of England for several centuries until at length the Saxon social and political domination submerged the language and culture of the earlier inhabitants beneath its own pattern.
The Anglo-Saxon skeletons which have been described earlier are derived from the graves of the heathen period, from the fifth to the end of the ninth centuries. The skulls from these graves82 make a striking contrast to the Keltic Iron Age type which preceded them. While the Iron Age forehead is extremely sloping, that of the Anglo-Saxon skulls is rather steep and high, and the skulls which possess mandibles show that the Anglo-Saxon type was deep jawed, with a great distance from lower tooth line to chin and with a long, sloping ascending ramus. The cranium as a whole is steep sided with a well-rounded occiput, and frequently lambdoidally flattened.83 The browridges are moderate to heavy. The nasal bones are highly arched, with often a considerable nasion depression. Muscularity of a pronounced character is indicated by deep pits and ridges on the long bones, which are thick and heavy. Compared with the Iron Age people, the Saxons were large bodied, and their more con-siderable body weight is correlated with a larger braincase. The mean stature of various series of Anglo-Saxons ranges from 167-172 cm.84 and the total mean equals 170 or 171 cm.
Although there was a difference in the localities from which various groups of Anglo-Saxons came, little regional difference is manifest in the series from England. The Jutes who settled in Kent, and who came from the peninsula of Jutland, seem larger faced than the Saxons themselves, but the difference is actually slight.85 In the total Saxon group studied by Morant, both males and females belong to the same clearly differentiated type, and there is no confusion between them and the Iron Age form. They thus preserved their racial identity at least until the end of the eighth century.
A number of individual cemeteries, which date from the earliest period of Saxon invasion, give us a lively picture of the manner in which the first Saxon raiders and settlers operated. One of these is the graveyard at East Shefford, Berkshire; containing eight male and twelve female adults, as well as eight infantile and juvenile specimens.86 All of the adult males thirty years of age or older represent a single type, the classical Saxon, and all are long headed. One of the females belongs to this same type, and she was buried differently from the other women, with horse trappings in her grave. The rest of the women were rounder headed, with cranial indices going up to 82.4, and some of them were planoccipital. They had wider, shorter noses, some prognathism, and shorter, shallower jaws. The adolescent women seem to be a blend of these two types. Although many of these differences may be due to sex and age, others, such as the fundamental head form, are clearly racial.
This cemetery presumably represents a raiding party which settled in the upper Thames waters before the onset of the mass invasions. It seems to have included less than twelve men and only one woman who were Saxons. The other women, being Bronze Age descendants, were apparently British wives of Saxon invaders, while the children were their offspring.
The excavation of a round barrow at Dunstable in Bedfordshire throws further light on the survival of the Bronze Age physical type into the Saxon period.87 The primary burial of the barrow was a woman of the Early Bronze Age; secondary graves contained cremated bodies of the Middle Bronze Age, while tertiary burials, heaped in a ditch, consisted of one hundred skeletons of persons of the Saxon period who had apparently been executed, or slain in battle. One-tenth of them had their hands tied behind their backs when they died. Owing to the absence of grave goods, for these people were informally slaughtered in a ditch, it is impossible to tell exactly who they were. The view that they were Saxon settlers violently received by the natives is unsubstantiated. Judging by their racial type, they must have been natives slaughtered by the Saxons.
This series contains a hundred skulls, of which those of 52 males are suitable for study. This extensive series resembles the British Bronze Age means in most dimensions, but through the narrowing of the cranial vault, it indicates a certain degree of mixture with the Iron Age Keltic people. This excellent series, in agreement with that from Berkshire, proves conclusively that the Bronze Age people did not die out in England but kept on mixing steadily with the Keltic invaders and survived racially into Saxon times.
The Saxon invasions of the British Isles were followed by those of the Danes, who began raiding the British Isles in the eighth century. The Danes, many of whom were actually Norwegians, took the part of England in which the Saxons had become densely settled, but they also raided extensively in the north of Scotland and in Ireland. Very few skulls of these Danes are available for study, but they belong, almost without exception, to the expected northwestern Nordic variety88 Neither a series of six males from the Orkneys, nor of fourteen from various places in Ireland, differs from the type of the Saxons. The further Germanic invasion of the Normans, after their sojourn in France, took place in such late times that the remains of these Normans still repose in Christian cemeteries, and are subjected to the same restrictions which protect the skeletons of the solvent recently deceased from the hands of the anthropologist.
The West Germans who invaded Bavaria, southwestern Germany, northern Switzerland, and Austria, transformed previously Keltic and Illyrian regions into permanent areas of Germanic speech and culture. The tribes most fully responsible for this were the Franks, the Alemanni, the Bajuvars, and the Thuringians. The skeletons contained in the cemeteries used by these peoples during the first centuries of their settlement have been extensively studied, and it is not difficult to determine to what extent the Germanic type, as exemplified by the Hanoverians, Anglo-Saxons, and Goths was implanted in these regions.
The Bajuvars, the ancestors of tlte Bavarians, retained the original Germanic head form in their new home, with the cranial index meaii of 75 to 76 in various series.89 (See Appendix I, col. 44.) Their stature, about 168 cm., was moderately tall, and their cranial type, in most if not all metrical and morphological features, was reminiscent of their northern ancestors; but in a few of the smaller groups an approximation to the Keltic form may be suspected. In every local series, however, the head form remains constant, and there are very few brachycephals in any of them. The ancestors of the Hessians, if we may judge by a few examples, were apparently likewise dolichocephals90 of the usual North German form.
The Alemanni may be studied by means of two principal series; a small one of twenty skeletons from Oberrotweil in Baden,91 and a large one of over two-hundred from Augst,92 in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. The series from Baden, while retaining the usual Germanic cranial index, assumes in other respects the metrical character of the Keltic peoples whom the Alemanni succeeded, and who, as a matter of fact, possessed the same cranial index mean of 75 to 76. One must interpret this evidence from Baden as an indication that these Germanic invaders were to a large extent absorbed by previously settled Kelts, at least in the village which used this cemetery and its immediate neighborhood.
The Alemanni skulls from Switzerland are, as a group, high mesocephals with a mean of 78, and include a considerable number of brachycephalic crania. On the whole, the total series resembles that of the Keltic predecessors of the Alemanni, but the stature increased to a mean of 168 cm., and the cranial index of the entire group was gradually lowered. In the fifth century, 50 per cent of the Aargau Alemanni were brachycephalic, in the seventh century, 44 per cent, and in the eighth, 24 per cent. Coincidentally, the mean cranial index was reduced over this three hundred year span from 80.2 to 77.5. Thus the Germanic element, or perhaps a Germanic-Keltic blend, increased at the expense of the earlier population, and this increase was, as we shall see later, destined to become, in parts of Switzerland, permanent.
The Thuringians, who are known to us through a series from the Saale Valley in Germany, and through others from several sites in Bohemia,93 practiced the unusual custom, for Germans, of deforming the head by annular constriction. Enough undeformed crania are left, however, for one to determine their racial type. The Thuringians were purely dolichocephalic. In none of these groups has a single round-headed skull been found. The skulls are, in fact, longer headed than the normal Anglo-Saxon and Hanoverian basic type and bear certain resemblances to the original Iron Age Danish group, and, at the same time, to the Hallstatt crania of the same region in which they are found. One may state definitely they are not of Keltic type, and these people had apparently not mixed to any extent with the Boii who had preceded them and from whom Bohemia derived its name. Like the Boii, however, the Thuringians were not destined to remain long on Bohemian soil, for this fertile plain which had been subjected to constant farming since the beginning of the Danubian Neolithic was soon to be taken permanently by the Slavs in the early period of their great expansion.
The Germanic settlement of Austria, including the Tyrol, was a complicated process, involving the Alemanni, the Bajuvars, the Lombards, and the Goths. The Alemanni were the earliest, and the Bajuvars the most important. In the mountains, the Lombards settled the southern Tyrolese valleys, the Bajuvars those to the north. In the meanwhile, the Huns contributed a mongoloid element, diluted through mixture with the Gepidae. During the seventh century, the picture was further complicated by a temporary Slavic expansion which may have left human traces in certain of the Tyrolese valleys. Throughout all this turmoil, the Romanized Rhaetians still maintained their ethnic integrity in the remoter spots, as is witnessed by the survival of Ladino speech.
A study of the Austrian crania of the centuries of Germanic settlement, including for the most part those of Bajuvars, shows them to have been largely Nordic, of the usual northern type.94 A small series of special interest is that of 26 Lombard crania from two sites: from Nikitsch in the Oberpullendoff district of Burgenland, and Vinzen, near Regensburg, in Lower Austria; both dating from the fifty year interval which the Lombards spent north of the mountains before their final burst into Italy in 568 A.D.95 Eight skulls are those of the usual Germanic variety of Nordics, with some exceptionally tall- and large-skulled individuals, while five others ranging in cranial index from 77 to 93, show in their flat faces and broad nasal bones clear traces of mongoloid mixture. A single male, in the Nikitsch series, was strikingly different from the others; a short-statured Armenoid or Dinaric, with typfral brachycephalic skull, occipital flatten-ing, sloping forehead, and other Near Eastern features. He was obviously a stranger incorporated into the composite Lombard camp, either a local Dinaric or an Asiatic. In earlier times, the Roinans had stationed both Syrians and Scotchmen in the Tullnerfeld as garrisons;96 hence the ethnic heterogeneity in this region was chronic.
The culmination of the overland expansion of the Germans in the southwest was the conquest of Gaul by the Franks. Marching from the middle and upper Rhineland, they followed the river valleys across Belgium and into the valleys of the Seine and Maine, which became the seat of their political activities. When they arrived in this region, they were still pagan, which was an advantage, for under the leadership of Clovis they were able to embrace the currently popular brand of Christianity. This helped them to win favor with the Rornans, and was an important factor in their success. The Gepidae and Vandals, who had become Christian much earlier, belonged to the schismatic Arian sect which was then in disfavor.
These German invaders brought into France and Belgium little which was new in the way of material culture, and the continuity of the older tradition shows clearly that a racial change in the total population, south of the Flemish plain where Frankish is still spoken, could not have been complete. During the four centuries of Frankish rule in France and in the hilly provinces of Belgium the language of the common people, which remained a form of Latin, prevailed over the speech of the conquerors, with the result that the national language reemerged as a Romance tongue. This sequence of linguistic events stands in striking contrast to the situation in England, where Keltic, which had never been completely downed by Latin as in France, gave way rapidly and permanently before Germanic speech.
There are enough regional skeletal series of the Frankish period in France and Belgium to permit some study of their local characters. The skeletal remains from Boulogne97 and other towns along the English channel are all long-headed and of an Anglo-Saxon racial type, which confirms the historical record that these regions were settled by seafaring Saxons rather than by Franks. The coastal distribution of Saxon place names in Nor-mandy and eastern Brittany supports this identification. On the opposite frontier of France, at Collognes, near the western end of Lake Geneva,98 the descendants of the Burgundians had become brachycephalic, and almost indistinguishable from their Neolithic predecessors who had lived at Vaureal, a few kilometers away.
Aside from these marginal and collateral groups, the Franks themselves did not differ greatly from place to place. The most extensive Belgian series is that from Cipley in Hainaut, that of France is Mrs. Wallis's series drawn from most of the Frankish territory in the northern part of the country.99 (See Appendix I, col. 45.) These series show clearly that the Franks were a moderately variable group, but differing as a whole from the basic North German type from which they were presumably derived. Although individuals belonged to this type, the Franks as a whole re-sembled the Keltic peoples who had occupied Belgium and northern France before them. This resemblance included the common possession of a cranial index of about 76, and a cranial vault height of 132 mm. No particular difference can be found between the Merovingian Franks and the local Kelts in cranial dimensions or form, except for one important fact: instead of falling between the Kelts and the other Germans, in many metrical criteria the Franks slightly exceed the Kelts themselves. This is true of facial and cranial vault indices. The stature of the Franks, furthermore, is on a Gaulish level, with a mean of 166 cm. for males from Belgium, and indications that in France it was even lower.
The conclusion to be drawn from this comparison is that the Franks acquired their Keltic-like major physical form in the Rhineland, or the southwestern part of Germany in general, before the Saxons drove them to France and to the Low Countries. Here, whatever mixture took place between them and the previously installed Keltic population made little or no racial difference. This conclusion is supported by the evidence from Baden, that the Alemanni had likewise, from the beginning of their so-journ in southwestern Germany, succumbed to Keltic mixture. Except along the Channel coast, the Germanic invasions of France and southeastern Belgium furnished nothing novel to the ultimate racial composition of these countries. That of the Kelts, on the other hand, reënforced by these Merovingians, was of some importance. The summary of our information concerning the racial origins and dispersion of the early Germanic peoples may be stated briefly and simply. At the beginning of the local Iron Age, a new people, bearing a Hallstatt type of culture, entered northwestern Germany and Scandinavia. These invaders were of the usual central European Nordic type associated in earlier centuries with the Illyrians. Through mixture with the local blend of Megalithic, Corded, and Borreby elements, these newcomers gave rise to a special sub-type of Nordic which was characterized by a larger vault and face, a heavier body build, and a skull form on the borderline between dolicho- and mesocephaly.
The Germanic tribes that wandered over Europe during the period of migrations belonged essentially to this new type. Exceptions were the Alemanni and Franks, who, in southwestern Germany, assumed a Keltic physical guise, which they spread to Belgium, France, and Switzerland, countries already familiar with the Kelts in person. Other exceptions were the coastal Norwegians, to whom for the first time civilization was now brought in significant quantity. In the shelter of their chilly fjords the new Nordics blended with the hunters and fishermen left over from the age of ice, who, through this new genetic vehicle, were assured permanent survival.
(Chapter VI, section 8)
ConclusionsIt is unnecessary to dwell long upon the conclusions reached in this chapter. They may be stated very simply and briefly.
The predominant peoples of the Iron Age in Europe as well as in central Asia, the West-Asiatic highlands, and India were Indo-European speakers. For some mysterious reason as yet incompletely understood, various branches of this linguistic stock underwent periods of rapid expansion during which the human beings who spread these languages migrated in many directions and disseminated their physical type as well as their speech among other peoples. There had, however, been comparable expansions before this. The conquest of the cold brought human beings into parts of the world where only Neanderthal men and lower animals had lived, under equivalent climatic conditions, before them. In the absence of competition and in the abundance of game, they were able to multiply until they were sufficiently numerous to satisfy the requirements of their environment. The retreat of the ice and the shifting of belts of climate had precipitated other movements which may have taken the form of expansions, and the discovery of agriculture and animal husbandry, of course, gave rise to that expansion which Childe calls the Neolithic Revolution.
The Danubian invasion of central Europe from the east may be considered as an isolated wing of this movement, that of the swineherds who entered Europe from the southeast, another. In the same way, we may consider the migration of the megalith-builders by sea; the wanderings of the Bronze Age brachycephals, by land and water; and the rapid movements of the Corded people across the plains of eastern and central Europe, as successive and at the same time parallel expansions. Thus, this business of expansions was not initiated by the Indo-European speakers. If we knew the languages of the peoples who proceded them, we might in each case find parallel linguistic as well as racial circumstances.
The principal point to this chapter is that the Indo-European languages were, at one time, associated with a single, if composite, racial type, and that that racial type was an ancestral Nordic. We have determined this through a study of the skeletal remains of peoples known to have spoken these languages at or near the time of their initial dispersion from their several centers. The sub-variety of Nordic concerned in each case varied, and the variations usually depended upon mixture with other peoples, amalgamated during the process of differentiation and expansion. Nevertheless, the various brands of Nordic so produced were still very much alike.
Another result of the investigation pursued in this chapter is the discovery that the mysterious Urnfields people, who began, toward the end of the Bronze Age, to destroy their skeletal evidence and did not cease this practice until well into the Iron Age, were probably Nordics. Hence the smoke veil has been lifted and we may be reasonably sure of what happened. Under this screen the Nordic-like Early and Middle Bronze Age peoples of central and eastern Europe became Iron Age Indo-Europeans; no important change of race, then, took place in the focus of Urnfields development, that is, in eastern Germany, Poland, and the Ukraine. It is likely that no important change of language occurred there either.
Since, as we have seen, the Early Bronze Age central Europeans were racially a Corded-Danubian blend, a concordance of racial facts with the most recent linguistic deductions would make the following proposition likely:
The Danubians who settled the fertile plains and valleys of eastern and central Europe already spoke basic Indo-European; the Finno-Ugrian-Caucasic blend which produced this linguistic entity took place before their migration westward. The introduction of Altaic words, particularly those concerned with care of the horse, were infused into the previous Indo-European linguistic blend at the time of strongest Corded influence in central Europe, which produced the Aunjetitz culture.
This reconstruction helps to support Nehring's conclusion that the Danubians were the first speakers of Indo-European languages on European soil, and that Indo-European may be divided into two chronological levels without reference to the Centum-Satem division. If the original agricultural and cattle-raising complex was connected with the Danubians, the horse element with its Altaic linguistic connections would belong to the Corded. By this argument, we may construct a reasonably complete concurrence between the three disciplines: physical anthropology, archaeology, and linguistics.
At this point, a word of caution is needed. We must not carry the associations suggested in this chapter too far, and above all we must not form the opinion that the terms Nordic and Indo-European are inseparable. Indo-European speakers, from the moment of their initial dispersion, began mixing with other peoples, and the specific association between language and race found in this instance has by now been largely dissipated. Furthermore, the Nordic race as we have studied it in Europe was formed from the union of two or more widely distributed and essentially related racial types. It is quite possible and even likely that similar combinations of the same elements took place elsewhere, and that other Nordics may have arisen without reference to Indo-European speech. Furthermore, we must remember that, although most Iron Age Nordic groups of which we have literary descriptions were wholly or partially blond, we cannot be sure that all prehistoric skeletal material which seems Nordic in an osteological sense was associated with blond soft parts; we must also remember that the "Nordics" in the living sense have no monopoly on blondism.
Distribution of Bodily Characters(a) Stature and Bodily Form
Before venturing to draw up a schematic classification of races within the white family, let us review some of the better known racial criteria from the standpoint of spatial distribution. The use of maps to show the distribution of means in a single metrical character is one of the oldest and commonest illustrative devices employed in the study of race. It has, in fact, formed the basis for several systems of racial classification, based upon geographical correlations between two or more characters. Such classifications ignore individual linkages in the characters involved, and subordinate the position of the individual as a racial entity. They are of necessity based on few characters, and the races so postulated are correspondingly ill defined.14 This abuse of cartography should not, however, hinder the use of maps in a purely demonstrative sense.
In this and the two following sections, we present four such maps, representing the distributions of stature, the cephalic index, head size, and hair and eye pigmentation.15 These four characters were chosen from the total body of criteria because they are the only ones in which it is possible to overcome, to a satisfactory degree, the obstacles of paucity of data and technical inconsistency. Not one of the four is completely accurate, but all are accurate enough for present purposes.
A second European area of tall stature is the Dinaric mountain zone, the nucleus of which stretches along a narrow belt from Croatia to the Drin River in Albania, and which reaches its peak in Montenegro. Here one finds statures as tall as those in the north, and, in the heart of the area, taller. The origin of this Dinaric giantism is obscure, since the prehistoric archaeology of this region is almost unknown, and the crania documents from later times inadequate. We know that the Bell Beaker people settled here in some numbers, but hesitate to attribute to them alone the excessive height of modern Dinarics.
A third area is found in southwestern Russia, on the northern shore of the Black Sea, in the Ukraine; here Atlanto-Mediterranean factors seem largely responsible. On Asiatic territory the countries occupied by the non-mongoloid Turkomans and by the Iranian-speaking Kurds are seats of tall stature, as is the kingdom of Iraq, whose inhabitants have been tall since the days of the Sumerians.
