26 October 2011

A CHRESTOMATHY VERY ANCIENT INDO-EUROPEAN : HITTITE : "HYMN TO THE SUNGOD" : KUB XVII: II, 56-61

ÐÁ LAND EÁSTAN ÐÆRE MIDDELSÆ c. 1300 BC. MAN 
CAN ÐONE HITTITISČAN CÝNINGDOM SÉON IN ÐÆM
NORÐERMÁSTAN DÆLE ÐÆS
ĠELÆNDLÍČNESSE
ĠEWRITES

K.DOIG
PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S. DOIG
(annotations by me in reddish)
Preface

I believe the Hittite language is there very oldest attested Indo-European to date, i.e., the oldest written records. It was written in cuneiform.

 Hittite (natively nešili "[in the language] of Neša") is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia.

 The language is attested in cuneiform, in records from the 16th (Anitta text) down to the 13th century BC, with isolated Hittite loanwords and numerous personal names appearing in an Old Assyrian context from as early as the 20th century BC.

CUNEIFORM
Already in the Late Bronze Age, Hittite was losing ground in competition with its close relative Luwian.(Luwian was a member of the Anatolian subfamily Indo-European, a cousin to Hittite and Luwian was the language of the Troy)


HITTITES WERE ONE OF THE 1ST
PEOPLES  TO TAME HORSES,
UTILIZE THE WHEEL & MAY HAVE
INVENTED THE CHARIOT K.DOIG
 
It appears that in the 13th century BC Luwian was the most widely spoken language in the Hittite capital Hattusa. After the collapse of the Hittite Empire as a part of the more general Bronze-Age collapse Luwian emerged in the Early Iron-Age as the main language of the so-called Neo-Hittite states in southwestern Anatolia and northern Syria.


Hittite is the earliest attested Indo-European language, but was only rediscovered more than a century after the Proto-Indo-European hypothesis had been formulated. Because of marked differences
in its structure and phonology, some linguists, most notably Edgar H. Sturtevant and Warren Cowgill, argued that it should be classified as a sister language to the Indo-European languages, rather than a daughter language, formulating the Indo-Hittite hypothesis.
FRIENDLY HITTITE CHARIOTEER-
WARRIORS 'ACCIDENTLY' RUNNING
OVER AN ENEMY-SOLDIER. K.DOIG


Other linguists, however, continue to accept the traditional 19th century view of the primacy of Proto-Indo-European and interpret the unusual features of Hittite as mainly due to later innovations. Still others claim that Hittite, as well as its Anatolian cousins, split off from Proto-Indo-European at an early stage, thereby preserving archaisms that were later lost in the other Indo-European languages.


"Hittite" is a modern name, chosen after the identification of the Hatti kingdom with the Hittites mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.


In multi-lingual texts found in Hittite locations, passages written in the Hittite language are preceded by the adverb nesili (or nasili, nisili), "in the [speech] of Neša (Kaneš)", an important city before the rise of the Empire. In one case, the label is Kanisumnili, "in the [speech] of the people of Kaneš".


CUNEIFORM-SCRIPT EVOLVED FROM PICTOGRAPHS INTO PHONETIC
WRITING, USUALLY SYLLABIC BUT SOMETIMES ALPHABETIC. SINCE
THERE WAS A DEARTH OF WOOD IN THE ARID MIDEASTERN CLIMATES,
THE ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIANS, SUMERIANS, BABYLONIAN, AKKADIANS,
PERSIANS, HITTITES, ETC., USED CLAY-TABLETS FOR THEIR 'PAPER', VELLUM'
OR PARCHMENT & STYLUSES (STYLI) WORKED VERY WELL MAKING WEDGE-
SHAPED CHARACTERS IN WET CLAY. THE 'WORD' CUNEIFORM IS A LATINATE
WORD WHOSE ETYMOLOGY COME FROM LAT. 'CUNEUS' , WEDGE. K.DOIG

   
Although the Hittite empire was composed of people from many diverse ethnic and linguistic backgrounds, the Hittite language was used in most of their secular written texts. In spite of various arguments over the appropriateness of the term, Hittite remains the most current term by convention, although some authors make a point of using Nesite.


