29 January 2013

ANCIENT GREECE : ORIGINS TO BYZANTIUM





ACROPOLIS, ATHENS
 PUBLISHED, FORMATTED, EDITED, ANNOTATIONS (IN RED), IMAGES & IMAGE-CAPTIONS BY KENNETH S, DOIG
(Wikipedia)
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes (Greek: Έλληνες, (/elines/), are a nation and ethnic-group native to Greece, Cyprus and other regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.

Greek colonies and communities have been historically established in most corners of the Mediterranean, but Greeks have always been centered around the Aegean Sea, where the Greek language has been spoken since antiquity. 


THE SEA-PEOPLES, c 1250 BC WHO MAY HAVE BEEN 


ACHAEANS, ONE OF THE FIRST ARYAN-SPEAKING TRIBES 

TO BRING IN ONE FORM OF HELLENIC INDO-EUROPEAN
SPEECH, PROBABLY FROM THE NORTH, PROBABLY
THE DANUBE BASIN 
Until the early 20th century, Greeks were uniformly distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia-Minor, Pontus, Egypt, Cyprus and Constantinople; many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of the ancient-Greek colonization.

In the aftermath of the Graeco-Turkish War (1919–1922), a large-scale population exchange between Greece and Turkey transferred and confined Christians from Turkey, except Constantinople (effectively ethnic-Greeks) into the borders of the modern-Greek state and Cyprus. 

MODEL OF MINOAN HOUSE
Other ethnic-Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and in diaspora-communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox-Church. 
RUINS OF TIRYNS 

History 
The Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic language. They are part of a group of pre-modern ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an "archetypal diaspora-people".

The modern Greek state was created in 1832, when the Greeks liberated a part of their historic homelands from the Ottoman Empire. 


The large Greek diaspora and merchant-class were instrumental in transmitting the ideas of western romantic nationalism and philhellenism, which together with the conception of Hellenism, formulated during the last centuries of the Byzantine Empire, formed the basis of the Diafotismos and the current conception of Hellenism. 
THE ACHAEANS, DORIANS, IONIANS,
MYCENAENS AND, I.E., GREEKS WHO WERE
OF INDO-EUROPEAN ORIGIN WERE
QUITE UNLIKE THE MINOANS WHO
PREDATED THEM.

Origins 
The Proto-Greeks probably arrived at the area now called Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, at the end of the 3rd millennium BC. 


The sequence of migrations into the Greek mainland during the 2nd millennium BC has to be reconstructed on the basis of the ancient-Greek dialects, as they presented themselves centuries later and is subject to some uncertainties. 
Mycenae is a site located about 56 mi. [90 km. — “as the crow flies”] southwest of Athens in the Peloponnese. There is 9.5 mi. [15 km.] of plain to the south of it until one reaches the sea and it guards passes leading north from the plain into the mountains and on to the Corinth-area and from there into mainland Greece.

The high point of Mycenaean (Mykenai) civilization was from 1600 BC to 1200 BC and because of its importance some of the pottery of this period is named “Mycenaean” and was used all over the Mediterranean world.Its rulers have also been immortalized in Homer’s works—the Iliad and the Odyssey.
There were at least two migrations, the first of the Ionians and Aeolians which resulted in Mycenaean-Greece by the 16th century BC, and the second, the Dorian invasion, around the 11th century BC, displacing the Arcado-Cypriot dialects which descended from the Mycenaean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late-Bronze-Age and the Doric at the Bronze-Age collapse. 
MYKENAI c 1200 BC: ARTIST'S RENDITION OF RECONSTRUCTED
WALLED CITY-FASTNESS (FORTRESS
)
There were some suggestions of three waves of migration indicating a Proto-Ionian one, either contemporary or even earlier than the Mycenaean. This possibility appears to have been first suggested by Ernst Curtius in the 1880s. 

In current scholarship, the standard-assumption is to group the Ionic together with the Arcado-Cypriot group as the successors of a single Middle-Bronze-Age migration in dual-opposition to the "western" group of Doric.
Mycenaean.