One other principal area of tall stature, which is merely suggested within the limitations of the present map, is the Hamitic center located in East Africa. One recalls the giantism of the pluvial inhabitants of Kenya, which has apparently been perpetuated in the great height of living Hamites who inhabit the Horn of Africa and the western shore of the Red Sea. The most thoroughly Hamitic of the North African Berbers, the Tuareg, are as tall as northwestern Europeans. The tall stature zone of northern Africa is centered in regions of the Sahara occupied by nomadic Berbers, and extends itself into the fertile stretch of Africa Minor where these people have settled after invasions.
Turning to the consideration of short stature, we find that, aside from the far north and the territories occupied by recent Mongol invaders, it is concentrated today in the very regions most affected by early Neolithic migrations of short, food-producing Mediterraneans - namely, the western Mediterranean countries, from central France to Sicily, and the Danubian culture area, especially in its eastern and trans-Carpathian segment.
In general, one cannot over-simplify a distribution map dealing with a character as complex as stature, since south of the Arctic circle there are no large zones or major trends, and in most of the sub-areas a complicated sequence of historical events has taken place which has brought in a succession of peoples with different statures. Furthermore, different environmental stimuli operating in various places and at varying times have further served to complicate the picture.
The distributions of weight and bodily form, if these criteria could also be completely plotted, would make maps as interesting as that of stature. What information we possess suggests that they would be much simpler and more easily interpreted. In weight, for example, there would be one large zone in which the adult males in middle life would average over 150 pounds, with individuals in the two hundred class common, and this zone would correspond to the northwestern area of tall stature, and to adjacent parts of Germany, Holland, and Belgium. The center of the Dinaric zone would likewise be one of heavy weights, but the rest of Europe would run, for the most part, at least twenty pounds lighter.
In the long stretch of arid countries reaching across North Africa and Egypt into Arabia, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan, light weights would be the rule, regardless of stature, and this would likewise be a zone of predominantly linear, or long and narrow, bodily habitus. Stocky build, on the other hand, would also be found to have little relationship to stature, since some of the tallest northern peoples and some of the Dinarics would be plotted as lateral. Sex differences in both stature and gross size would be found greatest in northwestern Europe, as among Upper Palaeolithic peoples, and least in eastern Europe and among western Mediterraneans. In general total bulk, regardless of stature, seems partly a function of environment, and excessive bodily volume is suggestively centered in cool, damp regions, while thin, light-bodied people are most frequently encountered in deserts. Great differences in size between the sexes seem commoner among large than among small peoples, and are most pronounced in the regions where Upper Palaeolithic strains survive in most concentrated solution.
Distribution of Bodily Characters(b) Head Form, Head Size, and Other Metrical Characters of the Head and Face
Next to stature, which is of interest to many others besides anthropologists, our data are fullest on the cephalic index, for this ratio has been the favorite of both professional and amateur students of race ever since its invention by Retzius in 1842. The same remarks on the method of plotting the stature map apply to that of the cephalic index (Map 6). Here the only region of comparative uncertainty lies in the southeastern corner, in Iran, where some rather extensive boundary stretching has been practiced.
The distribution of the cephalic index within the area covered by this map is a complex affair, and cannot be interpreted hastily. Many factors and many events have contributed to this state of complexity, which the map only partly represents. One must remember that, as in the stature map, the scattered bands and villages of Lapps have been schematically united into a nucleus in northern Scandinavia, Finland, and the Kola Peninsula. Furthermore minority groups such as Jews, Gypsies, and others, have been omitted, since in no region large enough for schematic representation are they found in a majority.
The most striking feature of the map, and in fact, almost its only uniformity, is the steady band of almost pure dolichocephaly which extends south of the Mediterranean from the Atlantic coast of Morocco across North Africa, Egypt, Arabia, and Persia into Afghanistan; to continue. off the map, over Khyber Pass and into the Indus Valley. This band represents the greater Mediterranean race in its post-Pleistocene homeland. Small spots of mesocephaly in the Moroccan mountains, in Kabylia and in the Aures, and along the Tunisian coast, show the relatively restricted zones of survival of earlier Mediterranean mesocephals and, to a lesser extent, of Pleistocene North African men; except for the Tunisian coastal centers, where the strong concentration of Punic and European populations in pre-Arab times is no doubt partly responsible.
The extreme long heads, concentrated in the Hoggar and in parts of the Algerian plateau, are the Tuareg and the purer families of ancestral nomadic Berbers, preserving the head form which they brought from East Africa, their Hamitic homeland. The heavily dotted stipple represents Mediterraneans of Neolithic age and Arabs, with an infusion of the Hamites, while the light dotting represents more clearly the Hamites themselves. This is a distinction which should not be pressed too far, but which may still be made, for the lightest stippling is found in nomadic Berber strongholds.
Farther east the desert tribes of Libya, and the oasis people of Siwa, are extremely long-headed, in a truly Hamitic fashion; the inhabitants of Sinai, and some of the tribes in the Nejd, as some of the Mesopotamian Bedawin, and groups in Iran, fall into the same category. Here in the east we approach the zone of hooked-nosed long heads, quite different in facial form from the Hamitic increment farther west. Around the Persian Gulf is a ring of higher indices, representing a maritime population which we shall encounter later in the coastlands of southern Arabia, off the present map. The long headedness of inland Arabs, whether nomadic or agricultural, continues without a break south of the present map into Yemen and to the northern and western borders of the Ruba' el Khali.
In Europe itself, long-headed total populations are rare. Only in parts of Portugal, in fact, are regional indices under 76 to be found at all. Europe on the whole is a brachycephalic or mesocephalic continent. Mean indices between 76 and 79, belonging to high dolichocephals and low mesocephals with brachycephals in the minority, are found in a few places. One, the most continuous area, lies in the northwest; it includes the British Isles, most of Holland, parts of Belgium, and the Palatinate - old Frankish country - and most of the Scandinavian Peninsula, along with the coastal lands of Finland, and with Esthonia and Latvia.
The regions just enumerated may be considered in a way a unit; most authorities would call this, as with stature, the Nordic racial territory, and so it is in the accepted sense. Another belt is that of the Iberian Peninsula, the Dordogne Valley in France, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearics, the toe of Italy, and Crete. To this may perhaps be added part of the corresponding area in the British Isles, and parts of the eastern site of the Balkan Peninsula. This is what remains of the brunet Mediterranean race per se in Europe; isolated island groups, a peninsula which throughout history has been more African than European, and remnants of the old Mediterranean bloc of the shores of the Black Sea and the Aegean.
This central European brachycephaly may not be treated as a completely unified entity. In the first place, we find its westernmost nucleus in southern France in the Massif Central, which is the home of the Alpine race in its truest form. Here extreme round headedness such as is seldom exceeded elsewhere in the world is located. The valley of the Rhóne forms a partial gap, beyond which lies another brachycephalic zone in eastern France, especially in Burgundy and the Jura, and adjacent portions of Belgium. Here again we find a high zone of brachycephaly, accompanied, as we have seen, with a greater stature than that found in the western Alps, and as we shall see later, a lighter pigmentation. Here is another brachycephalic nucleus representing a different racial concretion from that first mentioned. One observes that in the upper Rhine Valley and in northwestern Switzerland, as in Lower Austria, this zone of extreme brachycephaly is broken, while a northern colony of it is found in Bavaria, Bohemia, and Silesia.
In the Tyrol, southeastern Switzerland, and most of northern Italy is another nucleus, which is the home of the western branch of the Dinaric group, associated largely with the center of Rhaeto-Roman speech. These linguistic fossils are survivors of the pre-Germanic population of this region. Most of Austria itself runs longer headed, owing, no doubt, to the strong concentration of Germanic peoples there. The Dinaric region proper, extending from Bosnia to southern Albania, follows the mountain range, which in turn lies close to the Adriatic coast. The center of highest brachycephaly lies in southern Albania, in the Tosc country, well south of the center of tallest stature. The southern brachycephalic zone, of which it is the nucleus, extends far into Greece, along the western coast, from Epirus to the Gulf of Corinth.
The curve of the Carpathians forms a brachycephalic barrier, within which all peoples represented, except for the Hungarian Szeklers, are very round headed. This infra-Carpathian brachycephaly pervades all other groups regardless of language, culture, or history. Beyond it lies the relatively long-headed expanse of the Polish, Ukrainian, and Moldavian plain.
As we turn to Asia Minor we see other instances of extreme regional brachycephaly. The Armenians, some of the Syrians, especially the Alouites, Lebanese, and Druses, are the roundest headed of all in this region. The Anatolian Turks, being typically brachycephalic, in this respect resemble modern representatives of the pre-Turkish peoples, of this region, notably the Armenians.
The cephalic index map, like that of stature, shows that the Mediterranean Sea is by no means a racial unit. Some of the lowest and some of the highest cephalic indices in the world are found in close proximity to its shores. Another notable lack of continuity is seen in the far north. The hunting and fishing peoples, so consistently short of stature, are very variable in head form. The Lapps alone are consistently and extremely brachycepjialic. The original mesocephalic head form typical of the Finns in their native habitat may still be observed in the regions occupied by Finnish survivals in central and northern Russia.
On the whole, the distribution of the cephalic index in Europe and adjacent countries is extremely significant when one remembers the historical and archaeological background, but viewing its present distribution alone one might easily form numerous false ideas about racial origins and continuities. It is sufficiently clear, however, that the zone of extreme brachycephaly in central Europe has several nuclei, and is separate from the Anatolian-Caucasic center and from that of the mongoloids of central Asia.
One last factor remains to be mentioned, and this is the ultra-peripheral distribution of moderately high cephalic indices on the very westernmost fringe of Europe. One notices that southwestern Ireland has a mean cephalic index of 80 or over. Little spots of this same condition occur in northern Scotland, the Shetlands, the West Frisian island chain, in Fehmarn, and in points along the western Norwegian coast. This hypermarginal brachycephaly is peripheral to the dolichocephaly of northwestern Europe, which in its turn is a survival. The suggestion is that this round-headed tendency of the extreme western fringe is in the nature of a Palaeolithic reemergence. The third map of this series (Map 7), is intended to show the distribution of absolute head size. Head size ideally should be a measure of the cubic capacity of the cranium, and capacity may be estimated upon the living by the use of the three dimensions, head length, head breadth, and auricular head height. Unfortunately, however, as already explained,17 auricular head height is for the most part an unreliable measurement,
Head size is, in the first place, wholly unrelated to head form. Some of the largest heads are found among both dolichocephals and brachycephals, and the same is true of some of the smallest heads. It seems, however, to be closely correlated with total bodily bulk, and hence with weight, although not with stature.18 This principle applies to other animals as well as to man. Brain size is, after all, a component element of bodily bulk, and the requirements of the organism in the matter of nerve tissue depend apparently upon total size rather than upon the relative degree of attenuation of extremities. We have seen that cranial size is an important racial diagnostic in the cranium, and there is every evidence that it is equally important in the living.
The map which shows the distribution of this trait is not, however, as reliable as the two which precede it. Lacunae have been filled in accordance with general racial trends and by the conversion of modern cranial material to living standards by fixed additions to allow for the soft parts.19 The areas which are least reliable are Portugal, Spain, much of France, and portions of western Germany. The Balearics and Sicily were filled in by inference. However, the data are sufficient to assure us that the general picture is correct, although the boundaries may well be inaccurate. The map will serve our purpose, and cannot lead us far, astray, if we do not lean too heavily on it, or follow it in too much detail.
The first impression that the map gives is one of a concentric distribution of head size with Germany, Belgium, and northern France as the focus of greatest volume. From this focus bands of diminishing size stretch like bars dexter to the Persian Gulf. This pattern is broken in the Middle East by the intrusion of relatively large-headed mongoloid peoples from central Asia, and of non-mongoloid dolichocephalic Turkomans, Azerbaijanis, and Kurds.
Studied in greater detail, where detail is justified, this basic pattern does not break down, but other facts appear. In the first place, Ireland as a whole has the largest heads of any country excepting Belgium. A vertical line divides Ireland into a western, and especially southwestern half, with heads as large as the largest elsewhere, and an eastern, and especially northeastern, half with heads which although smaller, are still large by European standards. Iceland again is an area of maximum head size, and so are the Shetland Islands. Small regions of large head size appear along the Norwegian coast. The regions mentioned in this paragraph undoubtedly represent the maximum survival of Pleistocene European man of the Brünn race in the northwestern portion of the continent. They coincide to a certain extent with the hypermarginal distribution of high mesocephaly and low brachycephaly.
But there remains the bloc of large heads running from the Seine to East Prussia, and concentrated in Belgium and in the lower Elbe country. Here large heads are associated with brachycephaly, of varying degrees, but usually of a moderate order. This region has a much larger-headed population than has most of Sweden and Norway, and most of England and Lowland Scotland. The brachycephals of this large continental bloc all have head lengths which elsewhere go with dolichocephaly. The Fehmarn islanders, for example, whose small home is just south of the Danish Archipelago, have a mean head length of 193.5 mm., and a cephalic index of 83.6.20 Their head breadth of 161.8 mm. is tremendous. In our historical chapters, we encountered but one racial type which consistently presented the combination of brachycephaly with great head lengths. That was the type found at Afalou and Ofnet, and in the Danish middens, and which was given the name Borreby. As will be seen later, the Borreby race has reemerged in the country where it was located during the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods, and it has become the most important single racial element in modern Germany.
Palaeolithic and perhaps Corded survivals are to be seen in the large heads of the Finnish coast and northeastern Sweden; the track of German colonists in late mediaeval times is evident in Hungary and Rumania. The Basques have heads of considerable size also, and there seems to be a significant nucleus of large heads in the Dordogne, where, as will be seen later, a long-headed, brunet Upper Palaeolithic survival seems indicated, as in west-central Wales.
The zone of moderate head size lying between Germany and Poland on the one hand, and eastern Russia and the Caucasus on the other, seems to reflect an earlier Danubian and Nordic condition. In North Africa and southern Italy, small or medium-sized heads seem marginal and go with the older Neolithic Mediterranean element. The Hamites brought larger heads, such as are to be found today among Galla,21 and among other predominantly Hamitic peoples.
The tendency of the Hamites to large head size has divided the erstwhile unified Mediterranean racial zone, which stretches across the whole lower quarter of the map, into a western and an eastern compartment. The eastern sector, from Cyrenaica to India, shows the small head size which apparently formed a cranial interlude in North African history between the end of the Capsian and the Hamitic invasions. As one leaves the map and passes into southern Arabia and Baluchistan, the heads grow smaller than any here designated. Here total length-breadth combinations of 328 mm. are found in the Hadhramaut and among Brahui. This zone which stretches along the northwestern shore of the Indian Ocean is part of the so-called Veddoid racial area, which does not extend into Europe or any region nearly approaching it. The racial character of the people inhabiting this zone can best be described in a more detailed chapter to follow.
One of the most important results of the plotting of the head-size map is the discovery that the brachycephals of the white race and of Europe are not at all a unit in this respect, since they follow general racial zones which have no reference to head form. One may divide them into several sub-groups on the basis of head size alone. The Lapps, who in their pure form are hyperbrachycephalic, have very small heads. The other brachycephals of northern Europe, those concentrated in Germany, southern Denmark, Belgium, and France, form the largest-headed group. These may be considered, tentatively at least, of Borreby derivation or inspiration. The Alpines of the Massif Central in France separate themselves clearly from this nucleus, with an emphasis on moderate head size. Although the regional data in France is poor, in this case it is sufficient to warrant the present conclusion. The Dinarics are also moderate in head size, despite the coincidence of taller stature; only the Montenegrins themselves and the Albanians north of the Drin have truly large heads. The extreme hyperbrachycephals of southern Albania and Epirus are again of medium head size, like the Central French Alpines. The brachycephals of the Hungarian plain, and of the Carpathians, are for the most part also moderate.
When we leave Europe and move to western Asia, we find that the Asiatic Dinarics and the so-called Armenoids are in some areas smaller headed than the European Dinarics; the Armenians themselves have heads approaching Dinaric standards, but they vary regionally, with the largest heads in the northeast, toward the Caucasus. The brachycephalic Turks of Asia Minor are actually small headed, as are most of the Syrian brachycephals and the Iranian-speaking round heads of the Pamirs. The fringe of round heads along the southern Arabian, Persian, and Baluchistan coasts are very small headed, in a quite un-European sense.
What are we to make of all this? The answer cannot be given as yet in final form, but several suggestions present themselves.
(1) Head size, being a correlate of gross bulk, seems in general to be associated with regions of relative chill and humidity, all else being equal. The water content of the human body is greater where evaporation is east. In this way the flaccid Teutons and the fog-wreathed Irish in their moors and bogs have the heaviest bodies and the largest heads, while the indigo-stained Arabs, living on the utmost margin of desiccation, reach the opposite extreme in liquid economy. Man is not a water-storing creature, like the cactus and the camel.
(2) The largest-headed peoples are unreduced survivors or counterparts of Upper Palaeolithic man, who was a large-headed and presumably large-bodied animal. This applies both to dolichocephals and brachycephals. Brachycephaly is a mutative incident which may occur in any region or race, and head size may be more important than head form as an indication of ultimate genetic derivation, again all else being equal.
It seems to me that somewhere between these two hypotheses lies the truth. Environment, which in the last analysis controls body size, must also eventually control the bulk of the head. But at the same time, genetic tendencies to absolute head size are inheritable, and without regard to head form. Hence early racial connections, under equal environmental conditions, may be better revealed by the size than by the shape of the vault. The heads of some people have remained constant in size and form; others have been reduced, brachycephalized, or both. But brachycephalization may take place without reference to body size, while reduction in head size is a corollary of general reduction. Here, as in general, the explanation of a given head size is an historical matter.
Other criteria of the head and face would be difficult to plot. Face size, in general, is larger among the larger-headed and taller peoples of the northwest, and among those of mongoloid affinity in the east. Most branches of the Mediterranean stock proper are characterized by relatively short and relatively narrow faces. The zone of long heads from Morocco to India is also a zone of small faces. This smallness, however, has as a rule no reference to the nose, which is one of the best racial criteria which we have, and one which is extremely significant. Unfortunately accurate charts cannot be made, since technical discrepancies render the use of statistics based on this organ almost useless in a large compilation.
The nasal index among European peoples is typically leptorrhine or mesorrhine. The southern Mediterranean belt is typified by moderately leptorrhine peoples; and in the eastern extremity, where aquilinity is the rule, extreme leptorrhiny is very common. The most leptorrhine area in Europe itself is the Dinaric region, particularly Montenegro and northern Albania, where mean nasal indices below 60 are encountered. In most of western Europe the noses are leptorrhine, but when one moves into Russia and the northeastern Balkans, mesorrhiny becomes the predominant form, and nasal indices increase perceptibly as one moves eastward, to a high mesorrhine or even platyrrhine level. Turkish-speaking peoples in the East, however, form an exception to this rule. Turkomans, Azerbaijans, and the like are, as a rule, extremely leptorrhine, more so than the inhabitants of Asia Minor and the Caucasus. On the opposite side of the map, the extreme western fringe of tall, large-headed, meso- to brachycephalic peoples is likewise characterized by a slight increase in the nasal index. The Palaeolithic survivors were not notably leptorrhine; they were, in fact, much less so than the Nordics and others who followed them.
If one were to study the form of the orbits and the shape of the external eye, with adequate data, a very interesting and significant distribution might be seen. For example, the distance between the eyes is relatively great among all of the Slavic and Finnish peoples of eastern Europe, and this dimension increases as one approaches mongoloid territory. It is of moderate size in almost all of northwestern and central Europe, but again becomes pronounced in Ireland, along the coast of Norway, and in the Alpine regions, where one may attribute this wide-eyed condition not to mongoloid influences but again to a Palaeolithic survival.
There are two zones of narrow inter-orbital diameters: (1) the entire Mediterranean zone from the Atlantic to India, and (2) the Dinaric zone reaching from the north of Italy to northern Greece. Again in the so-called Armenoid region of Anatolia and in Armenian territory itself. an extremely narrow inter-orbital distance prevails. This criterion may perhaps survive as a means of discrimination between facially characteristic Palaeolithic survivors and mongoloids, on the one hand, and basic Mediterraneans and Armenoid-Dinarics, on the other.