The first substantive claim as to the affiliation of the Hittite language was made by Jørgen Alexander Knudtzon in 1902 in a book devoted to two letters between the king of Egypt and a Hittite ruler, found at El-Amarna in Egypt. Knudtzon argued that Hittite was Indo-European, largely on the basis of the morphology. 


 Although he had no bilingual texts, he was able to give a partial interpretation to the two letters because of the formulaic nature of the diplomatic correspondence of the period. His argument was not generally accepted, partly because the morphological similarities he observed between Hittite and Indo-European can be found outside of Indo-European, and partly because the interpretation of the letters was justifiably regarded as uncertain.
DR. COLIN REFREW´S 'OUT-OF-ANATOLIA
THEORY OF THE PIE URHEIMAT. I BELIEVE
THERE WERE 2, THE 1ST IN ANATOLIA,
ALL THE PIEs BUT THE ANATOLIAN BRANCH
HEADED NORTH c. 10,000 BC TO THE NORTH-
SHORE OF THE BLACK & CASPIAN SEAS
& BEYOND UP INTO CENTRAL ASIAN UP TO
LAT. 55 DEG NORTH. THE AREAS N OF THE
BLACKSEA WAS THEIR FINAL UNITED PROTO-
HOME WHEN THEY STARTED TO DISPERSE
C. 4000 BC TO 2000 BC. BOTH DR. GIMBUTAS'
KURGAN HYPOTHESIS & RENFREW'S
ANATOLIA-HYPOTHESES ARE NOT MUTUALLY
EXCLUSIVE. THEY BOTH PROBABLY
HAPPENED. K.DOIG


DECIPHERMENT
Knudtzon was shown definitively to have been correct when a large quantity of tablets written in the familiar Akkadian cuneiform script but in an unknown language was discovered by Hugo Winckler at the modern village of Boğazköy, the former site of Hattusas, the capital of the Hittite Empire. Based on a study of this extensive material, Bedřich Hrozný succeeded in analyzing the language


He presented his argument that the language is Indo-European in a paper published in 1915 (Hrozný 1915), which was soon followed by a grammar of the language (Hrozný 1917). 


Hrozný's argument for the Indo-European affiliation of Hittite was thoroughly modern, though poorly substantiated. He focused on the striking similarities in idiosyncratic aspects of the morphology, unlikely to occur independently by chance and unlikely to be borrowed....


 These included the r/n alternation (caused by "rhotacism" when certain consontants become to be pronounced as r's. In Germanic & Latin, it was the older intervocalic and word-final Z-sound that evolved into a r


There was a period, c. 250-350 AD to about 1000 AD, when proto-Norse's original intervocalic, (in the middle of a word) or terminal z's were pronounced "-R" a hypothetical sound between z & r, written as a large R. Many scholars believe this might have been the same sound represented by the Czech letter, (Ř In Czech it is used to denote [r̝], a raised alveolar trill. Its manner of articulation is similar to other alveolar-trills but the tongue is raised; it is partially fricative. It is usually voiced but it also has a voiceless allophone [r̝̊] occurring in the vicinity of voiceless consonants. In Upper-Sorbian, it denotes the voiceless postalveolarfricative [ʃ].
ASIA MINOR OR ANATOLIA c. 250 BC


In Silesian, it denotes the voiced retroflexfricative [ʐ], unvoiced to [ʂ] in the vicinity of voiceless consonants .In Czech it is used to denote [r̝], a raised alveolartrill. Its manner of articulation is similar to other alveolartrills but the tongue is raised; it is partially fricative. It is usually voiced but it also has a voiceless allophone [r̝̊] occurring in the vicinity of voiceless consonants. In Upper-Sorbian, it denotes the voiceless postalveolarfricative [ʃ]. In Silesian, it denotes the voiced retroflexfricative [ʐ], uvoiced to [ʂ] in the vicinity of voiceless consonants) Wikipedia