Das Löwentor von Mykene/Griechenland (Urlaub 2006)
THE FAMOUS LIONSGATE OF MYCENAE
(As a sidenote, there was no soft c or even the letter 'c' in Greek. The letter κ or Κ καππα  [kappa] was and still is used by Greeks, Achaeans, Argives, Hellenes, etc.. Virtually all our names pertaining to the Greek, Hellenistic and much of the known (to Romans) ancient world, come from Latin [Latin had, or hardly ever used the letter 'K', they used their counterpart; 
the letter 'C'. In old- and classical Latin was ALWAYS pronounced as a 'K'NEVER, EVER soft, like an 'S'] or a Latinized version of the native or endonymic appellations.. E.g., one modern maps, written for English-, German- and French-speakers, often the true Greek form, written in the Latin alphabet. Some Examples:

PHONETIC ALPHABETS & THEIR COMPLEXITY
 I will give the traditional Latinate-names, usually, and essentially the same word as pronounced by Romans and written in their [our] alphabet. Then, I will give the re-Hellenized, new [to us], but actually older, much closer to Greek. traditional Lat. name/Hellenized name[note bene, obs!], when a word has these slashes {/} such as this: /sample-word/, it is linguistic shorthand giving the phonetic spelling, usually defining the exact pronunciation of any given word or lexeme contain therein, usually using the IPA  {international phonetic alphabet}. 

It is an extremely precise, exact alphabet & difficult alphabet to learn as there are about 20 different characters for each letter, giving the super-exact sound/phonology. Virtually nobody, outside linguistics, philology or a similar academic field,  knows it. 


BRONZE-AGE EASTERN MED/AEGEAN. THREE CULTURE, FIRST THE
 CYCLADIC THEN, MINOAN, THEN THE INDO-EUROPEAN-MYCENAEAN 
That is why, when giving pronunciations, I use an ad hoc phonetic-alphabet of my own, instead of writing /aior /aj/ (which very few North-Americans, Aussies or Brits will understand. They will assume the /ai/ or /aj/ is the same sound of /ay/ in say) for the ae-sound in ancient-Latin- Caesar. So, I write it using well-known English words or parts of words. My phonetic transcription for Caesar is /KIGH-saar/  & I'll make a remark that the igh is the same sound heard in Standard-English word sigh or the i in kite. Also the all-cap syllable has primary-stress/accent)
Euboea/Évia [Greek: Εύβοια, Évia; Ancient-Greek: Εὔβοια, Eúboia]
Achaeans/Akhaioí  [Greek: Ἀχαιοί, Akhaioí]
Mycenae/Mykéné or Mykéna [Greek, Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē]
Cyclops/Kuklōps [/ˈsaɪklɒps/; Greek: Κύκλωψ, plural- cyclopes /saɪˈkloʊpiːz/; Greek: Κύκλωπες, Kuklōpes
Thrace/Thraki [Thrace /ˈθreɪs/ demonym Thracian /ˈθreɪʃⁱən/; Bulgarian: ТракияTrakiya, Greek: Θράκη, Thráki, Turkish: Trakya]
The Mycenaeans quickly penetrated the Aegean-Sea and by the 15th-century BC had reached Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus, where Teucer is said to have founded the first colony, and the shores of Asia-Minor. Around 1200 BC the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus.               
The Mycenaeans were ultimately the first Greek-speaking people attested through historical sources, written records in the Linear-B script, and through their literary-echoes in the works of Homer, a few centuries later.


WOMAN FROM MYKENAI
Traditionally, historians have believed that the Dorian invasion caused the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, but it is likely the main attack was made by seafaring raiders (sea peoples) who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean around 1180 BC. 

The Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark-Ages, but by 800 BC the landscape of Archaic and Classical Greece was discernible.

GREAT WEALTH IS ASSOCIATE WITH THE 
ACHAEANS OF THE LATE-HELLADIC PERIOD
1600 BC TO 11100 BC

In the Homeric epics, the Greeks of prehistory are viewed as the ancestors of the early classical civilization of Homer's own time, while the Mycenaean pantheon included many of the divinities (e.g. Zeus, Poseidon and Hades) attested in later Greek religion.
GREEK CONTRIBUTORS TO PSYCHIATRY


                                                Classical
The classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to Alexander the Great's death, in 323 BC (some authors prefer to split this period into Classical, from the end of the Persian wars to the end of the Peloponnesian War, and 'Fourth Century', up to Alexander's death of).


OLYMPIC GAMES: CHARIOT-RACER
It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in later eras. The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is marked, according to some scholars, by the first Olympic Games in 776 BC, when the idea of a common Hellenism among the Greek-speaking tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was primarily a matter of common-culture.

                ARTIST-RECONSTRUCTION OF MEGARON
While the Greeks of the classical era understood themselves to belong to a common Greek genos their first loyalty was to their city and they saw nothing incongruous about warring, often brutally, with other Greek city-states. The Peloponnesian War, the large scale Greek civil-war between Athens and Sparta and their allies, is a case in point.