The size, robusticity, and general form of the lower law is again an excellent racial criterion, but there is not enough data to permit it to be plotted. The Mediterranean zone from Morocco to India is characterized by a light, shallow jaw, a narrow bigonial diameter, and a restricted height dimension between the lower dental border and chin. This is the typical Mediterranean mandible, whether one finds it in Spain or in Arabia. The heaviest jaws and greatest bigonial diameters are found in the northwestern European borderlands, and in eastern Europe, where mongoloid influence is strong. The relatively light, narrow jaw of many Dinarics and Armenoids again suggests that these types are for the most part brachycephalized forms of tall Mediterraneans.
(Chapter VIII, section 5)
Distribution of Bodily Characters
(c) Pigmentation, the Pilous System, and Morphology of the Soft PartsThe fourth and last of the general distribution maps (Map 8), is designed to show the distribution of progressive degrees of blondism in the European area. While data on hair and eye color are plentiful, much material has been collected without the use of scales; although it is possible to correlate this with standard material in most major areas, the judgment of the compiler nevertheless plays a greater part here than in the maps which show the distributions of purely metrical characters. Under these circumstances, it has seemed most useful to divide the existing materials into five broad classes, designated and distributed as follows.
The darkest stippling represents populations in which the hair is consistently black or dark brown (distinctions between these two shades are seldom valid), with less than ten per cent of a lighter hue. The accompanying eye color found in this brunet class is pure brown or black in over sixty per cent of the series; in most cases over eighty. Since all brunet white populations studied show some degree of mixed eyes22 (green, blue, or gray in conjunction with brown), a small minority of this type seems endemic in the white racial stock, and must not be construed as evidence of racial blondism. Skin color, which again is an important element in blondism, varies less among Europeans than do either hair or eye color, and is more difficult to use. Hence it has been omitted from consideration in the draughting of the pigment map.
The brunet hair and eye condition defined above, including a minimum of blondism, surrounds Europe and encroaches on all its borders, not excluding the Atlantic. North Africa, almost all of Asia on or off the map, Portugal, most of Spain, southern Italy, Greece, the Aegean fringes, and finally, the northern pastures of the Samoyeds, converge to encircle the world's one important nucleus of blondism.
The second most heavily stippled zone shown on the map, that of prevailingly brunet pigmentation, covers regions in which complete or partial blondism is not rare, but is definitely less common than a purely brunet condition. The width of this zone depends, of course, upon the latitude of the category assumed by the author. In the present map, it is relatively narrow, and includes central and northern Spain, central Italy, most of the Balkans, the Caucasus, and a narrow vertical belt in eastern Russia. The Lapps, in their purest discoverable form, seem to fit into this class rather than the purely brunet one. Islands of prevailingly brunet pigmentation occur far afield from the main zone, in parts of Wales, in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, in Crete, in the Jebel Druz, and in Luristan. The reasons for these exceptions are different in almost each case, and must be treated separately later.
This intermediate zone is again narrow, and again continues the general scheme of concentricity. An exception to this scheme is seen among the Ostiaks, a Finnish group living along the banks of the Obi River and its western tributaries. Bulgars and Vlachs possess more blondism than a class four stipple would show, but hardly enough for the intermediate class when taken en masse. Therefore three capsules of intermediate stippling in the Balkans indicate these tendencies in a schematic manner. The northernmost and the southwesternmost represent concentrations of Vlachs, the middle one of Bulgars.
Walloons of the province of Luxembourg, and southeastern Bavarian mountaineers, conversely, represent nuclei of intermediate pigmentation in blonder territory. One may postulate without difficulty that the Bavarian nucleus was once continuous with northern Italy through the Tyrol, for many Tyrolese are quite brunet, but the continuity has been broken by the Germanic advance in historic times up the Innthal. The refuge quality of the Austrian as well as of the Swiss Alps is conversely shown by the survival, since this Germanic thrust, of very blond local populations in the Lechthal and in other small,. isolated valleys. As for the Walloons of Luxembourg they quite palpably represent a survival of pre-Iron Age brachycephals in their highlands, through the period of Celtic and Frankish invasions.
The greatest difficulty of all in compiling this map lay in making the decision between what was predominantly blond, and what was merely more blond than brunet. If the eyes were almost uniformly light or light mixed, and the hair light brown or lighter in over fifty per cent of cases, the lightest group seemed indicated; if, in a majority of cases, the hair was dark or medium brown, or the eyes mixed, the second class was chosen. Sometimes both hair and eyes indicated the second lightest stipple. In the predominantly blond class, pure brunet pigmentation is less than ten per cent.
The greatest degree of blondism recognized is definitely nuclear and, in fact, almost glacial in its distribution. There is, however, a nucleus within a nucleus; a center of lesser blondism which seems truly hypermarginal. This is the partial blondism of the Danish islands, of parts of the Norwegian coast, of Iceland, and of the southwestern tip of Ireland. This inner nucleus apparently coincides with the survival of the oldest, immediately post-glacial population.
It is not unlikely that the original undifferentiated sapiens men, living in the Pleistocene, may have possessed a light brown or brunet white skin color, with black or dark brown hair and brown eyes. Different racial stocks which grew out of this common base by differentiation, mixture, or both, may have shown early tendencies to develop specialized variations of their own in pigmentation. Such tendencies are likewise seen within single species of ape, such as the gibbon, chimpanzee, and gorilla. The negroid races, for example, must. have formed, before the end of the Pleistocene, a progressive tendency toward an abundance of dense pigment cells in the skin, the fundus, and the iris; while the whites, before their dispersal from a common center, must already have developed a tendency, presumably recessive, toward blondism. The universality of some degree of blondism among whites and near whites everywhere makes it unlikely that it was ever confined to a single race or group of races within the White family.
Blondism is a state of partial depigmentation, due to the paucity of melanin granules in the skin, hair, and iris, and, with some types of pigment, to the small size of these granules. The pigment granules are composed of a substance known as melanin, the chemical composition of which has been roughly determined.23 Melanogenesis, the process by which melanin is formed, is "an intercellular enzymic oxidation process, in which an amino acid chromogen is converted, with the aid of catalytic copper, to the pigment melanin."24 It has been proved by experiments with rats and rabbits that a dietary deficiency in copper produces a pigment reduction,25 and that with the restoration of a normal diet, the animal's normal pigmentation will return. Hence blondism, being a phenomenon of pigment reduction, is presumably caused by a genetically controlled limitation of the oxidation process dependent upon the body's supply of copper. Blondism therefore may have originally been motivated as a response to a mineral deficiency through an endocrine agency of control. There is no reason now known why it should be limited to whites, but actually its appearance among members of other major racial groups is rare.
Although skin color is apparently a directly quantitative matter, hair color, it is now known, is determined by two different pigment factors. One is composed of oval or spindle-shaped cells of melanin, of varying size and frequency.26 When these cells are large and overlap, within the translucent body shaft which lies between the central canal and the outer horny layer of the individual hair, the hair appears black or dark brown. When the cells are smaller they appear yellowish or light brownish, although the chemical composition of the melanin is the same. The size of these cells, therefore, and their abundance within the hair cortex, determine the degree of blondism or brunet coloring.
The second pigment factor which influences hair color is rufosity. Red hair contains a fine stain, at first considered amorphous, which is now thought to be composed of extremely fine cells, probably slightly different in molecular structure from ordinary melanin.27 This stain may be present or absent, and if present may be faint or intensive. Thus it is both qualitative and quantitative in reference to ultimate hair color. If it coincides with large, dark melanin cells, the black color so caused may mask the rufosity in all but unusual lights, while if a large amount of it coincides with blondism, red hair is the result. It is likely that golden hair is caused by a combination of blondism with a slight degree of rufosity.
If one could test for rufosity accurately with all pigment shades, it would probably be seen that this character has no association whatever with blondism, but is a purely independent variable. That this is likely is shown by the fact that rufosity is completely uncorrelated with eye color.28 Thus rufosity may be wholly absent in many normal individuals, while the melanin cells are totally absent only in albinos. Rufosity may, by the same token, be lacking in entire races, and with better data it might be possible to discover the racial significance, if any, of this apparently functionless condition. Within the blonder segment of the white race, however, we know that rufosity has a regional and a racial connotation. Blond hair is readily divisible into two categories, golden and ash-blond (cendré), which are distinguished on the Fischer hair color chart. Light brown and brown hair shades similarly may be segregated on the same basis into two separate and parallel classes.
The pigmentation of the iris is more suited for refined analytical study than either skin or hair color. Skin tans and weathers, while hair bleaches with the sun and darkens with advancing age, until the advent of graying; the iris, on the other hand, retains its pigment pattern with relatively little change. If studied under constant light conditions, so that the pupil is contracted and the concentric muscle zones flattened, the iris is seen to be a detailed field of muscle-layers and pigment cells, of considerable complexity.
In all but albinotic eyes, the inner wall of the iris is permeated with melanotic pigment cells so overlapped as to make the iris, whether dilated or contracted, a perfect light-proof diaphragm. It is this pigment lining, reflected through several layers of outer iridical tissue, that gives a light eye its blue appearance. Additional pigment presents its true brown color. Thus in a mixed eye of complex pattern it is possible to plot the relative depths of different groups of pigment cells. Cells concentrated along the radial, dilating muscle fibers give the eye a rayed appearance, while those lumped about the concentric sphincters produce a zoning. In a black eye the surface pigment is so dense that it is impossible to see into the iris, but in a brown eye it is usually possible to make out some of the pattern. Many purely brunet eyes show a contrast between different brown-producing layers.
In purely light eyes, in which no surface pigment is seen, there are nevertheless differences in coloring which are readily noticeable and which may be used as criteria of racial differentiation. The principal distinction is that between the blue eye, which in its extreme form takes a deep sky-blue color, and the gray eye, which in its extreme form is almost white. Since these two forms grade into each other without a natural line of demarcation, the factor which distinguishes them must be considered quantitative rather than qualitative. Research on this subject does not seem as yet to have been done; we do not know what causes this difference, and can only repeat Bryn's speculation that it has something to do with the relative coarseness and opacity of the radial iris muscles, through which the pigment in the posterior walls of the iris is reflected.29
Geographically and in individuals, it is possible to make valid correlations between the four end types of hair and of eye blondism. The golden type of hair, whether blond or brown, tends to be associated with the bluer shades of eye, whether pure light or mixed; on the other hand, the ash blond type of hair usually goes with a grayish iris. At present there seems to be no direct reason for these linkages, but we have much to learn about these matters.
At any rate, when we apply this distinction to the map, we see that the golden-blue combination is commonest in the western half of our nuclear zone of light pigmentation, in Norway and the British Isles; while the ashen-gray combination is more typical of Sweden and of the lands east of the Baltic. In the western half of the blond nucleus, and especially in its British periphery, there is an asymmetry of linkage, for in Ireland, for example, a world's extreme ratio of light eyes is associated with hair which is often brown or dark brown. On the eastern side the opposite is true; in Poland and southern Russia ashen hair of a very light shade goes frequently with dark-mixed or brown eyes. These regional asymmetries weaken the total unity of blondism, but do not destroy it.
From further correlations between types of pigmentation and other characters, such as stature, bodily build, head size, head form, and face form, it is possible to show that the golden-blue variety, with rufosity, is partly associated with the old Palaeolithic hunting strain, while the ashen-gray extreme goes rather with the Iron Age Nordic range of types, and with eastern European blonds of various degrees of superficial mongolism. Within historic times the zone of frequent blondism stretched from north western Europe across the Russian steppes into central Asia where it touched China, but violent and rapid ethnic movements in Asia have nearly eliminated this eastern extension. We do not know how long ago the distribution map of blondism assumed its present concentric and glaciation-like character.
It is very probable that pigmentation is definitely capable of alteration in response to environment, through selection. Blonds in the tropics are at a disadvantage, particularly if living under primitive cultural conditions. A black skin with a profusion of sweat glands, like that of the African negro, must be better than a pinkish integument which is subjected to repeated burning and blistering, and incapable of tanning.30 In the iris, the pigment in the posterior wall acts as a completely light-proof diaphragm, and hence there can be no direct functional disadvantage to a gray or blue iris, as with that of an albino. But since the iris color seems to be, as Wilmer has shown,31 correlated with the pigmentation of the retina, eye blondism may serve to indicate the presence of a functional disadvantage. It is conceivable, but not as yet demonstrable, that the chocolate-brown pigment cells in the negro's fundus may give his optic nerve more comfort in the desert glare than the pinkish, almost pigmentless retina of the blond white man.
Black skin and a black eye, then, may be variables which are advantageous under hot, bright, equatorial light conditions. A partially depigmented skin and fundus condition can perhaps survive without disadvantage only in a climate where the light is weak. Blond hair, however, cannot be assigned any survival value of either a negative or a positive character. Until definite experimental evidence is at hand, we must postulate that only through its partial genetic linkage with skin and eye color is the blondism or darkness of hair determined, On the whole, the totality of evidence in regard to blondism as a unit indicates that this phenomenon is a recessive trait endemic in the white racial stock, and that it has become a major racial character only among groups of people living at one time under light conditions of sub-glacial intensity. This applies to the Upper Palaeolithic strain in part or as a whole, and to certain of the more northerly Mediterranean branches. The mongoloids and American Indians living under parallel conditions apparently lack the initial mutative tendency necessary for its development.
In the European zone of maximum blondism are included tall and short populations, long-headed and round-headed, eagle-beaked and snub-nosed; many such variations occur to which degree of pigmentation seems complacent. Within the two main types of blondism, racial sortings are clearer, but on the whole blondism alone assumes the character of an unlinked mutant.
Without actual maps, there is little use in reviewing the distribution of the pilous system and soft parts, in more than a cursory manner, since these will be discussed at greater length in the chapters to follow. Hair form, which according to Haddon is the most important racial criterion to be found in man, is of little use in distinguishing white sub-groups. Most European hair is straight or slightly wavy, although exceptional individuals in the straightest-haired groups have ringlet forms. Curly hair of this description is quite common in western Ireland and in Wales; it is also frequent in the whole of North Africa and in the western Mediterranean shorelands of Europe. Eastern Europe is predominantly straight haired, and as one approaches mongoloid territory this condition of course becomes more pronounced.
The amount of body hair on the adult male is closely correlated with the amount of beard, and both are linked with age, for a hairy man grows hairier as he becomes older. At the same time, baldness is most frequent among those with heaviest body hair and heaviest beards. Browridges, and other bony excrescences of a hypermasculine nature, are closely linked with excessive pilous development of the body and beard, and with a tendency to baldness. Europeans, on the whole, are among the hairiest-bodied and heaviest-bearded groups of men, being equalled or exceeded only by the Australians and the Ainu. Both negroid and mongoloid skin conditions are inimical to excessive hair development except upon the scalp.
The Mediterranean peoples, on the whole, are less hairy than other Europeans. Pure dolichocephalic Europeans, of normal Mediterranean type, whether blond or brunet, tend to a hairless chest and a patchy beard. Among Arabs a complete beard is rare, and is considered a sign of evil character. One must look upon great hairiness, and a great beard development, as well as a high incidence of baldness, as a multiple endocrine manifestation associated with relatively great sex differentiation in a masculine direction. Alpines and Central Europeans, in general, show an excess of this combination, and so do many Balkan peoples and Near Eastern Asiatics. This combination is in Europe associated with the non-Mediterranean element in the composition of the white stock, although in Asia the cleavage is not so clear. The baldness which is part of this complex is of genetic motivation, and differs in cause from the dry-scalped, fine-haired alopecia associated with extreme hair blondism.
The morphology of the external eye is also subject to regional distribution. High orbits, with no folds, are characteristic of Dinarics, and of most Near Eastern peoples; orbits of moderate height, and with a tendency to external folding in maturity and old age, go with long-headed peoples of both blond and brunet varieties, while a median fold, indicative of both a low orbit and a thick fat deposit in the eye region, goes rather with the Finnic and Slavic blond mesocephals and brachycephals. The true internal or mongoloid fold is not common in Europe and is found in numbers only in the east, in the Kalmuck and Tatar districts of Russia, and in the far north.
Extreme cragginess and ruggedness of facial features, including the forehead, the superciliary region, the malars, the jaws, and the nose, are associated with the western marginal fringe area, and especially with the region of largest heads and maximum Palaeolithic survival. Nordics and Mediterraneans, whether in Europe, North Africa, or southwestern Asia. have a maximum of facial relief, without this appearance of bony massiveness. The malars are laterally compressed, the nose thin and often beaked. Facial flatness, intensified by fatty deposits over the malars, while more typical of mongoloids, becomes characteristic in eastern Europe and extends into Poland, Finland, and Hungary.
The maximum nasality of the Near Eastern peoples, of whatever head form, is accompanied by a number of related features. One of these is the concurrency of the eyebrows over the nose, which is geographically centered in the Near East. Another is the predominant convexity of the nose as a whole, and the depression of the tip, especially in old age. In man the nose passes through a definite and continuous cycle of growth changes comparable in form, if not in degree nor in exact anatomical detail, to those found in the proboscis monkey. The nearest approach to the proboscis in the extent of nasal change is, however, found among Near Easterners from Armenia to Afghanistan. In Europe the same is true to a lesser degree in Albania and Montenegro.
A map showing the form of the nasal profile would have centers of convexity in the Dinaric area and throughout western Asia, with the exception of Arabia; centers of concavity would lie in the north of Scandinavia, and across the whole of eastern Europe from the Baltic onward. The rest of the map would be relatively undifferentiated, with all forms present, but the straight profile most common.
(Chapter 8, section 6)
Racial Classification within the White FamilyWe have reviewed some of the characters upon which race, in the sense of sub-divisions of the so-called white branch of living humanity, may be classified. It has become apparent from this review, as from the earlier chapters, that the "white" racial family is a composite amalgamation of peoples thrown together by accident of geography, blended into some semblance of homogeneity in major diagnostic features, and altered by environmental and cultural circumstances and by migration. Before attempting to propose a classification of living whites, however, it may be wise to pass in brief review the more important or more influential theories by which race has been classified in the past. The history of racial classification is a subject for a book in itself, and here we propose to limit our discussion to its minimum.
It is impossible to say when man began to classify himself into races. Knowledge of racial differences must, however, be as old as these differences, and must from the beginning have been a factor in their development. The Egyptians were well aware of the racial problem, and took pains, in their art, to differentiate between the various kinds of men that they knew. The Greeks likewise made classifications; both Hippocrates and Aristotle were strong environmentalists, as were the mediaeval Arab geographers who followed the classical tradition. Since these ancients and mediaevals wrote before the discovery of the bell-shaped curve (normal probability curve), probable error, correlation, or of the cephalic index, their system of classification was both observational and intuitive, and operated by the mechanism of generalization. Despite the work of the biometricians, and the mechanization of physical anthropology during the last half century, all important or influential systems of classification yet devised still operate on the same principle.
Aside from the ancients and their mediaeval followers, the modern period in physical anthropology begins with Blumenbach, whose system is still employed by most grade school geographers. Blumenbach, some one hundred and fifty years ago, divided mankind into the familiar white, black, brown, yellow, and red races, basing his primary classification upon skin color, although he considered other characters as well. In breadth of popular acceptance, his is still, in its simplest form, the most influential classification. During the first half of the nineteenth century, the world of science as well as the public was inclined to accept Blumenbach's divisions without too much protest, but in the period from 1860 to 1890, Europe was rife with attempts to classify mankind into orderly systems.32
In 1878 Topinard proposed a classification based not on skin color, but on hair form.33 Haeckel34 and Müller35 proposed the same diagnostic one year later. Topinard did not, however, rely on one character alone, but included skin color and nose form as subsidiary diagnostics. During this general period of activity systems were proposed by such varied authorities as Huxley, Geoffrey de St. Hilaire, and de Quatrefages;36 it was the last named, who, during the war of 1870, first prostituted the materials of physical anthropology for the purposes of nationalistic propaganda. The gauntlet flung down by de Quatrefages, who called the Germans "Huns," was seized by his enemy and converted into the more effective weapon of Nordicism. It remained for another Frenchman, however, to coin the word "Nordic." This was Deniker,37 who has had a greater influence upon the subsequent classification of race than any of his nineteenth century contemporaries, and who still remains the most important classifier. In view of the lack of scientific method available at his time - his classification, later modified slightly, was first published in 1889 - his intuitive genius and his grasp of patent situations were extraordinary. Born in Russia and educated in St. Petersburg as an engineer, he had travelled widely throughout eastern Europe and the Caucasus before he settled in Paris in 1876, at the age of twenty-four, to begin his career as an anthropologist.