...in some noun stems and vocalic ablaut, both seen in the alternation in the word for water between nominative singularwadar and genitive singular, wedenas. He also presented a set of regular sound-correspondences.
ONE CAN SEE THE PUTATIVE HOMELAND OF THE
ACHAEAN-GREEKS, TOP-CENTER-RIGHT ON MAP,
ON THE EVE OF THEIR INVADING THE S. BALKAN
PENINSULA.THEY WERE CALLED AHHIYAWA BY
 THE HITTITES & WERE RESPECTED & WEL-
COME IN THE HITTITE ROYAL COURTS.
MAP c, 1500 BC K.DOIG


After a brief initial delay due to the disruption caused by the First World-War, Hrozný's decipherment, tentative grammatical analysis, and demonstration of the Indo-European affiliation of Hittite were rapidly accepted and more broadly substantiated by contemporary scholars such as Edgar H. Sturtevant.

Sturtevant authored the first scientifically acceptable Hittite grammar with a chrestomathy and a glossary. The most up-to-date grammar of the Hittite language is currently Hoffner and Melchert 2008. Wikipedia









Indo-European Texts
Hittite c. 1700 BC
by  Carol Justus  & Jonathan Slocum

We transliterate, transcribe, gloss, and translate lines 56-61 in the 2nd column of the Hittite tablet catalogued as KUB XVII 28, this section being a hymn to the sun god Istanu. For preliminary explanation, see notes about Hittite and the cuneiform script. Equal signs ('=') are used to transcribe enclitic boundaries; for glossing purposes, we treat these as if they were word boundaries. Text originally prepared by Carol Justus; edited by Jonathan Slocum.

Column II, lines 56-57:
DUTU-i a-as-su an-tu-uh-si SHÀ-ta us-ki-si
Istanui assu antuhsi karta uskisi
Sungod voc; well; man dat/loc; heart dir; see 2.sg. pres. it-dur.
'O Istanu, you see well into the heart of man,'

tu-e-el-la-kan SHÀ-ta Ú-UL ku-is-ki a-us-zi
tuell=a=kan karta natta kuiski auszi

you gen; and (encl); ptc (encl); heart dir; not; someone nom; see 3.sg. pres.
'But no one sees into your heart.'

Column II, lines 58-59:nu ku-is i-da-a-lu i-ya-at
nu kuis idalu iyat

ptc; who; evil; do 3.sg. pret.
'Whoever did evil,'

nu se-ir zi-ik DUTU-us ar-ta-at
nu ser zik Istanus artat

ptc; above; you; Sungod nom; stood 3.sg. pret.
'you, Istanu, stood above;'

ú-uk-za am-me-el

uk=za ammel
I nom; ptc (encl); of-me
'as for me,'

Column II, lines 60-61:
SIG5-an-da-an KASKAL-an i-ya-ah-ha-at
assuwandan KASKAL-an iyahhat

good acc; journey acc; go 1.sg. pret. m-p.
'I have gone on my good journey,'

ku-is-sa-mu i-da-a-lu i-ya-at
kuiss=a=mu idalu iyat

who; also (encl); me (encl); evil; do 3.sg. pret.
'And whoever should do me evil,'

na-an zi-ik us-ki
n=an zik uski

ptc; him (encl); you; see 2.sg. it-dur. imp.
'you, watch him!'


Key to gloss abbreviations
:
Abbrev. Meaning
1. = 1st (person)
2. = 2nd (person)
3. = 3rd (person)
acc. = accusative (case)
dat. = dative (case)
dir. = directive (case)
encl. = enclitic
gen. = genitive (case)
imp. = imperative (mood)
it-dur. = iterative-durative (action type)
loc. = locative (case)
m-p. = medio-passive (voice)
nom. = nominative (case)
pres. = present (tense)
pret. = preterite (tense)
ptc. = particle
sg. = singular (number)
voc. = vocative (case)





Last Updated: Friday, 15 Feb. 2008, 18:41
Linguistics Research Center in
The College of Liberal Arts atUT Austin

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