INHERITED INDO-EUROPEAN HEROIC-WARRIOR ETHOS
In any case, Alexander's toppling of the Achaemenid Empire, after his victories at the battles of the Granicus, Issus and Gaugamela, and advance as far as modern-day Pakistan and Tajikistan, provided an important outlet for Greek culture, via the creation of colonies and trade-routes along the way.
               
                     MAINLAND HELLAS & WHAT WAS CONSIDER THE HEARTLAND, THOUGH
                                  ACROSS THE AEGEAN IN MOSTLY IE-GREEK & OTHER IE 
                              (INDO-EUROPEAN OR ARYAN) ANATOLIAN-SPEAKING ARYAN TRIBES;
                            INDO-HITTITE SUBRANCH, A VERY ARCHAIC FORM OF INDO-EUROPEAN. 
                            HITTITE  LUWIAN (THE PEOPLE OF *WILION OR WILUSA  ILION/ILIUM,
                             AS IN THE ILIAD AS IN TROY) CARIAN, LYDIAN, LYCIAN, PALAIC, 
                            SIDETIC, PISIDIAN, PHRYGIAN, THRACO-DACIAN, ETC. TO THE PLETHORA
                             OF ARYAN IRANIAN-SPEAKING NORDIC ARYANS: PERSIANS, SKYTHIANS, 
                             SAMARTIAN, KIMMERIANS, SOGDIANS, PARTHIANS, AVESTANS,  K/DOIG   

                     
                               IRANIAN INDO-EUROPEAN 
                                    HEARTLAND IN CENTRAL-ASIA  

Classical

The classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC (some authors prefer to split this period into 'Classical', from the end of the Persian wars to the end of the Peloponnesian War, and 'Fourth Century', up to the death of Alexander). 

It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in later eras. The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is marked, according to some scholars, by the first Olympic Games in 776 BC, when the idea of a common Hellenism among the Greek-speaking tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was primarily a matter of common culture.

While the Greeks of the classical era understood themselves to belong to a common Greek genos their first loyalty was to their city and they saw nothing incongruous about warring, often brutally, with other Greek city-states. The Peloponnesian War, the large scale Greek civil-war between Athens and Sparta and their allies, is a case in point.

Most of the feuding Greek city-states were, in some scholars' opinions, united under the banner of Philip's and Alexander the Great's pan-Hellenic ideals, though others might generally opt, rather, for an explanation of "Macedonian (Μακενδονια or /ma-KEH-ðohniya/) conquest for the sake of conquest" or at least conquest for the sake of riches, glory and power and view the "ideal" as useful propaganda directed towards the city-states.
ALEXANDER'S EMPIRE IN THE 4TH CENTURY BC
In any case, Alexander's toppling of the Achaemenid Empire, after his victories at the battles of the Granicus, Issus and Gaugamela, and advance as far as modern-day Pakistan and Tajikistan, provided an important outlet for Greek culture, via the creation of colonies and trade routes along the way. 


While the Alexandrian empire did not survive its creator's death intact, the cultural implications of the spread of Hellenism across much of the Middle-East and Asia were to prove long lived as Greek became the lingua franca, a position it retained even in Roman times. 

Many Greeks migrated to Alexandria, Antioch, Seleucia and many other new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake. Two thousand years later, there are still communities in Pakistan and Afghanistan, like the Kalash, who claim to be descended from Greek settlers. 

Hellenistic

The Hellenistic civilization was the next period of Greek civilization, the beginnings of which are usually placed at Alexander's death. 

This Hellenistic age, so called because it saw the partial Hellenization of many non-Greek cultures, lasted until the conquest of Egypt by Rome in 30 BC.

This age saw the Greeks move towards larger cities and a reduction in the importance of the city-state. These larger cities were parts of the still larger Kingdoms of the Diadochi. Greeks, however, remained aware of their past, chiefly through the study of Homer's works and the classical authors. 

An important factor in maintaining Greek identity was contact with barbarian (non-Greek) peoples which was deepened in the new cosmopolitan environment of the multi-ethnic Hellenistic kingdoms. This led to a strong desire among Greeks to organize the transmission of the Hellenic paideia to the next generation.

In the religious sphere, this was a period of profound change. The spiritual revolution that took place saw a waning of the old Greek religion, whose decline beginning in the 3rd-century BC continued with the introduction of new religious-movements from the East. The cults of deities like Isis and Mithra were introduced into the Greek world.