The first step in Deniker's system was to divide mankind on the basis of a combination of hair form, hair and eye color, and nose form, with hair form as the principal diagnostic. He made six primary divisions, as shown on page 281.
A. Woolly Hair, Broad Nose.
B. Curly or Wavy Hair.
C. Wavy Brown or Black Hair, Dark Eyes.
D. Fair, Wavy or Straight Hair, Light Eyes.
E. Straight or Wavy Hair, Dark, Black Eyes.
F. Straight Hair.
Within these primary divisions he based his further classification upon combinations of skin color, nose form, stature, cephalic index, pilous development, browridges, and other characters. By this means he properly separated the Bushman into a separate class of group A; the Australian as well as the Dravidian went into group B, and were thus separated from a major "black race." Within the straight-haired class the Lapps, Mongoloids, and American Indians were arranged into what seemed then a reasonable order.
The white group, with which alone we are concerned, falls almost entirely into his C and D categories, with one segment in B. The table on page 282 gives this section of his classification in full.38
In that table, Deniker lists a number of races found both in Europe and outside that continent, of which eleven, not counting the Ainu, might be classified as basically white. His #5, the Ethiopian, is the Hamitic race of East Africa, with or without a slight negroid incremeflt; his #9, the Indo-Afghan, is the hook-nosed type of Mediterranean which we have found to extend from Mesopotamia to India across the highland belt, from at least the third millennium B.C. onward; his #8 is Armenoid. The inclusion of the Ethiopian and Assyrioid with Australians and Dravidians rather than with whites, while inexact, points, in the first case, to the negroid admixture of modern Ethiopians, and in the second, to a realization of the affinities of Australoids and Veddoids to the white group as a whole.
Besides these three, in effect, Hamitic, Armenoid, and Irano-Afghan, he finds two other white races outside the continent of Europe proper: these are his Arab and Berber. Thus we find a total of five morphologically white races in Asia and Africa; four of these are actually sub-divisions of the cranially unaltered basic Mediterranean stock.
In Europe itself he finds six races; the Littoral European, also called Atlanto-Mediterranean, is the tall Mediterranean associated in antiquity with Megalithic cultures, and may be related basically to Deniker's Ethiopian. His Ibero-Insular is the short Mediterranean race of Spain and the western islands, and corresponds to the Neolithic Mediterranean type in these regions. Deniker distinguished, therefore, between certain
of the basic sub-varieties of the Mediterranean family, and except for the categories Arab and Berber, this distinction is on the whole accurate. He was aware of the differences between the three most important surviving divisions; (a) Short Mediterranean, (b) Tall, Megalithic, and East African variety, and (c) Hook-nosed, Indo-Afghan or Irano-Afghan variety.
At the same time, he was aware of the distinction between the Alpines and Dinarics, both in form and in geographical distribution. In his placing of the blonds into a separate category, he was following a taxonomic system rather than an estimate of relationships. His Nordics are accurately defined on the basis of living peoples; they are given a cephalic index of 77 to 79, instead of a non-existent lower mean; and they are segregated from the blond brachycephals of central and eastern Europe.
In order to accommodate other racial elements not fully covered by these classes, Deniker devised certain sub-races: (1) The Northwestern sub-race, a division of the Atlanto-Mediterranean, to accommodate especially the dark-haired western Irish. (2)A Sub-Nordic, which differs from the Nordic in the possession of mesocephaly, a square face, and a turned-up nose; this was devised to accommodate peoples living to the east of the Baltic and in northern Germany. (3) The Vistulan race is a branch of the eastern European or Oriental. The Oriental is described as short statured (163-464 cm.); moderately brachycephalic (C.I. = 82-83); and possessing light yellow or flaxen hair, a square cut face, a nose which is frequently turned up, and blue or gray eyes. This race is associated with the eastern Slavs and Finns for the most part, while the Vistulan is a variety of the same race with shorter stature and mesocephaly. The last of Deniker's secondary races is the Sub-Adriatic, described as a slightly shorter, slightly less brachycephalic and blonder variety of Dinaric, with a stature of 166 cm., a C. I. of 82-85; and derived from a blend of Dinaric with Sub-Nordic.
Two other authorities of what might be called the prestatistical school deserve mention at this point - Sergi and Ripley. Sergi,39 whose main interest was the Mediterranean race, based his classification primarily upon the circumferential profile of the head when seen from above, and worked more with crania than with the living. His chief contribution was the realization of the basic unity of the Mediterranean race, in both its blond and brunet forms, and its connection with the bearers of European civilization. Thus he anticipated the findings of the archaeologists that the Neolithic economy was brought into the western world by Mediterraneans.
He also made it clear that the so-called Brown Race, in its dolichocephalic and leptorrhine or mesorrhine forms, was for the most part an extension of the same Mediterranean family into southern Asia. He divided whites into Eurafricans, which is another word for basic Mediterraneans, and Eurasiatics, under which he included all brachycephals of white affinity. Sergi anticipated the discovery not only of the unity and cultural importance of the Mediterraneans, but also the dual origin of the white race.
If the schoolchildren and the unerudite public at large still follow Blumenbach, and the anthropologists themselves devise classification-schemes based upon Deniker, the large intermediate group of educated laymen rely almost entirely upon Ripley.40 Ripley, writing in 1899, was aware of Deniker's work, but rejected it. He considered that Deniker had made the picture much too complicated, and that there were but three white races, the Teutonic (Nordic), the Alpine, and the Mediterranean. The Nordic and Mediterranean were old European branches of an earlier white stock, while the Alpines were immigrants from Asia who had brought agriculture and the whole Neolithic economy with them The Alpines, besides introducing a new physical type, parted the Nordics from the Mediterraneans geographically, so that the two might develop separately, and that the Nordics in particular might derive their tall stature and blondism from environmental causes in isolation.
The above brief exposition has many advantages. It is simple, it is lucid, it is easily remembered. It fitted into the linguistic picture of Aryan culture bearers plodding across Europe from their simple home in the Hindu-Kush, developed by nineteenth century philologists, although Ripley himself was vehement in his rejection of linguistics as a proper approach to racial study. At the same time it explained the newly-found and well-preserved Neolithic remains of the Swiss lake dwellings.
With such a simple scheme, it was easy for Ripley's followers to tack psychological characters to the three-fold framework, and the "Nordic with a genius for leadership and government," "the stolid, unimaginative. plodding but virtuous Alpine," and the "gay, artistic, and sexy Mediterranean soon followed. Hilaire Belloc's famous verses, published originally in the New Statesman, satirize this attitude perfectly.
"Behold, my child, the Nordic man,
And be as like him as you can:
His legs are long - his mind is slow
His hair is lank and made of tow.
And be as like him as you can:
His legs are long - his mind is slow
His hair is lank and made of tow.
"And here we have the Alpine race.
Oh! what a broad and brutal face.
His skin is of a dirty yellow
He is a most unpleasant fellow.
Oh! what a broad and brutal face.
His skin is of a dirty yellow
He is a most unpleasant fellow.
"The most degraded of them allRipley himself had little or nothing, in a direct sense, to do with this efflorescence of speculative psychology, for the attitude of differential racial values had been crystallized as early as Gobineau;41 but he did give the exponents of this school a facile terminology. Racial nationalism had been growing before Ripley's time; but he, for the first time, gave the laymen a racial classification which they could understand, and which could be converted into catchwords.
Mediterranean we call.
His hair is crisp and even curls
And he is saucy with the girls."
Mediterranean we call.
His hair is crisp and even curls
And he is saucy with the girls."
Like his predecessors, Ripley was discreet about the age of white men on European soil; only in the case of the Alpines was he willing to set a culturally stabilized date. In his day it was generally believed that the Neolithic went back to anywhere from eight to fourteen thousand B.C., and the Mesolithic period was not generally recognized. Furthermore the function of the glacier in regard to human habitat was but poorly comprehended. Ripley did, however, make one speculation about the survival of preglacial man in Europe; he postulated that some of the inhabitants of the Dordogne region in France might be Crô-Magnon descendants.
Some twenty years previously Verneau42 had remarked upon the resemblance between Guanche crania from the Canary Islands and these Crô-Magnon skulls, and had postulated a genetic relationship between the two peoples so separated in space and in time. In 1896 von Luschan and Meyer43 reaffirmed this relationship, and this endorsement prepared the way for a more accurate realization of the part played by survivors from the last glacial period in the modern peopling of Europe. It was soon realized that, if Upper Palaeolithic man could survive in the Canary Islands, he could persist elsewhere as well, and from this start arose the theory that the Crô-Magnon people had retreated northward with the glacier, and had survived in Scandinavia. Paudler,44 in his Die hellfarbigen Rassen, first put this thesis into digestible form, and distinguished between his "Dalo-Nordic" or "Fälish" (Günther), which is tall, long-headed, with a mesorrhine nose and short, broad face, and a "Teuto-Nordic" which is also tall and long headed, but has a long, narrow nose and face form. The first is considered to be the primary Crô-Magnon descendant.
From this thesis has arisen the idea, in conjunction with philology and archaeology, that the Germanic peoples, as descendants of Crô-Magnon, represent the racial and linguistic nucleus of the Indo-Europeans; that European Neolithic civilization and Indo-European speech both had their origin in northern Germany and Scandinavia; that the Corded people, a Nordic variety, originated and spread from here; and that in effect, the Nordic race, Indo-European speech, and European culture in its basic form, arose from Palaeolithic racial and cultural origins in this northwestern European glacial center. This theory, bolstered on the archaeological side by Kossinna,45 is popular in Germany, but is by no means endorsed by all German physical anthropologists.
The modern German school has made a great advance over Deniker and his contemporaries, and over Ripley, in the realization that an important element in the modern European racial conglomerate is of glacial antiquity in Europe. The difference between their conclusions and those of the present study lies mainly in my acceptance of Childe's derivation of the Neolithic economy, and Menghin's as well, rather than that of Kossinna. Von Eickstedt,46 the most articulate of the modern German raciologists, in his derivation of European peoples from Asia at various periods, does not emphasize the introduction of the food-producing economy in this connection.
It would be outside the scope of the present study to attempt a complete survey of current ideas and current classifications which concern the European races. A partial survey would, on the other hand, be unfair to those who might, through limitations of space, be neglected. I shall, therefore, limit my exposition to the systems of two authors,47 von Eickstedt and Czekanowski, who have been particularly occupied with the question of racial taxonomy and who are the most vocal members of the German and Polish bodies respectively. Their influence has been considerable, and their schemes are articulate and orderly.
Von Eickstedt, whose Rassenkunde und Rassengeschichte der Menschheit represents the most ambitious attempt at world-classification yet made, follows, in his European sections, three masters: Ripley, Deniker, and Montandon. It is the combination of these three, skilfully blended, which has produced his system. In the first place, he agrees with Ripley that there are but three basic races in Europe; Nordic, Alpine, and Mediterranean. These three are typically confined to three climatic and geographical zones; the cold northern plain, the central mountain belt, and the warm belt reaching along the Mediterranean shores, and over Arabia and Iran to India.
He differs from Ripley, however, in that he divides his three zones into sub-races, and here he follows, for the most part, Deniker. The northern zone is occupied, at its western extremity, by the Nordics; at its eastern by his Osteuropid race, the Orientale of Deniker, and the East Baltic of Nordenstreng and of authors writing in English.48 The central mountain belt is occupied, reading from west to east, by the Alpines, the Dinarics, and, in Asia, the Armenoids, and the Turanids, the latter being the leptorrhine brachycephalic central Asiatic Turkish racial form. The southern zone is occupied by the Mediterraneans on the west, then the Orientalids (Deniker's lndo-Afghan) in North Africa, and thence over to Khyber Pass, where the Indid race begins.
In the differentiation between the segments of each zone, Montandon' s ideas,49 elaborated from those of Rosa, come into play. Von Eickstedt, following the principles of the ologenesis theory, has decided that some races are progressive in the evolutionary sense, while others are primitive. The two words, here simply Anglicized from the German, are apparently translations of Montandon's precoce and tardif. The distinction is that one is capable of further evolution, the other is not. In the von Eickstedt sense, the primitive branch is usually earlier. Thus he makes the Alpines, in particular, primitive; the Dinarics, in contrast, are progressive forms of the same original root.
According to von Eickstedt, the races which come under his classification entered Europe in post-glacial times. First came the Mediterraneans, during the Mesolithic; then the Alpines, who approached the Swiss lake dwellings from the east, but still in Mesolithic times; the Dinarics go back only to the Bronze Age. The Alpines were a forest people, and spread out into the forests of northern Europe as well as of those which covered the mountains in the center. An extra-primitive proto-Alpine type went to Denmark to associate itself with the Maglemose culture. Then the Nordics broke through along the newly-formed northern steppes, and entered Scandinavia over Denmark, passing into Norway by two routes: around by Oslo; and through the gap between the two melting nuclei of the glacier, into Trondelagen. Earlier brachycephals are found at the termini of these routes.
According to his system the Lapps are Alpines isolated in the north; they are the purest Alpines of all and are not mongoloid. The Nordics are divided into three sub-divisions: Teuto-Nordic, the original and basic form; the Dalo-Nordic, which is the same plus Crô-Magnon mixture; and a Fenno-Nordic, reddish haired and water-blue eyed, which is the easternmost, largely Asiatic branch, now found only in solution. The Osteuropids are a separate race, a Nordic-Mongoloid transitional form, dating from the time of differentiation between these two stocks; and not a Nordic Mongoloid mixture, since its superior blondism and possession of distinctive traits make its mixed derivation impossible. This race developed in the swamps and forests of the Obi drainage, and entered Europe only in modern times; its penetration of eastern and central Europe is a recent phenomenon.
So much for von Eickstedt's classification. It fits with some fidelity the facts of racial distribution in Europe, but it does not fit all of the facts of history. In this respect we may apply the same criticism to the system of Czekanowski, which is illustrated by the diagram below:50
According to Czekanowski, there are four basic white races, located schematically at the corners of the square; and six sub-races or mixed types, which result from the crossing of the four fundamental ones. These races and sub-races, with their Greek letters, may be listed as follows:
This scheme is obviously an attempt to place Deniker's system in a mathematically orderly form. Czekanowski defines his Lapponoid in such a way as to include the Alpine of Ripley, as well as the Lapps proper. In this identification of Lapps and Alpines, Czekanowski and von Eickstedt agree. The Dinaric becomes a mixture of Lapponoid and Armenoid, which is difficult to follow; the "Pile Dwelling," being a mixture of Lapponoid and Mediterranean is, however, fully in accordance with the facts in regard to the crania of Swiss Lake Dwellers,51 concerning which Czekanowski is a specialized authority.52 It seems unfortunate that the word "Alpine," should be torn from its context, immortalized by Ripley, and applied to a hypothetical Nordic-Armenoid cross, thus further abetting the confusion prevalent among even professional anthropologists, a confusion which Günther, in his wholesale swapping of names, has done much to foster.53
It is not the purpose of the present survey to criticize in detail the two schemes chosen for presentation. Czekanowski, like Gunther, von Eickstedt, and others, has rescued the Armenoid, which was first carefully described by von Luschan,54 from the obscure companionship of Australians and Ethiopians in which Deniker had thrown it; he also, anticipating von Eickstedt and following the early example of Pruner Bey,55 has attempted to salvage the Lapps from a mongoloid category and to make them full-fledged if primitive Europeans. But his scheme is manifestly too pat, too regular, and too mathematical, to agree fully with nature, and, furthermore, it disagrees in many respects with the findings of the historical discipline.
In making our own classification, let us first review the system which grew out of the skeletal study in Chapters II to VII. The groundwork of this system, and the list of types, may be gathered from the study of the lower half of Fig. 30. In this chart an attempt is made to separate the purely sapiens Mediterranean group from the Upper Palaeolithic mixed sapiens and Neanderthal races. Thus the Mediterranean sub-groups, races of food-producers which had already become differentiated before the great migrations into Europe, are listed as follows: Irano-Afghan, Corded, Atlanto-Mediterranean, Cappadocian, Mediterranean Proper, and Danubian. The old hunting and fishing population is divided into:
Brünn, Borreby, and Alpine; while that branch which bears a considerable strain of incipient mongoloidism, includes Lappish and Ladogan, the latter being the vaguely mongoloid mixed meso- and brachycephalic element which appeared sporadically in the forest region of Russia, and occasionally to the south, from the beginning of the Russian Neolithic
onward. To this same side of the chart are added the modern mongoloids and the mongoloid element in the American Indian.
The lower half of the chart seems relatively simple in comparison with the upper portion, in which an attempt is made to show the relationships between these skeletal races and the living. The comparative simplicity of the lower portion, however, may reflect ignorance on our part rather than actual genetic isolation, since there was undoubtedly much mixing back and forth between the branches of each of the major lines, as well as between the lines themselves.
The proposed classification of living whites and near-whites, which is shown on the top of the chart, may be listed in more detailed form as follows:
A. LARGE-HEADED PALAEOLITHIC SURVIVORS
(1) Brünn: (Crô-Magnon, to some extent) found in solution with Borreby, Nordic, and other elements, mostly in Scandinavia and the British Isles, also in North Africa and Canary Islands. May appear in comparatively pure form among individuals although nowhere as a total population.
(2) Borreby: Large-headed brachycephals of Ofnet-Afalou type, the unreduced brachycephalic strain in Crô-Magnon; found in solution in peripheral regions of northwestern Europe, and as a major population element in most of northern and central Germany, and in Belgium. Like the Brünn race, with which it is often associated, it occurs also in North Africa and the Canary Islands.
B. PURE AND MIXED PALAEOLITHIC AND MESOLITHIC SURVIVORS OF MODERATE HEAD SIZE56
(3) Alpine: A reduced and somewhat foetalized survivor of the Upper Palaeolithic population in Late Pleistocene France, highly brachycephalized; seems to represent in a large measure the bearer of the brachycephalic factor in Crô-Magnon. Close approximations to this type appear also in the Balkans and in the highlands of western and central Asia, suggesting that its ancestral prototype was widespread in Late Pleistocene times. In modern races it sometimes appears in a relatively pure form, sometimes as an element in mixed brachycephalic populations of multiple origin. It may have served in both Pleistocene and modern times as a bearer of the tendency toward brachycephalization into various population.
(4) Ladogan: I propose to give this name to the descendants of the mesocephalic and brachycephalic forest-dwelling population of northern Europe east of the Baltic in Kammkeramik times. This type is a blend of a partly mongoloid brachycephalic element with a mesocephalic form of general Upper Palaeolithic aspect; these elements are seen in crania from Lake Ladoga and Salis Roje. (See Chapter IV, section 13, pp. 125-126.) Corded and/or Danubian elements are inextricably blended here, although the mongoloid and Upper Palaeolithic elements seem at present more important. In its present form this composite type shows two numerous variants:
(a) Neo-Danubian: Strongly mixed with the old Danubian, and to a lesser extent other elements, to form the common peasant type of eastern Europe, with many local variants.
(b) East Baltic: Strongly mixed with Corded, Iron Age Nordic, and western Palaeolithic survivors to form the predominant population of much of Finland and the Baltic States.
(5) Lappish: A stunted, highly brachycephalized, largely brunet relative of the Ladogan, originally living to the east of the Ladogan type area, in the Urals and western Siberia. Has probably assimilated some evolved mongoloid, but owes its partly mongoloid appearance more to the retention of an early intermediate evolutionary condition. In modern times much mixed with Ladogan and Nordic.
C. PURE AND MIXED UNBRACHYCEPHALIZED MEDITERRANEAN DERIVATIVES
(6) Mediterraneans: Within this general class, which still retains much of its original racial unity, the following sub-classes may at present be distinguished:
(a) Mediterranean Proper: Short-statured, dolicho- and mesocephalic form found in Spain, Portugal, the western Mediterranean islands, and to some extent in North Africa, southern Italy, and other Mediterranean borderlands. Its purest present-day racial nucleus is without doubt Arabia. Most of the Cappadocian, isolated in the skeletal material, seems to have been absorbed into the western Mediterranean variety after its early Metal Age migration, while that which remained in Asia Minor became assimilated into the Dinaric and Armenoid. It still appears, however, among individuals in its original form, and is particularly common among Oriental Jews.
(b) Atlanto-Mediterranean: The tall, straight-nosed Mediterranean, not mesocephalic, as Deniker erroneously stated, but strongly dolichocephalic. Today this race forms the principal element in the population of North Africa, and is strong in Iraq, Palestine, parts of Arabia, and the eastern Balkans; in solution with varying degrees of negroid it is also the principal race in the whole of East Africa. In Europe it is a minority element in the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, and the British Isles.
(c) Irano-Afghan: The long-faced, high-headed, hook-nosed type, usually of tall stature, which forms the principal element in the population of Iran, Afghanistan, and the Turkoman country, and which is also present in Palestine, parts of Arabia, and North Africa. It is probably related to the old Corded type of the Neolithic and Bronze Age.
(7) Nordics: The basic Nordic is the Corded-Danubian blend of the Aunjetitz and of the Early Iron Age in central Europe. This type includes some Bell Beaker Dinaric absorbed in early Metal Age times. Although Danubian and Corded types may appear as individuals, they may nowhere be isolated as populations. The most important living Nordic varieties are:
(a) Keltic Iron Age Type: The Keltic sub-type, mesocephalic and low-vaulted, with a prominent nose. Commonest in the British Isles where in places it forms the principal element in the population. Also a major element in Flanders and the Frankish country in southwestern Germany.
(b) Anglo-Saxon Type: The old Germanic Reihengräber type, a heavy-boned, rather high-headed Nordic variety, most prevalent in northern Germany and England.
(c) Trondelagen Type: A hybrid type of Nordic with Corded and Brünn elements, frequent in the central coastal provinces of Norway, north of the Dovre Mountains; the principal form in Iceland, and among the Frisians, and common in the British Isles. The Anglo-Saxon type lies between it and the true Nordic.
(d) Osterdal Type: The original Hallstatt Nordic, smaller-headed and finer boned than (b) or (c); occurs in many populations as individuals, typical only in Sweden and in the eastern valleys of Norway.
D. BRACHYCEPHALIZED MEDITERRANEAN DERIVATIVES, PROBABLY MIXED
(8) Dinarics: A tall, brachycephalic type of intermediate pigmentation, usually planoccipital, and showing the facial and nasal prominence of Near Eastern peoples. The basic population of the whole Dinaric-Alpine highlands from Switzerland to Epirus, also in the Carpathians and Caucasus, as well as Syria and Asia Minor. Apparently a brachycephalized blend in which Atlanto-Mediterranean and Cappadocian strains are important, with Alpine acting as the brachycephalizing agent in mixture. Borreby and Corded elements, also Nordic, appear to be involved in some regions.
(9) Armenoids: A similar brachycephalic composite type, with the same head form as the Dinaric, but a larger face and nose. The pigmentation is almost entirely brunet, the pilous development of beard and body abundant, the nose high rooted, convex, and the tip depressed, especially in advanced age. The difference between the Armenoid and the Dinaric is that here it is the Irano-Afghan race which furnishes the Mediterranean element, brachycephalized by Alpine mixture.
(10) Noric: A blond, planoccipital brachycephal frequently encountered in South Germany and elsewhere in central Europe. This is apparently an Iron Age Nordic brachycephalized by Dinaric mixture and seems in most respects to take the form of a blond Dinaric variant. Both Deniker and Czekanowski have recognized this type, and it is a standard race, under various names, in most Russian studies. The name Noric was gived it by Lebzelter. A brachycephalized Neo-Danubian, common in Jugoslavia, is a parallel or variant form.
The ten racial types within the white race listed above, with their sub-types, form two of the three main divisions of the white race, in its widest sense, when segregated on the basis of head size. The third division, that of the peoples with small heads, includes the aboriginal population of southern Arabia east of the Yemen, and various groups in Baluchistan, and again in southern India. This third variety is characterized by an abundance of wavy or ringleted hair, and facial features of a Veddoid character which in some instances suggest Australoid affinities. This third
division need not, however, concern us here, because it falls outside the major range of the white race. It will be dealt with in some detail in the proper section of the regional study.
Besides the European races proper, as listed in the preceding paragraphs, and their Veddoid collaterals, there are certain fully evolved non-white races which have influenced the European population by intrusion and blending. These include at least two of the sub-divisions of the mongoloid family - the Buryat-Mongol, to which the Avars in part belonged, and which is today represented on European soil by the Samoyeds; and the Tungusic, the type of the early Huns. To these may be added an apparently stabilized mixed form, resembling a partially mongoloid Dinaric, to which many central Asiatic Turkish tribesmen belong. In addition to these Asiatics, there remains the African Negro, which has had certain influences upon the formation of race in the Mediterranean region, especially in North Africa, and in parts of Arabia. Other non-white stocks, such as the Australoid, Negrito, and Khoi-San (Bushman-Hottentot), have not affected the white group in its homelands in any discernible way.
(Chapter IX, section 1)
Introduction (The living)Scandinavia
The remaining chapters of this book will be devoted to a rapid survey of the continent of Europe, country by country and people by people, and of the contiguous portions of Asia and Africa occupied by basically white populations. The treatment of the skeletal documents in prehistory and history, and the survey of the living material as a whole, which have preceded this section, will make elaborate introductions unnecessary. Here it is proposed to cover the geography of the white race piecemeal, for the convenience of the reader interested in specific local problems, as well as to examine in further detail the nature of the white human division as a whole.
Every map is two dimensional, and every consecutive written work one dimensional. There is a conflict, therefore, at the start between any geographical material and the medium through which it is to be described and explained. The choice of a starting point is a purely arbitrary affair, and the sequence of areas followed must be equally dogmatic. Perhaps because of our European habit of starting a written page at the upper left hand corner and working down, strip by strip, we shall follow this system, more or less, in our study of the map of Europe.
By following this method we shall first deal with the very northernmost zone, which is, in effect, a more or less unified environmental area. It is at the same time the last portion of the European land-mass to receive permanent settlement, and the last to receive the cultural stimulus of agriculture. For these and other reasons, all of which resolve themselves ultimately into the fact that northwestern Europe was the center of Old World glacial activity during the last age of ice, the far north has played the zoölogical rôle of a marginal area. Its racial history, while complex enough in the absolute sense, is relatively simple and relatively easy to untangle, as has been shown in previous chapters.
Aside from the Russian Slavs whose appearance in the north is of recent historical date, we have, in this zone, to deal with two linguistic groups - the Uralic, with sub-divisions into Finnic, Ugric, and Samoyedic; and the Indo-European, in Scandinavian and Baltic forms. From the standpoint of race in the sense of major world groupings, we are concerned with two - the white and the mongoloid. In the historical sense, we are confronted again with a division between Palaeolithic survivors, and the descendants of the farthest wandering of Mediterranean food-producers. From the standpoint of environmental conditioning in its effect upon the human form, we have reached an area of maximum differentiation. Nortern Europe, especially northwestern Europe, has served not only as a refuge area for archaic humanity, but also as a source from which migrations of vast compass have spread southward into warmer lands at times of environmental distress. Emigrants forced out by the vagaries of its treacherous climate have not only affected in varying measure the rest of Europe, but have likewise played a principal part in the peopling of the New World.
(Chapter IX, section 4)
Scandinavia: NorwayThe northern zone of Europe which we have chosen as the subject of our first regional chapter is in reality two zones; besides the northernmost, which runs closely around the Arctic rim, is a second, that of Scandinavia and the lands to the east of the Baltic. Here food production is possible, and the effect of environment does not necessarily take the form of infantilism and stunting. In contrast to the first, this second zone is occupied by large, typically European groups of people.
Norway occupies the poorer and more rugged half of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The mountain crest which separates it from Sweden runs to the west of a central line, and swings to the northeast in such a way as to give to Norway the northernmost part; so that much of Norway, and relatively little of Sweden, lies within the Arctic circle. Deep fjords along most of the Norwegian coast cut far into the land, in some cases nearly bisecting the kingdom. A large proportion of the country is mountainous, but aside from the central spine, only one range deserves mention here- that of the Dovre Mountains, which separates Møre and Trøndelagen on the north from Opland and Hedmark on the south. Only in the long, eastern valleys such as Østerdal and Gudbrandsdal, and on the plain of Oslofjord, are large unbroken stretches of reasonably flat farm lands to be found.
The topography of Norway, as outlined above, is important in its effect upon the present distribution of its peoples. While Sweden, a lakestudded plain sloping gently from the western mountain barrier to the Baltic, is inhabited by a regionally uniform population, Norway, with its rugged fjords and deeply folded valleys, provides shelter and differentiation room to a number of local types. Norway's geography, in combination with her climatic and cultural history, makes her one of the most marginal areas, in a racial sense, in Europe. Yet, despite her marginal character, Norway has played an important part in European racial history, since this nation has been a source of emigration to Iceland, to Normandy, and to the British Isles. Hence it has had much to do with the modern settlement of the New World, which Norwegians discovered. The physical types of many British and Americans may be traced directly to a Norwegian origin.
The racial history of Norway has been covered, insofar as we know it, in the preceding chapters. The northern coastal regions had a very late age of chipped stone, and an even later Neolithic. Food-producing peoples were few in Norway before the Middle and Late Bronze Ages, and not until the Iron Age and the full Viking period was this country fully inhabited. The greatest pre-Iron Age concentration was along the southwestern coast. Nordland, Troms, and Finnmark were explored during the pre-Christian Viking period; Troms and Finnmark were abandoned during the Middle Ages and only resettled from the sixteenth century onward. Our skeletal material, wholly Iron Age in date, shows a medley of normal Iron Age Nordic crania with Borreby brachycephals and other skulls which could be fitted without difficulty into a dolichocephalic Upper Palaeolithic category. That the Norwegian climate has not exerted a size-reducing tendency such as that which somewhere modified the ancestors of Lapps, is therefore shown by the survival of what appear to be full-sized Ice-Age cranial types into the present millennium.
The study of living Norwegians has been carried on with exceptional competence by three modern investigators-Halfdan Bryn, K. E. Schreiner, and Mme. Alette Schreiner. The monumental Somatologie der Norweger30, by the first two named, supplemented by the regional studies of the first and third,31 continue the earlier work of Arbo, Helland, Larsen, and the Daaes,32 and present us with a body of accurate and objectively interpreted anthropometric data unsurpassed elsewhere.
The Norwegians, as a whole, are tall by absolute standards, and blond, with moderate body proportions which include relatively long legs and short arms Most of them are mesocephalic, with meso- to leptoprosopic faces, and their noses. are usually leptorrhine. Regional variations in Norway are relatively great for Scandinavia, but are no greater than those found in many European countries. Except for the far North, local stature means run from about 168 to 175 cm., while the cephalic index varies by parishes between the extreme means of 76 and 84. In hair and eye color, blonds and mixed forms are everywhere more numerous than brunets; dark eyes, for example, never reach the figure of 20 per cent.
Within these relatively restricted ranges there is a definite pattern of regional distribution, and there are four definite areas, each of which has its own racial peculiarities. These four areas are, 1. Eastern Norway, 2. Western Norway, 3. North-central Norway, 4. the Far North.33
Eastern Norway consists of the seven following provinces: Hedmark, Akershus, Østfold, Vestfold, Opland, Buskerud, and Oslo. This section of the country, which includes the Oslofjord region and the long valleys which run towards the Dovre Mountains, forms a definite ethnic unit, within which much internal movement takes place between valleys and provinces, and much migration from the country districts to the city of Oslo. It has, however, but little to do with other parts of Norway, which are isolated from it by a number of barriers. The population of this eastern section is relatively uniform, both locally and as a whole.
Although there seems to be an almost completely submerged brachycephalic element along the coast, this is not very much in evidence, for the main racial type of eastern Norway is a regular Halstatt Iron Age Nordic. This type, although predominant throughout the region, seems to be especially concentrated in the five valleys of Østerdal, Gudbrandsdal, Valders, Hallingdal, and Numendal, forming parts of the three provinces of Hedmark, Opland, and Buskerud. Here, in a region almost unoccupied before the Iron Age, Bryn34 believes to have found a refuge area of the classic Nordic race, with less admixture of other stocks than is the case elsewhere in Norway, or for that matter, in Europe. Hence his specifications, both metrical and morphological, may serve as a standard of future comparison for use in the study of less typically Nordic populations.
Army recruits from this region serve as a basis of study, while a series of farmers of old, indigenous ancestry forms a check series which represents the original Iron Age population with a minimum of more recent admixture. These people must be considered tall, since the men attain in adult life the mean height of 172 cm., but from the Norwegian standpoint this stature is not unusual. In bodily proportions this type is relatively long legged and short bodied, moderately broad shouldered, and relatively short armed. The bones are typically small and fine, and the general musculature tends to leanness, while corpulence is very rare. On the whole the impression is given that the muscles lie dose under the skin, and stand out in dear relief A predominantly leptosome constitutional type seems to be characteristic.
The mean vault dimensions of the recruits from these valleys are:
ength, 195 mm., breadth, 149 mm., and auricular height, 126 mm., with a cephalic index of 76.8. The native farmers are even longer headed, with a mean index of 75.5. Since these indices reflect figures of 73-75 on skull, it may be readily seen that the original Iron Age Nordic vault form has been transferred to eastern Norway with little or no modification. Frontal and bigonial diameters average 105 mm., while the bizygomatic mean is 135 mm. The face height, given by Bryn as 122 mm.,35 is only moderately long. The nasal dimensions, of 55 or 56 mm. by 33.8, produce an index of 60 or 61.36
Ash-blond hair is typical of one-half of the native farmers, the rest having light brown and brown shades; only four per cent have hair that is black or dark brown. The rufous tinges of hair color are especially rare. Among the recruits, unselected as to provenience of ancestry, dark hair is twice as common, and the ash-blond shades are found in only one-third of the group. Thus we may, from this material, specify that the typical hair color of the living examples of the Iron Age Nordic race ranges from a medium brown to an ash-blond, with a minimum of rufosity, and a small brunet minority.
The hair form most prevalent in Norway is a low waviness. Although low waves art characteristic of the southeastern valley country as well as of other regions, there is, nevertheless, a higher ratio of straight hair among this long-headed population than in other parts of Norway. Although low ratio is only 30 per cent, as against 66 per cent for the low-waved variety, yet these figures are so at variance with those for the rest of the kingdom that one may specify the hair form of this type as low-waved to straight. The beard is of but moderate abundance, although it increases considerably with age, and the body not especially hairy.
In eye color as in hair color, the native farmers art lighter than the recruits, with 86.5 per cent of light and light-mixed eyes (Martin #12-16) as against 76 per cent. Of the recruits, 38.5 per cent have pure light eyes (Martin #15-16). This is by no means the Lightest-eyed region in Norway. This material shows us what had been previously suspected, that the Nordic eye must be considered light mixed in typical form, rather than pure light. According to Bryn the commonest form of unpigmented eye found in this region is a light blue one, with large meshes and iris fibers set quite far apart, so that the iris pattern appears open.
The skin color in this area, as in most of Norway, is almost invariably a pinkish white (von Luschan #3) This skin is of a fine texture; according to Bryn it is soft and easily punctured by a hypodermic needle. Owing to this thinness and the delicate quality of the skin, the cartilaginous and osseous structure of the face is often clearly discernible beneath it.
The forehead of this type is for the most part sloping, forming a profile line parallel to that of the nose. It is medium to narrow in breadth, and, in comparison to other Norwegian types, relatively flat in both planes. The browridges art usually present, but art weakly developed, and the depression of the nasal root moderate. The nose may be described as thin, steep-walled, and high-bridged. In profile, it is for the most part straight or slightly convex, with a high incidence of wavy forms, and there is usually a noticeable transition between the bony and cartilaginous portions. Owing to the thinness of the skin, the line of suture between the two nasal bones may frequently be observed. The tip of the nose is thin, and for the most part raised slightly above the horizontal plane. The nasal wings art compressed, and the nostrils form long ovals, set at a very acute angle from one another. These nostrils art visible from the side, and slightly visible from in front.
The bony orbit of the eye is rather high, and the eye normally quite wide open, with the upper lid reaching down over the upper quadrant of the iris, and the lower lid touching its rim. The eye slits themselves are horizontal, and are often partially covered, especially in old age, by a fold which hangs from the outer corner of the upper orbit.
The eyebrows are thin, somewhat bowed, and seldom concurrent over the nasal bridge. The malars, small in size, are typically flattened in front. The zygomatic arches, however, are often bowed outward enough to give the face a pentagonoid appearance. This appearance is due to the flatness of the temples and the thinness of the soft parts of the arches, rather than to their skeletal prominence.
The cheeks are in most cases thin, and the lower jaw long and deep, curving in front to a well-developed chin, with the gonial angles compressed and usually not visible. One of the outstanding features of this type, and of the Nordic race as a whole, is the great distance between the borders of the lower teeth and the point of the chin. The total impression of the face is that of a long, narrowish oval, often slightly rhomboid, with prominent bony portions when seen in profile. The lips are usually thin, the mouth rather small, and the nasal sills well developed.
The cranium itself is a long oval when seen from above, with almost parallel sides, and a marked transition from the frontal to the temporal bones. The greatest breadth is located as often in front of the center as behind it. Seen from the front, the cranium looks steep or parallel sided and arched or vaulted on top. From the side, the contour of the head sweeps flatly back from a somewhat retreating forehead to a curved or projecting occiput. The highest point of the head is over the ears, and there is no pronounced tendency for either the forward or rear portion of the head to be higher than the other. Judging by gross bulk measurements the heads of individuals of this type may not be classed as large, nor high, their principal character is narrowness, a feature which continues down to the face, and also to the nose.
Although this distinctive type is today most concentrated in file long valleys of southeastern Norway, it is by no means confined to that region. It is found all over Norway in greater or lesser solution, as is to be expected, since it is the racial type of the invaders who brought Iron Age civilization to Scandinavia. Besides this dearly differentiated Nordic type, there seem, however, to be various submerged minority elements in the eastern Norwegian population which are not limited to any one dis trict, but are diffuse throughout. One is a shorter, somewhat darker and less dolichocephalic element which may in part represent an aboriginal coastal population, but which may, to a greater extent, consist rather of racial elements brought from central Europe in solution by the Iron Age Nordic invaders. Some of it, again, is undoubtedly descended from the thrall population brought from many parts of western Europe by the Vikings. The fact that it is shorter, darker, and less dolichocephalic than the more dearly designated Nordic type does not mean that it is very short, very round headed, or very dark.
Besides this submerged element, or medley of elements, which is extremely difficult to isolate, there is a third type, characterized especially by a broad face and a broad mandible, which may be attributed without question to recent Finnish influence. Finns settled here in low Grue district of Hedmark some 300 years ago, and have since been largely assimilated to Norwegian nationality and absorbed into the Norwegian population. Very few members of this colony still speak Finnish, or identify themselves as Finns.
On the whole, despite these influences, the eastern provinces of Norway form, apart perhaps from Sweden, the most characteristic concentration area of low central Nordic racial form in the world. This residual enclave is directly descended from the Iron Age Nordic population which once occupied an immense area on the plains of central and eastern Europe and western Siberia, and which elsewhere has been replaced, altered, or absorbed.
Western Norway, low next section under consideration, includes the provinces Telemark, Aust-Agder, Vest-Agder, Rogaland, Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Bergen, and Møre. Within these provinces there are, in contrast to those farther cast, considerable local differences; as a rule, many round-headed peoples live along low coast, while mesocephals predominate in the inland valleys.