In the Indo-Greek and Graeco-Bactrian kingdoms, Graeco-Buddhism was spreading and Greek missionaries would play an important role in propagating it to China.Further east, the Greeks of Alexandria Eschate became known to the Chinese people as the Dayuan.

Byzantine 
BERBER WOMAN FROM BYZANTIUM
SHE IS NORDIC
Of the new eastern religions introduced into the Greek world the most successful was Christianity. While ethnic distinctions still existed in the Roman Empire, they became secondary to religious considerations and the renewed empire used Christianity as a tool to support its cohesion and promoted a robust Roman national identity.

Concurrently the secular, urban civilization of late antiquity survived in the Eastern Mediterranean along with Graeco-Roman educational system, although it was from Christianity that the culture's essential values were drawn.


Ιησούς Χριστός


The Eastern Roman Empire – today conventionally named the Byzantine Empire, a name not in use during its own time – became increasingly influenced by Greek culture after the 7th century, when Emperor Heraclius (AD 575 - 641) decided to make Greek the empire's official-language. Certainly from then on, but likely earlier, the Roman and Greek cultures were virtually fused into a single Graeco-Roman world. 

Although the Latin-West recognized the Eastern Empire's claim to the Roman legacy for several centuries, after Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, king of the Franks, as the "Roman Emperor" on December 25, 800 AD. 

An act which eventually led to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire, the Latin West started to favor the Franks and began to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire largely as the Empire of the Greeks (Imperium Graecorum). Greek-speakers at the time, however, referred to themselves as Romaioi ("Romans").


These Byzantine Greeks were largely responsible for the preservation of the literature of the classical era.

Byzantine grammarians were those principally responsible for carrying, in person and in writing, ancient Greek grammatical and literary-studies to the West during the 15th century, giving the Italian Renaissance a major boost. 

The Aristotelian philosophical tradition was nearly unbroken in the Greek world for almost two thousand years, until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.

To the Slavic world, Roman-era Greeks contributed by the dissemination of literacy and Christianity. The most notable example of the later was the work of the two Greek brothers Saints Cyril and Methodius from Thessaloniki, who are credited today with formalizing the first Slavic alphabet. 

A distinct Greek political identity re-emerged in the 11th century in educated circles and became more forceful after the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, so that when the empire was revived in 1261, it became in many ways a Greek national state. 

That new notion of nationhood engendered a deep interest in the classical past culminating in the ideas of the Neoplatonist-philosopher Gemistus Pletho, who abandoned Christianity. 

However, it was the combination of Orthodox-Christianity with a specifically Greek identity that shaped the Greeks' notion of themselves in the empire's twilight-years.
Identity.
EMPEROR JUSTINIAN

The terms used to define Greekness have varied throughout history but were never limited or completely identified with membership to a Greek state. By Western standards, the term Greeks has traditionally referred to any native-speakers of the Greek language, whether Mycenaean, Byzantine or modern Greek. 

Byzantine Greeks called themselves Romioi and considered themselves the political heirs of Rome, but at least by the 12th century a growing number of those educated, deemed themselves the heirs of ancient Greece as well, although for most of the Greek-speakers, "Hellene" still meant pagan. 

On the eve of the Fall of Constantinople the Last Emperor urged his soldiers to remember that they were the descendants of Greeks and Romans.

Before the establishment of the Modern-Greek state, the link between ancient and modern Greeks was emphasized by the scholars of Greek Enlightenment especially by Rigas FeraiosIn his "Political Constitution", he addresses to the nation as "the people descendant of the Greeks".

The Greeks today are a nation in the meaning of an ethnos, defined by possessing Greek culture and having a Greek mother tongue, not by citizenship, race, and religion or by being subjects of any particular state. In ancient and medieval times and to a lesser extent today the Greek term was genos, which also indicates a common-ancestry.





4 comments:

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    ReplyDelete
  2. Here is the question!
    There was ever or not, the "inscription of Mycenae" in Lions Gate, which was released on the Internet?

    http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/gallery/images/10379/the-inscription-of-mycenae-lions-gate

    https://skydrive.live.com/?mkt=el-GR#!/view.aspx?cid=E39B50D7D9EA3235&resid=E39B50D7D9EA3235!132&app=WordPdf

    ReplyDelete
  3. MYCENAE - LIONS GATE - An... invisible Inscription!
    http://bouzanis.blogspot.gr/2014/02/mycenaes-inscription-lions-gate.html

    ReplyDelete

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