In the province of Rogaland low brachycephalic element reaches its maximum and here, in fact, is located its center of greatest concentration in all Norway. The inner nucleus of this brachycephalic area is Jæren,37 a flat coastal plain, locally uniform in race, but regionally distinct. Here alone, in all of Norway, occur natural deposits of flint, and for this reason Jæren must have been an important source of implement material for both Mesolithic and Neolithic peoples. On low plain the pre-Iron Age population must have been particularly dense.
In Jæren, Arbo found 82 per cent of brachycephals,38 a ratio as high as that usual in southern Germany, and a mean cephalic index of 83.2. The three other districts of Rogaland, by comparison, have mean indices of 81-82. The Jæren people form, as a whole, a very definite and easily observed type which has been most fully described by Larsen.39 This type is most concentrated in low parishes of Haaland, Høiland, Klepp, and Time. It has a large cranial vault of medium height, very broad, and of considerable length. Individual cephalic indices go as high as 90 or more, but the mode for the type as a whole is 84. The occiput, nearly vertical, often shows a slight degree of flattening. The temporal bones are weakly curved, but the parietal tuberosities are strong. The forehead is broad, only slightly curved, and quite high, and usually of but little slope. The browridges are, on the whole, of moderate size. The head exhibits from above a roundish, oval form; it is not an evolved planoccipital skull, although individual crania have a tendency in this direction. The face is notable for its breadth, both between the zygomata and in the mandible, which is frequently heavy and deep. The nasal profile is usually straight, but in one case out of six it is concave. The chin is pronounced, and sometimes pointed. Together, the face and head give an impression of square ness, owing to the prominence of frontal and parietal tuberosities, and to the breadth of the face and jaw.
In pigmentation, these brachycephals are slightly less fair than the few dolichocephals found in the same region, but they are still predom inantly blond. Eighty-one per cent have blue eyes, and only 3 per cent brown. Most of the hair is either light or medium brown; only 30 per cent have dark brown hair, and less than 2 per cent black.
Correlations within the Rogaland population prove little. The few dolichocephals are very little taller than the brachycephals, who are as tall as the eastern Norwegian Nordics, with a mean of 172 cm. Red hair and brown hair are associated with the highest cephalic index level, and the roundheads tend to have longer and heavier bodies, and broader and heavier faces, than the long heads. That the brachycephalic type in Jaeren is basically of light-mixed pigmentation is made especially dear by the fact that what few brunets there are in Rogaland run taller, longerheaded, and finer-nosed than the population as a whole. The Jaeren brachycephals, therefore, are not short and dark as often stated,40 but are tall and predominantly light-mixed people with large heads. There is no question here of a short, dark, brachycephalic population having been absorbed into a Nordic body, since the brachycephalic group in Jaeren is numerically the principal one.
In Hordaland, north of Rogaland, one finds a continuation of the same contrast between coast and inland valleys which occurs farther south. The brachycephaly of Jaeren, which extends southwards into the two Agders, also stretches northward in an attenuated form into Mid-Hordaland, where it is gradually submerged in the mesocephalic population. Secondary nuclei of brachycephaly occur sporadically farther north, notably in Sunnfjord on the northern bank of the great Sogn fjord, and in the coastal districts and islands of Møre.
So great has been the interest in the coastal brachycephals of western Norway that the equal importance of the mesocephalic population living more typically in the inland valleys and mountains of this part of the country has been somewhat obscured. On the basis of the cephalic index alone, it would be easy to dismiss them as a transitional form between the Iron Age Nordics of the east and the Borreby type brachycephals of the coast, but a number of considerations make this disposal impossible. The western Norwegian mesocephals are taller, blonder, and larger headed than either of the two types mentioned. In these and in other respects, they form a special population of their own.
In many districts of these provinces mean recruit statures of 175 cm. have been recorded, with a record mean of 178 cm. in the Voss district of Hordaland. The cephalic index of 78 or 79, which is so constant here, is not a composite of dolichocephals and brachycephals, but represents a truly mesocephalic condition.
Mme. Schreiner, in order to study this special group in greater detail than the recruit material permits, selected the high mountain district of Valle in Setesdal, in the northern part of Aust-Agder; and also two isolated districts of Hordaland, Hålandsdal and Eidfjord.41 Of these three, Valle yielded the largest series, and the most extreme local form of the population under consideration. This site was especially chosen because it is probably the most secluded, most conservative place in all Norway; its inhabitants are still living in many respects in the saga period, and mingle little with outsiders.
Valle was first settled in the second and third centuries of the present era, while a second wave of colonists arrived in the ninth. Since the dialect spoken in Valle is purely west Norwegian, we may assume that the present inhabitants represent a survival of that segment of the coastal population which, during the first millennium, forsook the shore for the mountains behind it.
In body measurements the Valle people are large, although the mean stature of 174.7 cm. for one hundred adult males is not the greatest in this region. The women, with a mean of 160.0 cm., are much smaller. The sex difference in height, as in many other features, is particularly great here, and much greater than in Norway as a whole; it totals 14.1 cm. in Valle, as against 10.0 cm. in the entire country. The Valle people are, as a rule, heavy boned, and like the rest of the population of which they are a part, longer and heavier bodied than members of the eastern Nordic type.
The mean head length of the Valle males reaches the extreme figure of 198 mm., considerably longer than that of the dolichocephalic eastern Norwegian Nordics; the breadth, 154.9 mm., is as great as that among many brachycephals, although in this case, in view of the exceptional head size, the resultant cephalic index mean is only 78.9. A mean head height of 125 mm. is, however, moderate. The face is large, with a mean nasion-menton height of 128.3 mm., and a bizygomatic breadth of 142.9 mm. The forehead and jaw are broader, likewise, than in most of Norway, with means of 106.6 and 109.2 mm.
By and large, the morphological observations bear out the impression of robusticity shown by the measurements; the forehead is often quite sloping, the browridges frequently heavy, the faces angular, the jaws firm and deep In keeping with the cultural recessiveness of Valle, the palate and dental regions are large and primitive, in a mediaeval or Iron Age sense. The pigmentation is exclusively light or light mixed, for in Mme. Schreiner's sample which included onefourth of the total population, not a single brown eye nor head of black or dark brown hair was discovered. Among the men, 90 per cent of pure and nearly pure light eyes were found, with but 3 per cent dark mixed; among the women, as is frequently the case elsewhere, the light-eyed category is smaller than that of the men by a full 10 per cent. In hair color the Valle males show 40 per cent of ashblond, an equal number of various shades of brown, and the remaining 20 per cent of light golden blonds.
Mme. Schreiner, as well as Arbo thirty years earlier, considered that the Valle people represent a retarded sample of the Viking population which lived in western Norway a thousand years ago, and this concusion is based on geographical and ethnological as much as on racial grounds. If this be true, and there seems little reason to dispute it, then we may at last have found the living counterparts of the Iron Age crania which might, in many respects, have been those of Upper Palaeolithic men. Historically we know that from the Neolithic onward no racial types could have entered this region except for a pre-Iron Age Borreby-Megalithic-Corded blend, and, later, the Iron Age Nordic race which we have already seen in the provinces to the cast Both Arbo and Mme. Schreiner detected a minor element in the Valle population which was smaller and finer boned, and which was presumably Nordic in the Iron Age sense.
The third section of Norway, usually designated as a racial center, is the north central group of three provinces, Møre, South Trøndelag, and North Trøndelag, with especial emphasis upon the two latter. The two Trøndelags include several great valleys: Namdal, Orkdal, Meldal Galdal, and Tydal, and a number of large islands as well. To the south cast, this region is effectively blocked from contact with eastern Norway by the Dovre Mountains. During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, this was the most populous and most important part of Norway, in which was located Nidaros, the capital of the Norse kings. This region was a center of Norwegian aristocracy, and a base for extensive Viking expedi tions. As a result of these voyages, the whole Trondheim region must have received a relatively large influx of foreign slaves and thralls, while in some of the valleys, Saxons and Bohemians were especially imported as skilled laborers. Tyrker, the famous Rhineland German who discovered the grapes on Vinland and made the New World's first wine, was probably one of these immigrants.
The modern population of the Trøndelag region is notable in that it exceeds the rest of Norway in a number of important features. One is in stature, for the tallest provincial means are found here; another is in the height of the cranial vault, which reaches a mean of 128 mm.; a third is in the percentage of blue eyes, for this is the lightest-eyed region of Norway. The hair, by contrast, is by no means the blondest, but there are significant deficiencies of ash-blond, and excesses of golden and of brown. This type is also characterized by a considerable face length, with narrower bizygomatic and bigonial diameters than are found in Norway as a whole. The type which possesses the characters enumerated above is especially concentrated in South Trøndelag, and most strongly in the valley of Orkdal. The other districts of the two Trøndelags show a tendency for this special Nordic type to blend into the mesocephalic western form which reaches its culmination in Valle.
Bryn has compared the Trøndelagen people in observations with the eastern Norwegian Nordics, and his contrast here is as valid in most respeets for the western Norwegian mesocephals as for the Trøndelagen people themselves, since the latter two are morphologically much alike.
The Trøndelagen population has the same proportion of dark hair as is found in the eastern Norwegian valleys; but differs from the classit Nordic type in a low ratio of ash-blond (26 per cent) and a correspondingly high proportion of golden and brown. The hair form in Trøndelagen is usually wavy; it is coarser, and more abundant on beard and body.
Although the Trøndelagens are the two lightest-eyed provinces in Norway, their commonest iris type is very Iight mixed (Martin 13-14) rather than pure blue. According to Bryn, the typical Trønder iris is close grained and opaque, for the fibers are dense and closely imbricated. Bryn contrasts this iris type with that of eastern Norway. The skin, while as light in color as that of the eastern Nordics, is coarser in texture and much tougher. As a result of this density of the integument, the bony and cartilaginous parts of the face do not stand out in fine relief.
Tle forehead of the special Trønder type is higher, broader, and much less sloping, and the profiles of the forehead and nose are not parallell, but form a distinct broken angle. Frontal bosses, which do not appear in the Eastern Valley type, are frequently found, and the temporal region is fuller. The transitions from frontal to temporal and frontal to parietal regions are smooth and difficult to find, whereas with the eastern type they are dearly marked. The nose of the Trønder type, while equally high or higher, is typically straight or convex, with many wavy or undulating profile fornis. The side walls are less steep, and the transition from bone to cartilage difficult to find without palpation. The tip is somewhat thicker, especially in old age, and the wings less compressed.
On the other hand, the zygomatic arches are less prominent than those of the eastern type. Not only are they somewhat more compressed, but, at the same time, the temporal region above them is broader and fuller, so that the lateral profile of the face falls usually in an unbroken sweep from the side of the head to the lower jaw line. As with the Eastern Valley type, the gonial angles are not noticeable. The cranium as a whole is shorter, higher, and more rounded, and the occiput less prominently curved. On the whole, the impression is given of a better filled, more rounded, and less angular head and face. If one leaves in the description of hair and integument, and adds a prominence of zygomata and of mandible, this description will apply to the other end type of the tall, mesocephalic population of western and central Norway, that of Valle.
In reviewing the data on the coastal and mountain population ofwestern and north central Norway, from Aust-Agder to North Trøndelagen, we find ample evidence of the major survival of a pre-Iron Age population. Within this population at least three elements are seen.
(a) A tall, heavily built, large-headed type, with a stature of about 170-172 cm.; the cephalic index is about 84, which would correspond to 82 on the dry cranium; the face is broad, the jaw broad and heavy, the occiput often flattish, the skull square in appearance more frequently than round; the pigmentation is partly but not extremely blond, with lightmixed eyes, and hair which is medium brown to Iight brown on the golden side in the majority of cases.
(b) An extremely tall, somewhat slenderer type, with a stature of 174 cm.; mesocephalic, with a more moderate head size in length and breadth diameters, but with a vault attaining 128-130 mm. in auricular height, which is very great for living races; a long face, narrower in bizygomatic and bigonial widths than (a), and as narrow in these respects as that of Iron Age Nordics; heavier, with craggier facial features and thicker, coarser soft part anatomy than the Iron Age Nordics, in this respect approximating type (a); characterized in pigmentation by almost a totality of very light-mixed eyes, especially of the blue variety with a minimum of yellow and brown spotting; and by a brown or golden-brown to golden hair color range.
(c) A type which in reference to (b) is equally tall, equally mesocephalic, but lower-vaulted and larger in length and breadth dimensions of the vault; equally longfaced, but wide in both malar and gonial diameters, heavy-jawed, large faced; similar in pigment characters to (b), but not, in all regions, equally blond; large-bodied, rugged, and large-boned, with a great sex difference in stature.
In all three of these, the later Iron Age Nordic element has blended. Despite this influence, type (a) in its concentrated form, as at Jaeren, seems to have reëmerged as what appears to be a faithful replica of the Borreby race in its various forms, while (b), a blend of Corded with (a) and with elements of glacial age, forms a special and very characteristic and historically important Nordic sub-type. In both (a) and (b) the Borreby element, which entered Norway from Denmark during the Neolithic, is probably more important than the local post-glacial race of Palaeolithic tradition, remnants of which are probably masked in both, but appear in strongest solution in (c). Individuals of type (c) may well recapitulate, in most essential features, Upper Palaeolithic Western European man.
In any case, the deviation of the western and north-central Norwegians from the standard eastern Norwegian form is indicative of the absorption of the latter by pre-food-producing Scandinavian strains, as well as by pre-Iron Age Corded blood. The oft-stated and overemphasized resemblance between the western Norwegians and central European Alpines reflects merely the common origin in the glacial period of Borreby and Alpine ancestors. The Alpines, however, have undergone modifications involving size reduction below the earlier form, while the Norwegian survivors have retained their ancestral dimensions.
For the purposes of classification, I propose to lump the types (b) and (c) together, using Bryn's name of Trønder type, to designate all tall, coarsely built, mesocephalic blonds who show a predominance of Corded and Upper Palacolithic elements, in contrast to the classic, finer Nordic type. This lumping may be justified by the supposition that (b) and (c) form but local end types of a larger population in which both are present but less distinct.
The fourth Norwegian area which merits separate consideration is the Far North, including the provinces of Nordland, Troms, and Finnmark. In this region it is not the description and identification of a special type, but the interactions of several different ethnic element; and their reactions to a rigorous environment, which are important. These elements are the Lapps, whom we have already discussed; the Kvaens, who are Finlanders of late arrival and who will be discussed in a later section of this chapter; and the Norwegians, most of whom are recent immigrants from other parts of the kingdom.
At the beginning of the Norwegian historical period, Hålogaland, which included Nordland and the southern part of Troms up to Malangenfjord, was thickly settled with Norwegians who lived along the coast and especially on the islands, and whose ancestors had come up in open boats in order to carry on fishing. These prehistoric settlers came from Trøndelag, Møre, and also from more southerly parts of the country. In the ninth century, at the latest, Norwegians from Hålogaland sailed farther north to hunt walrus and to exchange goods with the Lapps. A number of them settled, and in the thirteenth century the whole coast of Finnmark had a scattered Norwegian population. In the sixteenth century, Finnmark contained at least 6000 Norwegians.
For the next three hundred years the Bergen merchants held a trade monopoly which prevented private enterprise, and destroyed the incentivt for northward migration. Many of the earlier settlers returned southward, leaving a shortage of workers. In consequence of this, King Christian V sent a mixed company of thieves, prostitutes, and other undesirables to the north country from southern Norway and from Denmark, in order to reënforce the population of the fishing villages. In 1815, however, Norwegians began coming north in large numbers, most of them from the southern part of the kingdom. Up until the eighteenth century, fishing and trade were almost the only occupations, but about that time agriculture was begun in the broad valleys of Nordland and Troms, and, under the infiuence of the newer settlers from the south, it became an important economic factor.
During the fifty years which elapsed between 1869 and 1920, the population of the north country grew from fifty to ninety-eight thousand. That of Nordland increased 88 per cent, of Troms 92 per cent, and of Finnmark 102 per cent. The bulk of this increase was caused by the influx of Norwegians. In 1920 Norwegians or people who considered themselves Norwegians constituted 99 per cent of the population in Nordland, 89 per cent in Troms, and 61 per cent in Finnmark. Since these figures include, especially in Troms and Finnmark, a number of mixtures between Norwegians and Lapps, Kvaens, and both, the Norwegian population of these provinces deviates from the means of the kingdom in several respects, especially in a lowering of stature and a heightening of the cephalic index. Kvaen influence may be detected most dearly in an excessive breadth of face and mandible.
Norwegians of pure descent from immigrants born in the south-eastern provinces have retained their original stature and head form, as well as their high incidence of ash-blond hair, but they have been modified through an increased bigonial breadth and a decreased minimum frontal diameter. Mme. Schreiner, who has studied with great diligence a large series of North Norwegians of all ancestries, suggests that this condition may be a result of environmental influences which have caused a thickening of the tympanic plate and the development of a palatal torus among most circumpolar peoples, including such varied groups as Eskimos, Lapps, and Icelanders.42
In studying the racial characters of the Norwegian people we have made use of a body of well-documented material, unique in Europe. By means of it we have been able to reconstruct a probable scheme of Norwegian racial history. There is one further source, however, which should not be overlooked, and that is the large corpus of Norse mythology and oral history. This source should not, as is commonly the case with folklore, be relegated to the ash-heap of what the scientist is wont to call mere literature, since a careful study of the social attitudes, descriptions, and events so well recorded in the saga material shows that these documents agree with and supplement the findings of archaeology and of physical anthropology. Two sources which, in this regard are of especial value are the Rigsthula lay of the Poetic Edda,43 and the historical work of Snorre Sturlason,44 a prominent political and scholastic figure in twelfth century Iceland.45
According to the Rigsthula, the social classes of the Norse people were begotten in a mythical and rather simple way. The early god Heimdal travelled about his domain in disguise, making use of the assumed name Rig. In this capacity he had sexual relations with three women, each of whom bore him children. The first woman gave birth to a brood of short, dark, and ugly offspring, who became thralls, and were relegated to agricultural toil and unskilled manual labor. The second produced the carls, large, healthy, red-faced, red-haired men, with big muscles, who became smiths and craftsmen, who performed skilled tasks, and who were also, in many cases, small land owners. The third woman was delivered of the jarls, the aristocrats, tall, lean men with blond hair and hard, cold, snakelike eyes, who fought and practiced the use of weapons, hunted, played games, and did no work.
The poet who described so vividly these three classes in the Norse population has given us a priceless picture of the people of Scandinavia during the pre-Christian Iron Age, as he saw them. The thralls, landless seffs, were, in part, prisoners brought to Scandinavia by the Norse seafarers, but this explanation cannot apply to the thrall class as a whole. A three class system was an old Nordic institution, common to most Indo-European speaking peoples, and it is unlikely that the Iron Age invaders from central Europe had entered Scandinavia without their henchmen. Part, at least, of the thrall class must be considered the descendants of Danubians, Dinarics, and Alpines who were imported by their more aristocratic overlords, and who formed, in solution with Nordic, the lower class of the original population.
The carls find no ready counterpart in central Europe, and were probably largely indigenous, the Bronze Age prototypes of the peoples of Jaeren, Trøndelag, and Valle. The physical attributes of these carls are clearly contrasted with the more purely Nordic description of the jarls, who formed obviously the upper class of the Iron Age invading group, including many of the bondi, or free land owners without title, and who were apparently a numerous body.
Let us turn for a moment to consider the historical work of Snorre Sturlason. This erudite scholar deals with the gods as if they were men, and treats their mythical actions as history. His rationalization seems to have been uncannily accurate. In the first place, Asgard, the home of the gods, was a town on the northern shore of the Black Sea. These gods fought a people called the vanir, with whom they eventually agreed to exchange hostages. Odin, the king of the gods, agreed to take Frey and Freya, two of the vanir, and these were soon deified along with their hosts. The gods then left Asgard; and moved northwestward; they sojourned in Denmark, and passed without much ado into Sweden. This country became their main home, and Uppsala their chief center. Odin worship, which arose among their descendants, the kings and jarls, was centered especially in this neighborhood, and the worship of Frey and Freya as well.
Thor, who was a rough-and-tumble bucolic god, is little mentioned in this Asgardian history; he was apparently an earlier god and the especial deity of the coastal people of Norway. Odin was a sophisticated personage, wearing a finely woven blue cape and carrying an iron spear; Thor who clothed himself in skins, carried a hammer as his weapon, and drove about in a goat-drawn chariot. If we grant that Odin was the chief god brought in by the Iron Age invaders, and surrounded with their classically-inspired trappings of luxury, then Thor was apparently the god of the older people, of the carl class, and he represents in his person and attributes a blend between the robust Mesolithic hunters and fishermen, and the Megalithic and Corded people. His association with the last named is clearly shown by his devotion to the doubleheaded hammer, which was probably nothing more nor less than the boat-axe.
The worshippers of Odin and Frey were especially interested in the horse; horse sacrifices were made to these gods, and to Frey was dedicated the cult of the embalmed horse's penis. In Norway the horse was replaced to a certain extent as a funeral object by the ship; and the ships were made by the carls, who had learned their craft from their Megalithic predecessors and ancestors. With the introduction of iron, ship-building flourished, and the Viking was nothing more nor less than a sea-going central European Nordic, who had exchanged his horse for a steed suited to a new environment, with the coöperation of a vigorous body of indigenous craftsmen and warriors, into whose racial body his own group was soon blended.
(Chapter IX, section 6)
SwedenSweden, which occupies the more southerly, less mountainous, and larger side of the Scandinavian Peninsula, is in area the fifth largest country in Europe. Most of its land is of high economic utility, since the low, well-watered slope of southern and central Sweden, dotted with lakes, is well suited for agriculture, while in the north, large forests and plentiful mineral deposits furnish materials for industry. Since 1775 Sweden's population has grown from two to six millions, not including the million and a half who have emigrated to the United States. Much of this increase has been fostered by the growth of industrial life, especially in the mining areas and in the cities. Central Sweden, in a belt reaching southwestward from Stockholm, and the peninsula of Skåne, are the regions of thickest settlement. Most of the Swedes who have gone to the United States originated in Götaland, the southwestern part of the kingdom.
In prehistoric times, Sweden, although less populous than Denmark, was far more important than Norway. From Ancylus times until the beginning of the Iron Age, the southwestern portion opposite the Danish Islands was a center of cultural activity, while the central and northern parts of the country were conservative and rustic cultural outposts. The brachycephalic Mesolithic population so typical of the Danish islands was less firmly rooted in Sweden, and the successive invasions of Megalithic and Corded people passed over into Sweden relatively unaltered, and produced a greater proportionate effect upon the racial composition of this country than upon that of Denmark. The Corded people, especially, moved northward into the central portions of the kingdom, and probably entered Trøndelagen, where their racial type is still important, by the Swedish route.
The Iron Age invaders, the linguistic ancestors of the modern Scandinavians, again chose Sweden as their especial sphere of colonization, and settled here in greater numbers than in Denmark or in Norway. Sweden became a great breeding ground for Nordic peoples, chief worshippers of Odin and of Frey, and after less than a thousand years, the country became so crowded with them that overpopulation, coupled with the onset of an adverse climate, forced a huge mass exodus southward.
This movement was, in effect, the great series of Germanic migrations, the Völkerwanderung, which spread from Schleswig-Holstein and the Low Countries, on the west, and from the mouth of the Vistula on the east. The Goths, the Burgundians, and the Vandals, except for the Franks and Saxons, the most numerous and most important tribes of Germans, all had their origins in Sweden. As a womb of peoples Sweden was more important than Norway, and at an earlier date. Sweden was, in fact, to the continental world what Norway was to Britain, Iceland, and Normandy.
Although, since the Iron Age, Sweden's historical role has been that of a feeder of peoples, she has at various times, and to a lesser extent, acted in the opposite capacity. During the Völkerwanderung the remnants of the Herulians and various bands of disappointed Goths returned to the Nordic homelands, tired of wandering, and it is not unlikely that they brought with them new racial elements picked up in Hungary and in the lands north of the Black Sea. Later on, during the Viking period of the ninth to eleventh centuries, Swedes, as well as Danes and Norwegians, raided many countries and brought back with them thralls from the British Isles, France, and the lands across the Baltic. According to Nordenstreng55 these prisoners were settled most commonly in the present county of Uppland, immediately north of the city of Stockholm.
The development of cities in Sweden drew to that country large numben of traders and merchants, from Viking times onward, and these commercial people were largely of Germanic origin. Frisian and Saxon chapmen were the first, and these were followed by others, in later times, from various parts of Germany, including the southern principalities. During the period of Sweden's great military expansion (1611-1718 A.D) when the kingdom extended over large parts of Germany, many Germans were made noblemen, and went to live in Sweden. Thus the German blood in Sweden is a factor to be reckoned with, and has influenced, chiefly, the city population and the nobility. The latter class has also received strong infusions from Scotland, for Scotsmen, who served under Gustavus Adolphus in large numbers, were in many instances rewarded for their bravery by elevation to the Swedish peerage. Furthermore, Walloons, who represented a much darker and rounder-headed racial element than these other immigrants, were brought to Sweden during the seventeenth century to work in the iron foundries. Some thirty or forty thousand of their descendants can still be identified.
More important than any of these absorptions, in all likelihood, has been the influence of the Finns upon the Swedish people. In the Middle Ages, Kvaens wandered into the northern counties, but not in great numbers. The same Kvaenish migration which affected the northern provinces of Norway from 1700 A.D. onward, also reënforced this element in northern Sweden. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, other Finns settled in Värmland and Dalarne, counties bordering on the Norwegian provinces of Østfold and Hedmark,, and the Finns of Grue56 in Norway came as part of this same migration. Other Finns remained in scattered settlements between the Värmland and Dalarne nucleus and the head of the Gulf of Bothnia, while still others penetrated as far south as Stockholm.
Although this migration ceased about 1700, over 13,000 Finns had come to Sweden and to a small district in Norway. Although these Finns were not numerous, the population of Sweden at that time was no more than one and a half millions, and the Finns were particularly prolific. Today only two villages in Värmland retain Finnish speech from the time of this migration. In Norrbotten, in the valleys of Tome and Muonio, more recent colonies of Finns, from southwestern Finland, still speak their own language, and form a distinct alien bloc. In all there are, at present, about 30,000 Finnish speakers in Sweden, in addition to whom it is estimated that well over 100,000 Swedes are at least partially of Finnish descent.
In comparison with most European countries, Sweden has, in post-Iron Age times, been subjected to remarkably few foreign influences which would affect her racial composition. Despite the absorptions and immigrations noted above, Sweden remains one of the most homogeneous nations in Europe both in race and in pedigree. This homogeneity is largely the result of geography, for in contrast to the rugged Norwegian landscape, with its mountains and fjords and distinct centers of racial concentration, the flat surface of Sweden, with its modern industrial development and fluidity of population, has brought about a striking racial unity. In Sweden social and occupational differences in physical type are almost as great as regional ones. In no racial character are Swedish sub-groups, whether geographical or social, strongly differentiated.
The same basic Hallstatt Nordic type which found such a favorable breeding ground in Sweden during the Iron Age is still the predominant race in that kingdom. It has absorbed into its ethnic body both older and newer peoples, and has spread the resultant blend with remarkable evenness over the surface of the nation. On the whole, Sweden is the most Nordic nation in Europe in the Iron Age sense, and it is much more Nordic than Norway. At the same time, owing to geographical factors again, the valleys of southeastern Norway contain as unaltered an Iron Age Nordic population as any in Sweden. The metrical characters of the recruit material for the entire Swedish nation are very similar, in fact, to those of the southeastern Norwegians. 57 The stature mean of the Swedes is 172.2 cm., and their characteristic bodily proportions are equally close to the Norwegian standard. Regional variation in stature stretches only from 169.9 cm. in the northeastern manufacturing districts to 172.5 cm. in the central provinces conuguous with Trøndelag. In the far north, where Finnish influence is common, and in the south, where the order, more brachycephalic populations of the Neolithic and Bronze Ages were seated, the length of the trunk is relatively greater, and of the legs smaller, than in the central parts of the kingdom, but these regional differences are less pronounced than those between social and occupational groups in the nation as a whole. As in Norway, the population drawn to the cities is notably shorter-armed than that which remains upon the land.
The mean head length of Swedish recruits is 193.8 mm., and the breadth 152.3 mm., yielding a cephalic index of 77.7. The longest heads, with regional means running up to 195 mm., are found in the west, over against Norway, and the shortest in the north. The lowest cephalic index mean is 76.7, and the highest, concentrated in the north, are all below 80. The three principal breadth diameters of the face, minimum frontal, bizygomatic, and bigonial, have national means of 104.6 mm., 136.0 mm., and 103.4 mm., respectively, all of which are typically Nordic and comparable to those of the eastern valley Norwegians. Slight regional differences place the narrowest foreheads and faces in the western counties, and the broadest in the north and south. The total face height of 126.6 mm. is again a typically Nordic mean, comparable to that obtained by Bryn in his later work on the Eastern Valley people.58 While the narrowest faces are found in western Sweden, as is to be expected, the longest are typical of farmers in the north, where the Corded element may be slightly more prevalent. The Swedes are typically leptorrhine,59 and the commonest nasal profile form is straight. Concave noses, which reach the rather high figure of 28 per cent in the kingdom, are commonest in the north and least frequent in the south.
According to the Anthropologia Suecica, 52 per cent of Swedes had ash-blond hair, and 23 per cent golden. Thus the proportions of these two classes of blondism are reversed in comparison to Norway. The two countries are about equal in amount of dark hair shades, but, by and large, Norway would seem to be lighter haired than Sweden,60 if we may rely upon a comparison based on a correlation of two scales. In any case, the most numerous category is a medium to light brown, with extreme blonds in the minority. Regional differences, though slight, are suggestive. Götaland, the Goth country, as southern and southwestern Sweden was anciently designated, is lighter than Svealand, or central Sweden; Norrland, the north country, is in turn the darkest. The most red hair is found in the west and south, and the least in the east, toward Finland.
Retzius and Fürst found 67 per cent of light eyes, 29 per cent of mixed, and 4 per cent of dark. In the first category were presumably included light eyes wit a slight spotting, as in the Martin numbers 13 and 14. The Lundborg and Linders study, made with a different observational scheme,61 raised the first category to 87 per cent, and the third to 5 per cent. In any case, there can be no doubt that the eye colors of the Swedish people are predominantly light mixed and light, as in Norway; and that the lightest eyes in the kingdom are found in western Sweden, and the darkest in the north.
Correlations within the Lundborg and Linders series of 47,000 men show certain slight linkages, which could be dismissed as insignificant if found on smaller samples. The cephalic index decreases slightly, and the facial index rises, with an increase in stature; similarly, the tallest statures have a tendency to go with brown hair and light eyes. It is not unreasonable to suppose that this combination may be a faint reflection of the absorption of a Corded racial element into the population of Sweden. In the same way an association of flaxen hair, moderate stature, mesocephalic head form, and convexity of nasal profile, makes it unlikely that all high cephalic indices in Sweden are due to East Baltic influence, and suggests rather a survival of mesocephalic and brachycephalic elements in southern Sweden, comparable to those in western Norway. Truly short stature, linked with dark pigmentation and round head form, furnishes an infrequent combination, but one which may imply a Lappish strain in the far north, submerged Alpine elements, or both.
The Swedish material, and especially the correlations, confirms the opinion formed in Norway, that the Nordic race as such is not and was never wholly blond. The characteristic eye color is blue or gray, and the presence or absence of a small amount of superficial iris pigment seems racially irrelevant. At the same time, it is likely that all hair color shades from a light medium brown to the lightest, whether on the ashen or golden side, should be considered as "pure" lights, since, as the Swedish material shows, persons having these shades on the head have, as a rule, the same colored pubic hair. In Sweden, as in Norway, what linkages there are which point to the survival or resegregation of a Corded type indicate that this type was characterized by exceptionally light eyes, but a predominantly brown shade of hair.
Abundant anthropometric data from Sweden make it clear that the basic, and by far the most numerous element in the population is, as in eastern Norway, an Iron Age Nordic one, transferred from its central and eastern European home; earlier elements have survived less here than in Norway. There is, however, a strong concentration of unreduced Brünn and Borreby types, as illustrated in plates 4 and 5, in the fishing and seafaring population of the southwestern coast, across from Denmark; the presence of these types, although not clearly indicated by existing surveys, cannot, nevertheless, be denied.
At the same time, Corded elements within the Nordic racial body are most evident in the north, and especially near the Norwegian provinces of Trøndelagen. Lappish influences are also to be felt in the far north, while modern Finnish invasions and infiltrations have introduced the East Baltic type into central Sweden in some numbers. The nature of this type need not be discussed here, but will be studied in later sections of the present chapter.
54. The principal sources for this section are:
Lundborg, H., and Linders, F. J., The Racial Characters of the Swedish Nation.
Retzius, G., and Fürst, C. M., Anthropologia Suecica.
55. Nordenstreng, G., Origin, Growth, and Racial Components of the Swedish Nation, in Lundborg and Linders, pp. 41-49. Special ref. to p.44.
56. See p. 313.
57. Lundborg and Linden, op.cit.
58. Bryn, H., AAnz, vol.9, 1932, pp.141-164. It is higher than the Norwegian recruit material means, which were apparently taken with a different technique.
59. The only nasal constants in the L. and L. material are for Skaraborgs Län, where a N. I. of 62.7 is found. The nasal dimensions of 61.37 mm. for height and 30.18 for breadth (p.102) are presumably misprints.
60. This statement is in direct contradiction to the opinion of most anthropologist; especially of W. Scheidt, as expressed in his Die rassischen Verhältnisse in Nordeuopa, (ZFMA, vol.28, 1930, pp.1-198) and is by no means certain. It Is based on the following correlation of the L. and L. material with that from the Somatotogie der Norweger:
FISCHER Nos.........DESIGNATION...........SWEDEN..........NORWAYThe Swedish recruits were observed for hair color by means of a local chart, which was later correlated with the Fischer standard. (L. & L., p.10.) The comparison between the Swedish and Norwegian results was made by recombining the total Norwegian series according to the Swedish divisions. The difference in amounts of red is undoubtedly due to a difference of standards, as Conitzer has previously stated. (Conitzer, H., ZFMA, vol.19, 1931, pp.83-147.)
12-25...............flaxen................6.9 %...........27.9 %
7-11, 26............light brown...........62.5............50.0
61. "#1 - light iris (blue, gray, pale yellow, or green), also light iris with insignificant brown spots, points, or patches; 2 = mixed iris and light iris with brown aureole; 3 = light brown or dark iris." L. & L., p.10.
(Chapter IX, Section 7)
DenmarkDenmark, the smallest and most southerly of the three Scandinvian kingdoms, is also the most densely populated, being inhabited by two and one half millions of people. It consists of the peninsula of Jutland, the isthmus of Schleswig, acquired since the World War, and the Danish archipelago. These islands, the largest of which are Zealand, Funen, Laaland, Falster, Möen, Langeland, and Samsø, although smaller in total area than the mainland, contain the bulk of the population. The island of Bornholm, situated to the southeast of Skåne, is likewise Danish territory, as are the islands of Lessö and Anholt, which lie in the midst of the Cattegat. On the southwestern coast of Denmark the Frisian Islands begin their chain, which is only broken by the mouth of the Elbe in its stretch from Denmark to Holland. Some of these islands are Danish, some are German, and others are Dutch in nationality. Far separated from Denmark, but under its sovereignty, lie the Faroe Islands, between the Shetlands and Iceland, and Iceland itself is an autonomous state under the Danish crown, while Greenland, a restricted crown colony, is the home of a few thousand Danes.
Throughout the prehistoric period Denmark was the cultural center of Scandinavia, and likewise the center of greatest population. The profusion of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments and graves shows that before the Iron Age invasions both the mainland and the islands were densely inhabited; in view of this crowding, it is not surprising that the newcomers found greater room for expansion in Sweden and eastern Norway. From Ertebølle times onward the Danish Islands, and to a lesser extent the mainland, was the focal point in northern Europe for the settlement of the brachycephalic Borreby people. With them had mingled Megalithic seafarers in large numbers, while the Corded people had concentrated their activities on the mainland. It is not surprising, therefore, that a population so firmly attached to its milieu as that of pre-Iron Age Denmark should have survived the vicissitudes of centuries and eventually have reëmerged in considerable strength. That this is exactly what has happened is the sense of the present section.
During the Iron Age Denmark continued in its cultural leadership of Scandinavia, owing largely to its greater proximity to the source of civilized influences farther south, for Denmark was greatly affected by the repercussions of Roman civilization. In the Völkerwanderung period, Denmark, furthermore, contributed heavily to the stream of migration southward; the Cimbri, the first Germanic people to come under the eyes of Rome, were natives of Jutland; the Jutes and the Angles who settled England with the Saxons from Schleswig-Holstein again came from Denmark. The later inroads of Danes into Britain strengthened the earlier contingents. Hence, Denmark played an even greater part in the settlement of the British Isles than did Norway.
In contrast to Norway and Sweden, existing documents which cover the physical anthropology of the living Danes are scattered and incomplete. It is not possible to study the distribution of characters from village to village and county to county, nor to examine the special racial attributes of individuals. It is possible, however, to make a few general observations, and to supplement these with deductions based on common knowledge. In the first place, the Danes are not as tall as the Swedes and Norwegians, although their king is the tallest monarch in Europe. The mean stature of twenty-one year old recruits in 1925 was 169.4 cm., which varied between 172.3 cm., on the island of Anholt in the middle of the Cattegat, and 167.1 cm. for Fanø, the northernmost of the Frisian Isles. In general, Jutland and Schleswig are comparatively tall, with mean statures of 170 cm., while the island population is a centimeter or two shorter, especially on Samsø, southern and eastern Zealand, Laaland, Falster, and Möen. Copenhagen and the adjoining Counties of northern Zealand are, by contrast, quite tall.
Aside from stature, there is no metric character in which all of Denmark has been regionally studied. In other measurements and indices one is obliged to refer to material which covers the country as a unit, or certain sections of it only. Data referring to bodily build indicate that the Danes are longer armed, wider spanned, longer trunked, and, in general, more heavily built than the common run of other Scandinavians, and resemble in these respects the western Norwegians more than any other group. Several series show that the mean head lengths of Danes in various parts of the kingdom are uniformly 194 mm., as long as the Swedish national mean, and comparable to that of the mesocephalic population of western Norway; variations in cephalic index are dependent rather upon variations in head breadth, which ranges from 154.7 mm. on the island of Bornholm to 158.8 mm. in the northern part of Samsø. That the higher cephalic indices in Denmark result from greater breadths instead of from lesser lengths, is a sure indication that we are dealing with a Borreby form of brachycephaly.
The mean cephalic index of Denmark, however, is but 80.6;63 and this sub-brachycephalic mean condition is not subject to much regional variation. Although Denmark is the least long headed of the three Scandinavian kingdoms, nowhere in it may be found a regional population as round headed as that of Jæren. Denmark, like Sweden, is flat and lacks natural barriers; one must expect a great national uniformity. The highest means yet recorded are 81.8 for northern Samsø, 81.4 for western Jutland, and for the isle of Anholt. No regional mean is under 80.
Facial measurements on Danes are extremely rare; what there are show breadth diameters high for Scandinavia. Hannesson, in a small series of Danish sailors, finds a minimum frontal of 106.5 mm., a bizygomatic of 139.5 mm., and a bigonial of 107 mm. In northern Samsø, an unusually brachycephalic area, the bizygomatic rises to 142.5 mm. Thus the Danish facial breadths resemble those found in coastal Norway, especially the rounder-headed districts, and in Iceland.
Data on the hair and eye color of Danes is as extensive as that on stature, and covers the entire kingdom. Although no scales were used, the categories employed seem clearly defined and there can be little doubt as to the character of Danish pigmentation. Hansen found that "fair" hair decreased from 52 per cent at the age of 6 years to 33 per cent at 14, and fell to 16.6 per cent at the recruit age of 20 years. This "fair" category must, therefore, include pronounced degrees of blondism only, and exclude the light brown hues often designated as blond elsewhere. On the island of Samsø, Bardenfleth found only 7,5 per cent of hair which he was willing to call light, and 40 per cent of medium, 43 per cent of dark, and 9 per cent of black. Samsø is one of the darkest-haired regions of Denmark.
Judging from the distribution of the school children material, the southern part of the Danish mainland, toward Schleswig-Holstein, is the blondest section of the country; two regions are darkest: Thirsted, the northwestern county of Jutland, and the islands.
What appears to be the most accurate division of eye colors is that of Bardenfleth, who finds 38 per cent of light, 59 per cent of mixed, and 3 per cent of dark eyes on Samsø. This is comparable to the eye color situation elsewhere in Scandinavia. Samsø is one of the darker-eyed sections of Denmark, and regional eye color variations, though not great, follow those of hair color.
In its available form, the Danish material is not so arranged that many correlations and regressions can be made from it. In Samsø, light-haired individuals are a half centimeter taller than dark-haired ones, and slightly higher in cephalic index. This regression runs counter to the slight geographical association between darker hair, shorter stature, and rounder heads, from which racial inferences have been deduced. The associations noted in Samsø, however, agree with the similar correlations found in southern Sweden, which would point to the presence on both sides of the Cattegat of a special tall, blond brachycephal, particularly common among Swedish immigrants to the United States where the vulgar term "square-head" is used to designate it. Popular, subjective labels in the designation of races, used among persons ignorant of the existence of physical anthropology, are often truer than the hesitant results of erudite wanderings in the labyrinth of numbers.
Aknowledge of the racial history of Denmark, and a familiarity with the appearance of modern Danes, makes the interpretation of existing data, however fragmentary, possible. On the whole, the Danes form, as Burrau feels, a composite type which is inextricably blended, but which shows in individual variations leanings toward different ancestral forms, as well as toward new combinations. The blond "square-head" noted above is an important type, heavy-boned and sturdy, basically Borreby in inspiration.
The minority of brunet pigmentation, in Denmark not associated with brachycephaly, reminds one that the Danish Islands held the greatest concentration of Megalithic people in the whole north, and that these Megalithic people blended with the Borreby aborigines before the arrival of either Corded folk or Iron Age Nordics. On the whole, Denmark, like Sweden and Norway, may be called a Nordic country, but Nordic only in the modern Scandinavian sense.
Before leaving the description of the living Danish people, two special problems remain, the racial character of the island of Bornholm, to the east of Denmark proper in the Baltic, and that of the Faroes. Ribbing, in a study of the Bornholm people, finds them taller, fairer, and somewhat longer headed than most of the Danes, and considers that they are most closely related to the southern Swedes inhabiting the island of Gotland.
The Faroes, isolated in the northern seas between the Shetlands and Iceland, preserve a picturesque and mediaeval Danish population of fishermen.64 These islands were first inhabited by the Scotch, who may or may not have left before the coming of the Vikings, which took place shortly before the settlement of Iceland. The Faroe males are as tall as Danes (169-170 cm.), and about the same in head form. (C. I.-79.6.)65 The faces are distinguished by a considerable breadth of the mandible,66 found also in Iceland and among the northernmost Norwegians. Until more extensive information appears than that at present available, we may consider the Faroe Islanders typical descendants of Viking Age Danes and coastal Norwegians.
In all three Scandinavian kingdoms, changes have been observed in stature during the last century. The normal amount of increase in young men draughted for recruiting has been somewhere between 6 and 8 cm. It would appear that one hundred years ago Danes of military age were only 164 cm. tall, on the average, while Swedes and Norwegians varied regionally between 166 and 168 cm. If one recalls the statures of the inhabitants of these countries before and during the pre-Christian Iron Age, it will at once appear that this increase has been actually a process of returning, under new stimuli, to an older condition. The depletion of these countries during the Völkerwanderung and the adverse climatic conditions of the Middle Ages must have had in the first instance a selective, in the second a depressing, effect upon national stature.
In all three countries comparisons between city and country populations show that there is a tendency for the Iron Age Nordic type to be drawn to the cities, and to be, in general, the most restless element in the population; undoubtedly because it was the last to arrive and because it formed in many regions the upper social stratum. For these reasons again it is not inconceivable that the Völkerwanderung drained off this element in disproportionate numbers, and that the reëmergence of older forms has been a result of this process, especially in Denmark, in western Norway, and in southern Sweden, where the older forms were originally most numerous. The three Scandinavian kingdoms, and especially eastern Norway and Sweden as a whole, remain the greatest single reservoir of the Iron Age Nordic race, but it is conceivable that that race was numerically more important in Scandinavia at the time of Christ than it is today.
(Chapter IX, section 13)
ConclusionsThe systematic study of the living peoples of the northern regions of Europe, by geographic, ethnic, and linguistic groups, has led to the following conclusions:
(1) This zone still shelters various groups of Upper Palaeolithic survivors. These include both reduced and unreduced varieties. The former includes the Lapps, whose home was formerly in the region of the Ural Mountains, and the Ladogan type of the eastern forest, which has blended with Danubian descendants to form a type known as Neo-Danubian. The latter includes full-sized descendants of the Brünn-type men of the Aurignacian, blended into the coastal population of Norway and into the Icelandic racial body; it also includes brachycephalic Borreby descendants in Norway, Denmark, and elsewhere.
(2) The eastern valley region of Norway, along with the Swedish plain, forms an area of maximum survival of the Iron Age Nordic race of central Europe.
(3) The East Baltic race in the strict sense is to be distinguished from the Neo-Danubian; it is concentrated in the eastern Baltic countries only and consists of a blend of unreduced Upper Palaeolithic survivors with Corded people and with Neo-Danubians.
(4) Completely evolved mongoloids live on European soil, on the rim of the Arctic Ocean. These mongoloids are the Samoyeds, whose spread westward and northward from central Asia has been recent. Neither the Lapps nor the Ladogan derivatives are or have ever been fully mongoloid, but they have evolved a certain distance in a mongoloid direction. There is nothing specifically mongoloid about the Brünn or Borreby types, the unreduced Upper Palaeolithic survivors.
Except for the Lapps, none of the racial types mentioned is confined to regions studied in this chapter. We shall encounter all of the others elsewhere.
(Photographic Supplement, Plate 4)
Brünn Survivors in ScandinaviaDuring the Late Pleistocene age, the post-glacial Mesolithic cultural period, descendants of Upper Palaeolithic hunters lived in North Africa, in most of Europe, and in western Siberia, where some of them merged into the ancestors of the mongoloid group of humanity. Even during the Upper Palaeolithic cultural period in western Europe, some of the hunting peoples showed incipiently mongoloid racial tendencies. Among the living descendants of these hunters, these tendencies are more common in the eastern groups than among those living in the west.
Aside from the Ainu, the Lapps represent the easternmost in locus of development of the basically white hunting groups which survived, and the only one which retained a non-agricultural economy until modern times. Their present location in northern Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula is probably recent, and their area of differentiation is believed to have been situated in the neighborhood of the Urals.
All Upper Palaeolithic survivors may be divided into two general groups (a) those who have been subjected to reduction in head size and bodily bulk, and who, have been partially foetalized in the course of the same process; and (b) those who retain the head size, bodily bulk, and masculinity of features characterstic of the Pleistocene hunters. Most of the latter group are to be found in northwestern Europe. Dolichocephalic individuals who recapitulate the metrical and morphological qualities of the Crô-Magnon and Brünn-Předmost Aurignacian people are commonest in Scandinavia and in Ireland. In Scandinavia they are found concentrated along the southern Swedish coast in the neighborhood of Göteborg, and in the mountains of southwestern Norway.
FIG. 1 (3 views).
A Swede from Trollhatton, southern Sweden. This man is both tall and heavy; of lateral bodily build. His head is of prodigious length, his face nearly as wide as his cranial vault; all dimensions of the face are great, especially the width of the mandible; the distance between the eyes, and the heaviness of the browridges, are likewise remarkable. This individual recapitulates, as closely probably as any other living human being, the physical type of many of the hunters who lived in western and central Europe during the Laufen Interglacial and the last advance of the ice. Note that in his case, as with most of his type, only a partial degree of blondism is present.
FIG. 2 (3 views).
Another Swede, in this case from Göteborg, a slightly less extreme example of the same type. Swedes of this type are habitually found in association with the sea. Both of these individuals, as well as Fig. 4, were measured and photographed in a Boston shipyard.
FIG. 3 (3 views, from Alette Schreiner, Anthropologische Lokaluntersuchungen in Norge; Valle, Halandsdal, und Eidfjord. Oslo, 1930. #113).
This Norwegian from the isolated mountain settlement of Valle in southwestern Norway represents the same basic type as the two men above; his face and mandible, however; are narrower; and his hair ash blond; admixture with Nordics is indicated.
FIG. 4 (3 views).
The same conclusion is suggested in reference to this extremely long-faced and golden-haired Swede from Helsingborg. He is, however, much larger in head and face size, much heavier in body build, and heavier in the facial skeleton than any Nordic. The predominant strain is Upper Palaeolithic.
(Photographic Supplement, Plate 5)
Borreby Survivors in the NorthIn the same districts of southern Sweden where Brünn survivors are found, and across the Skaggerrak in Jutland, are found brachycephalic Upper Palaeolithic survivors, equally unreduced in head and body size, equally if not more lateral in bodily build.
The ancestors of, these people arrived on the western Baltic shores during the Late Mesolithic. Other colonies of them are to be found in the coastal districts of southwestern Norway, and they form an element of primary importance in the population of Germany. In general, their present distribution is wider than that of their dolichocephalic counterparts.
FIG. 1 (3 views).
A Dane from Jutland, very tall, heavy, lateral in build, with an enormous head and an extremely wide face. This individual is as exaggerated an example of the Borreby race as is #1 of the preceding plate of the Brünn race.
FIG. 2 (3 views).
A Swede from Göteborg, representing more nearly the mean of the Borreby race as it is found today. Both this man and #1 are golden blond in hair color; the Borreby group seems to run lighter-haired than the Brünn.
FIG. 3 (2 views, Bryn and Schreiner; Die Somatologie der Norweger, Table 44, Fig. 121).
This individual, while less brachycephalic than many of his compatriots, especially those in the Jaeren district, shows an essential affiliation to the Borreby race. The apparent facial flatness and the formation of the region of the nasal tip and the upper lip look "Irish"; this is an Upper Palaeolithic facial condition common both to Scandinavians and to British of Upper Palaeolithic type.
FIG. 4 (1 view, Gudmundur Kamban, author of I See a Wondrous Land, G. P. Putnam & Sons, N. Y.).
A prominent Icelandic author, who presents the same facial features and belongs to the general Borreby racial type. Iceland was settled mainly from the coastal regions of Norway in which the Borreby race is prevalent; an important Irish increment may have added a similar racial element.
FIG. 5 (3 views).
A Finnish example of the Borreby race. This Finn is more brachycephalic than most Borreby men; however his lateral bodily build, and his extreme breadth of face and mandible show that he is a trans-Baltic member.
(Photographic Supplement, Plate 27)
The Nordic Race: Examples of Corded PredominanceThe Nordic race is a partially depigmented branch of the greater Mediterranean racial stock. It is probably a composite race made up of two or more basic Mediterranean strains, depigmented separately or in conjunction by a progressive evolutionary process. As has been demonstrated on plates 9 and 10, it is impossible, as some European anthropologists believe, to derive a Nordic directly from a dolichocephalic Upper Palaeolithic ancestor of Brünn or Crô-Magnon type. Reduction of these overgrown races produces a result which is quite un-Nordic morphologically as well as in constitutional type. It is the author's thesis that the Nordic race in Europe was caused by a blending of the early Danubian Mediterranean strain with the later Corded element. At the present time both Corded and Danubian elements may be isolated, while other Nordics preserve the blended form. Nordics in eastern Europe, Asia, and North Africa may have been formed by separate recombinations or simple depigmentations of comparable Mediterranean strains, or by invasions of these regions from an European or West Asiatic depigmentation center.
FIG. 1 (3 views).
A Finn of predominantly Corded type; note the ash-blond hair and grayish eyes, the great head length, and extremely low cephalic index. In head and face proportions a resemblance is seen to the Corded-like Irano-Afghan sub-type, a resemblance which is enhanced if pigmentation differences are ignored Both metrically and morphologically this individual is seen to be fully Mediterranean; there is no evidence of Upper Palaeolithic admixture.
FIG. 2 (3 views).
A Swede from Sonderhamn who represents the same type, and who is very similar in most dimensions. The population of most of Sweden is predominantly Nordic; typical Upper Palaeolithic survivors are numerous only along the southwestern coast.
FIG. 3 (3 views).
A Nordic Dane of Jutish parentage who also shows Corded predominance. His face is of extreme length, a trait common among ancient Corded crania. This individual is the son of the classic Borreby man shown on Plate 5, Fig. 1; this is graphic evidence of the fact that ancient racial types may be repeated in toto in individuals of mixed racial ancestry. Only through the agency of such segregation is it possible to present this collection of basic European racial photographs.
FIG. 4 (3 views).
New Englander of Colonial British descent. This tall, slenderly built, ash-blond-haired Nordic is an extreme example of the Corded type which entered Britain first during the Bronze Age in conjunction with brachycephals, and later during the Iron Age as an element in the Nordic invading groups. Its presence in New England in 1938 can only be regarded as a complete reëmergence.
(Photographic Supplement, Plate 28)
The Nordic Race: Examples of Danubian PredominanceIn contrast to the last plate, the present one shows a series of Nordics in whom the Corded element is notably weak or absent, so that an approximation to the earlier, smaller-headed, mesocephalic Danubian strain is perhaps attained. The reason for qualification on this score is that not enough Danubian crania have been found and described to make this point certain.
FIG. 1 (3 views).
A Norwegian from Drommen, near Oslo. The head is absolutely of moderate size, comparable to that of small brunet Mediterranean sub-varieties; the stature and bodily bulk are also small.
FIG. 2 (3 views).
A mesocephalic Englishman from Southampton, whose small face, concave-profiled, round-tipped nasal form, and whose lack of angularity or bony extravagance in the cranial and facial skeleton, combined with a high vault, indicate a close similarity to the known skeletal remains of Neolithic Danubians.
FIG. 3 (3 views).
A Galician of mixed Ukrainian and Polish parentage; an excellent example of the Danubian type, bound to the soil since the Neolithic, which has reemerged throughout the entire length of the rich agricultural plain which stretches across southern Poland and Russia, while Nordics proper have for the most part moved elsewhere.
FIG. 4 (3 views).
A Lithuanian, who although brachycephalic, belongs essentially to the same Danubian type.
(Photographic Supplement, Plate 29)
The Nordic Race: Hallstatt andFIG. 1 (2 views, Bryn and Schreiner, Somatologie der Norweger, Table 27, Fig. 81).
Keltic Iron Age Types
A Norwegian from Drangedal of standard, Eastern Valley type as specified in Chapter 9, section 4. This is the type associated with the Hallstatt Iron Age remains in central Europe, and which probably did not enter Scandinavia much before the middle of the first millennium B.C. It has since been largely replaced in central Europe, but has found a refuge in Sweden and in the eastern valleys of southern Norway.
FIG. 2 (2 views).
An Englishman from the neighborhood of London, who belongs to exactly the same central Nordic type. In England this type is largely of Anglo-Saxon and Danish inspiration.
FIG. 3 (2 views).
An East Anglian from Ipswich, Suffolk. More of the English belong to this locally older Keltic Iron Age type, which came from southwestern Germany with the Kelts and is differentiated by a lower cranial vault, a more sloping forehead, and greater nasal prominence. The hair color is more frequently brown than light blond.
FIG. 4 (2 views, photo C. W. Dupertuis).
The Iron Age Nordic type is particularly important in Ireland, which was never strongly invaded by Germanic-speaking Hallstatt Nordics. This individual, a man from County Clare, with his sloping forehead, aquiline nose, and brown hair, is an excellent example.
FIG. 5 (2 views, photo C. W. Dupertuis).
A special population, largely the product of isolation, has developed in the Aran Isles. Here a local Nordic type of great vault length and exceptionally low vault height, great facial and nasal length, and an excess of blue eyes and golden and red hair, has developed. The young man shown in this figure is an excellent example of this type.
FIG. 6 (2 views, photo C. W. Dupertuis).
The Aran Islander shown in this figure is relatively brunet for his group, and has the exceptionally low auricular head height of 110 mm. He illustrates the principle that the low-headed factor is borne by the least blond element in the Aran population. Note the convergent temporal planes and the cylindrical profile of the vault when seen in the front view. This feature, in less exaggerated form, is a cranial diagnostic of the Keltic Iron Age type in general.
(Photographic Supplement, Plate 32)
Nordics Altered by Northwestern European Upper Palaeolithic Mixture: I
West-coast Norwegian Type-- TrønderThroughout the northwestern European area, from the British Isles to the Baltic States, and as far south as southern Belgium, south-central Germany, and the Carpathians, the Nordic race has combined and blended profusely with various types of unreduced Upper Palaeolithic survivors. Examples of such blendings will be seen on this and the next two plates.
FIG. 1 (3 views).
A Norwegian from Bergen; metrically for the most part Nordic, but with a high mesocephalic head form, a high cranial vault, and Brünn- or Borreby-like suggestions in the formation of the nose and mouth. This is the type called Tronder by the Norwegian anthropologists, owing to its concentration in North and South Trondelagen, on the central Norwegian coast. An "Irish" look is often a feature of this type, showing its relationship to the Palaeolithic element in Ireland.
FIG. 2 (3 views).
A Bergen sea captain, of the same general type, brachycephalic owing to an increase in head breadth unaccompanied by length reduction. The Tronder type is usually higher-headed, longer-faced, less dolichocephalic, and heavier in body build and in facial features than the Eastern Valley or Hallstatt Iron Age Nordic Type.
FIG. 3 (3 views).
Trondelag-like types are by no means confined to Norway. This individual is a Lett from Kurland of predominantly Nordic affiliation, but broader-headed and less delicate of facial features than the classic Iron Age type. Nordics of this general class are common in the Baltic Republics.
FIG. 4 (3 views).
A Highland Scot from Morayshire; tall, large-headed,brown-haired, with an extremely long face and a high cranial vault, he represents a local North British Trondelag approximation, either through the absorption of indigenous Upper Palaeolithic elements, or through importation from Ireland with the Gaelic invasions, or from Scandinavia.
(Photographic Supplement, Plate 33)
Nordics Altered by Northwestern European Upper Palaeolithic Mixture: IIFIG. 1 (3 views).
Anglo-Saxon TypeA Netherlander from Gelderland in the northern Netherlands. Gelderland and Friesland are the home of overgrown Nordics with long faces and high heads; showing both Corded and Brünn or Borreby tendencies. This individual is absolutely long-headed for a mesocephalic index, and beak-nosed, in accordance with the local type under discussion. He is, however, a relatively little altered Nordic.
FIG. 2 (3 views).
A Schleswig-Holsteiner from Elmshorn, on the Danish border. He is a very blond, golden-haired Nordic of relatively great body size, with all lateral dimensions of the head and face broadened by Borreby mixture; the morphological features of the head and face, however, remain essentially Nordic.
FIG. 3 (3 views).
An equally blond specimen of the same type from Hannover, made much more brachycephalic through a reduction in head length. Nordics, brachycephalized in head form and made larger and more lateral in bodily proportions through Borreby admixture, form the major element in the population of northern and central Germany.
FIG. 4 (3 views).
A heavily built Galician Pole, light red haired, and brachycephalic; a Slavic counterpart of the North German type depicted above. He is basically similar to the Ruthenian mountaineer shown on Plate 8, Fig. 1, but shows a more strongly Nordic racial character.